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and shoe is given in Fig. 11. These shoes are { heard it observed among them, that by how much generally made of silk, and embroidered in the most { the nobler a woman is, by so much the higher are beautiful manner with flowers and ornaments, in { her chapineys. All their gentlewomen, and most colored silk and threads of gold and silver. A piece of their wives and widows that are of any wealth, of stout silk is generally attached to the heel for the are assisted and supported either by men or women, convenience of pulling up the shoe.

when they walk abroad, to the end they might not Having bestowed some attention on ancient fall. They are borne up most commonly by the Egypt, we may briefly allude to the shoes of modern left arm, otherwise they might quickly take a fall." times, as given in Lane's work devoted to the his- In Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare," a woodtory of the manners and customs of the modern cut of such a chapiney, or chopine, is given, which Egyptians. They, like the Persian ones, have an is here copied, and it is an excellent example of the upturned toe, and may with equal ease be drawnon and thrown off. Yet a shoe is also worn with a

3 . high instep and high in the heel, which will be best understood by the first figure in the accompanying cut.

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The Turkish ladies of the sixteenth century, and very probably much earlier, wore a very high shoe known in Europe by the name of a “chopine." In the voyages and travels of N. de Nicholay Dauphinoys, Seigneur D'Arfreville, Valet de Chambre and Geographer to the King of France, printed at Lyons, 1568, one of the ladies of the Grand Seigneur's seraglio is represented in a pair of chopines, thing, showing the decoration v

thing, showing the decoration which was at times of which we copy one in Fig. 12. This fashion bestowed on it. spread in Europe in the early part of the seven- Douce quotes some curious particulars of this teenth century, and it is alluded to by Hamlet, in fashion, in “Raymond's Voyage through Italy," Act II., Scene 2, when he exclaims, “ Your lady. 1648, and the following curious account of the choship is nearer heaven than when I saw you last, by pine occurs: “This place (Venice) is much frethe altitude of a chopine;" by which it would appear quented by the walking May-poles; I mean the that something of the kind was known in England, women; they wear their coats half too long for their where it may have been introduced from Venice, as bodies; being mounted on their chippeens (which are the ladies there wore them of the most exaggerated as high as a man's leg), they walko betweene two size. Coryat, in his “ Crudities," 1611, gays : handmaids, majestically deliberating of every step “ There is one thing used of the Venetian women, they take.” Howel also says of the Venetian woand some others dwelling in the cities and towns men : “ They are low and of small stature, for the subject to signiory of Venice, that is not to be ob most part, which makes them to raise their bodies served -I think-amongst any other women in upon high shoes, called chapins, which gave me ocChristendom”-the reader must remember that it casion to say that the Venetian ladies were made of was new to Coryat, but a common fashion in the { three things: one part of them was wood, meaning East_“which is 80 common in Venice that no wo- { their chapins; another part was their apparel; and man whatsoever goeth without it, either in her house the third part was a woman. The senate hath often or abroad-a thing made of wood, and covered with endeavored to take away the wearing of those high leather of sundry colors; some with white, some shoes, but all women are so passionately delighted red, somo yellow. It is called a chapiney, which with this kind of state that no law can wean them they never wear under their shoes. Many of these from it.” Douce adds that “some have supposed are curiously painted; some of them I have also that the jealousy of Italian husbands gave rise to seen fairly gilt; 80 uncomely a thing, in my opin. the invention of the chopine," and quotes a story ion, that it is a pity this foolish custom is not clean from a French author to show their dislike to an banished and exterminated out of the city. There alteration; ho also says, that “the first ladies who are many of these chapineys of a great height, even rejected the use of the chopine were the daughters half a yard high, which maketh many of their wow of the Doge Dominico Contareno, about the year men that are very short seem much taller than the 1670." The chopine, or some kind of high shoe, tallest woinen we have in England. Also, I have was occasionally used in England. Bulwer, in his

IISTORY OF BOOTS AND SHOES.

429

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" Artificial Changeling," p. 550, complains of this the ordinary shoe, and the second, the extraordinary fashion as a monstrous affectation, and says that his or genteel one. countrywomen therein imitated the Venetian and Persian ladies. In “Sandy's Travels,” 1615, there is a figure of a Turkish lady with chopines, and it is not improbable that the Venetians might have borrowed them from the Greek islands in the Archipelago. We know that something similar was in use amongst the ancient Greeks. Xenophon, in “ Eco And now having, in the pursuit of our history of nomics,"mentions the wife of Ischomachus as wear.

boots and shoes, ing high shoes, for increasing her stature. They

“Travelled the wide world all over,” are still worn by the women in many parts of Turkey, but more particularly at Aleppo. Douce's let us not dismiss the subject without a parting look notice of their antiquity is curiously corroborated at the “Brogues" of Ireland, which, upon the auby the discovery in the tombs of Ancient Egypt of thority of Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, especially desuch shoes; they are formed of a stout sole of wood, serve our attention. In their work on Ireland, they to which are affixed four round props, raising the engrave the figure of this article, which we copy, wearer a foot in height; specimens were among the Fig. 16, and say: “The brogue, or shoe, of the collections of Mr. Salt, the British Consul in Egypt, Irish peasantry, differs in its construction from the from which some of the choicest Egyptian antiqui shoe of any other country. It was formerly made ties in the English national collection were obtained. } of untanned bide; but, for the last century at least, The other remark of Douce's, that they were proba it has been made of tanned leather. The leather of bly derived from the Greek islands of the Archipe- the uppers is much stronger than what is used in lago, is confirmed by the fact that high-soled boots } the strongest shoes ; being made of cow-hide dressed and shoes were much coveted by the ladies there, to for the purpose, and it never had an inside lining, raise their stature, and were worn when chopines like the ordinary shoe ; the sole leather is generally had long been disused; thus the high-soled boots of an inferior description. The process of making delineated in Fig. 13 are found upon the feet of “a the brogue is certainly different from that of shoeyoung lady of Argentiera," one of these islands, in making; and the tools used in the work, except the a print dated 1700; and, in another of the same hammer, pinchers, and knife, bear little analogy. date, giving the costume of a lady of the neighbor The awl, though used in common by those operaing Island of Naxis, the shoo shown in Fig. 14 is tors, is much larger than the largest used by the worn.

shoemaker, and unlike in the bend and form. The Of the modern European nations with whom wo} regular brogue was of two sorts, the single and douhave been most in contact-England, Spain, France, ble pump. The former consisted of the sole and and the Netherlands--their boots and shoes have so uppers only; the latter had a welt sewed between nearly resembled our own as to render a detailed the sole and upper leather, which gave it a stouter description scarcely necessary. Indeed, as France

appearance and stronger consistency; in modern has been tacitly submitted to as the arbiter eleganti times, the brogue-maker has assimilated his manuarum in all matters of dress, much has been derived facture to the shoe by sewing the welt on an inner from thence.

sole, and then attaching the outer sole to it, in shoe There was, however, a French shoe that we do fashion. In the process of making the regular not over appear to have adopted : it was made low brogue, there formerly were neither hemp, wax, nor in the quarters, and ended at the instep; there was bristles used by the workmen, the sewing all being no covering for the heel or the sides of the foot be performed with a thong, made of horsehide, preyond it. The fashion spread to Venice; and the pared for the purpose." Thus the construction of figure of a Venetian lady, of 1750, has supplied us this article is quite different from that of the English with the specimen in Fig. 15.

shoe; and it is made and istitched without a last, The sabots of Franco is another peculiarity which the upper leather and sido being secured by sewing was never adopted elsewhere. They are generally together; it is then turned inside out, and, for the clumsy enough; their large size and bad fit are first time, put upon the last, and being well fitted to generally improved by the introduction of others it by a smooth iron surface, it is placed before the made of list, which give warmth and steadiness to } fire to dry and harden. “The heel of the brogue is the foot. A small wooden shoe is, however, made made of what they call jumps,' tanner's shavings in Normandy and elsewhere, much like that which stuck together with a kind of paste, and pressed came into fashion about 1790, with an imitation of hard and dried, either before the fire or in the sun. its fringes and pointed toe, and which is generally This, when properly dried, is cut to the size of the painted black; the ordinary sabot being totally un- heel and sewed down with the thong, and then coadorned, and the color of the wood. In the cut vered with a top piece of very thin solo loather, bere given, both are introduced. The first figure is fastened on with deal or sally pegs; and in this one

particular they had to boast over the shoemakers in
the neatness of execution. When the brogue is
ready to be taken off the last, they give it the last
finish by rubbing it over with a woollen rag satu-
rated in tallow, and then the brogue is considered
fit for sale. The brogue is worn larger than the
foot, and the space is filled up with a sap of hay or
straw. They are considered by the country people
more durable for field labor, being less liable to rip}
in the sewing than if put together with hemp and
Wux; and, being cheaper than shoes, are in more }
general use, although there are few people, particu-
larly females, who can afford it, who do not keep
shoes for Sunday or holiday wear. The brogue-
makers pride themselves in the antiquity of their
trade, and boast over the shoemakers, whom they }
consider only a spurious graft on their most noble

bravery in aiding their sovereign, James IV., in the
fatal field of Flodden. He says, “the single-soled
shoon," made by the souters of Selkirk, were a sort
of brogues, with a single thin sole; the purchaser
himself performing the further operation of sewing
on another of thick leather. The rude and imper-
fect state of this manufacture sufficiently evinces the
antiquity of the craft. He notices "a singular cus-
tom observed at conferring the freedom of the burgh.
Four or five bristles, such as are used by shoemakers,
are attached to the seal of the Burgess ticket. The
new-made burgess must dip in his wine, and pass
through his mouth, in token of respect for the sou-
ters of Selkirk. This ceremony is on no account
dispensed with.” And when Sir Walter afterwards
adds, in a note, that he has "himself the honor to be
a souter of Selkirk,” we may feel the additional
zest that would give to the chorus of their old trade
song:-

art.”

Sir Walter Scott, in his " Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border," has noticed a peculiarity in the make of the “ original" shoes of that country, in the notes to the ballad of the “ Soutors," or shoemakers of Selkirk, who achieved immortality in song by their

“ Up wi' the Souters of Selkirk,
And down wi' the Earl of Home;
And up wi' a' the braw lads
That sew the single-soled shoon!"

THE MYSTERIES OF A FLOWER.

BY PROFESSOR R. HUNT.

FLOWERS have been called the stars of the earth; į be hours in which to fall back into the repose of and certainly, when wo examine those beautiful quiet thought becomes a luxury. The nervous sys. creations, and discover them, analyzing the sunbeam tem is strung to endure only a given amount of exand sending back to the eye the full luxury of co citement; if its vibrations are quickened beyond lored light, we must confess there is more real ap this measure, the delicate harp-strings are broken, propriateness in the term than even the poet who or they may undulate in throbs. To every one, the conceived the delicate thought imagined. Lavoi contemplation of natural phenomena will be found sier beautifully said: “The fable of Prometheus is to induce that repose which gives vigor to the mind but the outshadowing of a philosophic truth-where -as sleep restores the energies of a toil-exhausted there is light, there is organization and life; where body. And to show the advantages of such a study, light cannot penetrate, Death forever holds his and the interesting lessons which are to be learned silent court." The flowers, and, indeed, those far in the fields of nature, is the purpose of the present inferior forms of organic vegetable lifo which never essay. flower, aro direct dependencies on the solar rays. The flower is regarded as the full development Through every stage of existence they are excited of vegetablo growth; and the consideration of its lay those subtle agencies which are gathered toge mysteries naturally involves a careful examination ther in the sunbeam; and to those influences we may of the life of a plant, from the seed placed in the trace all that beauty of development which prevails soil to its full maturity, whether it be as herb or throughout the vegetable world. How few there are tree. of even those refmed minds to whom flowers are For the perfect understanding of the physical conmore than a symmetrio arrangement of petals har ditions under which vegetable life is carried on, it is moniously colored, who think of the secret agencies necessary to appreciate, in its fulness, the value of forever exciting the life which is within their cells, the term grorth. It has been said that stonos grow to produce the organized structure—who reflect on } -that the formation of crystals was an analogous the deep, yet divine philosophy, which may be read process to the formation of a leaf: and this impres. in every leaf :-those tongues in trees, which tell us sion has appeared to be somewhat confirmed, by witof Eternal goodness and order !

nessing the variety of arborescent forms into which The hurry of the present age is not well suited to solidifying waters pass, when the external cold the contemplative mind; yet, with all, there must spreads it as ice over our window panes. This is,

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THE MYSTERIES OF A FLOWER.

431

however, a great error; stones do not grow—there { favorable circumstances, the life-quickening prois no analogy even between the formation of a crys cesses begin; the starch, which is a compound of tal and the growth of a leaf. All inorganic masses { carbon and oxygen, is converted into sugar by the increase in size only by the accretion of particles- { absorption of another equivalent of oxygen from the layer upon layer, without any chemical change tak- air; and we have an evident proof of this change ing place as an essentiality. The sun may shine in the sweetness which most seeds acquire in the for ages upon a stone without quickening it into process, the most familiar example of which we have life, changing its constitution, or adding to its mass. } in the conversion of barley into malt. The sugar Organic matter consists of arrangements of cells or thus formed furnishes the food to the now living sacks, and the increase in size is due to the absorp. } creation, which, in a short period, shoots its first tion of gaseous matter, through the fine tissue of leaves above the soil; and these, which, rising from which they are composed. The gas—a compound their dark chambers, are whito, quickly become of carbon and oxygen-is decomposed by the excite- green under the operation of light. ment produced by light; and the solid matter thus In the process of germination, a species of slow obtained is employed in building a new cellor { combustion takes place, and — as in the chemical producing actual growth, a true function of life, in processes of animal life and in those of active igniall the processes of which matter is constantly un- tion-carbonic acid gas, composed of oxygen and dergoing chemical change.

{ charcoal, or carbon, is evolved. Thus, by a mysThe simplest developments of vegetable life are tery which our science does not enable us to reach, the formation of confervæ upon water, and of lich- } the spark of life is kindled-life commences its work ens upon the surface of the rock. In chemical } -the plant growg. The first conditions of vegetaconstitution, these present no very remarkable dif- ble growth are, therefore, singularly similar to those ferences from the cultivated flower which adorns our which are found to prevail in the animal economy. garden, or the tree which has risen in its pride The leaf-bud is no sooner above the soil than a new amidst the changing seasons of many centuries. set of conditions begin; the plant takes carbonio Each alike has derived its solid constituents from acid from the atmosphere, and having, in virtue of the atmosphere, and the chemical changes in all are its vitality, by the agency of luminous power, deequally dependent upon the powers which have their { composed this gas, it retains the carbon, and pours mysterious origin in the great centre of our planet forth the oxygen to the air. This process is stated ary system.

to be a function of vitality; but, as this has been Without dwelling upon the processes which take variously described by different authors, it is implace in the lower forms of vegetable life, the pur- portant to state with some minuteness what does poses of this essay will be fully answered by taking really take place. an example from amongst the higher class of plants,} The plant absorbs carbonic acid from the atmoand examining its conditions, from the germination sphere through the under surfaces of the leaves, and of the seed to the full development of the flower- the whole of the bark; it at the same time derives rich in form, color, and odor.

an additional portion from the moisture which is In the seed-cell we find, by minute examination, taken up by the roots, and conveyed "to the top. the embryo of the future plant carefully preserved most twig" by the force of capillary attraction, and in its envelope of starch and gluten. The investi- { another power called endosmosis, which is exerted gations which have been carried on upon the vitali- { in a most striking manner by living organic tissues. ty of seeds appear to prove that, under favorable ? This mysterious force is shown in a pleasing way by conditions, this life-germ may be maintained for covering some spirits of wine and water in a winecenturies. Grains of wheat, which had been found glass with a piece of bladder; the water will escape, in the hands of an Egyptian mummy, germinated leaving the strong spirit behind. and grew; these grains were produced, in all pro- } Independently of the action of light, the plant bability, more than three thousand years since; they may be regarded as a mere machine; the fluids and had been placed, at her burial, in the hands of a gases which it absorbs pass off in a condition but very priestess of Isis, and in the deep repose of the little changed—just as water would strain through a Egyptian catacomb were preserved to tell us, in the sponge or a porous stone. The consequence of this eighteenth century, the story of that wheat which is the blanching or etiolation of the plant, which we Joseph sold to his brethren.

produce by our artificial treatment of celery and The process of germination is essentially a chemi sea-kale—the formation of the carbonaceous comcal one. The seed is placed in the soil, excluded { pound called chlorophyle, which is the green colorfrom the light, supplied with a duo quantity of ing-matter of the leaves, being entirely checked in moisture, and maintained at a certain temperature, darkness. If such a plant is brought into the light, which must be above that at which water freezes ; its dormant powers are awakened, and, instead of air must have free access to the seed, which, if being little other than a sponge through which fluids placed so deep in the soil as to prevent the permea- circulate, it exerts most remarkable chemical powtion of the atmosphere, never germinates. Under ers; the carbonic acid of the air and water is deconiposed ; its charcoal is retained to add to the wood l ight, usually colorless; if we disturb this white of the plant, and the oxygen is set free again to the beam, as by compelling it to pass through a trianatmosphere. In this process is exhibited one of the gular piece of glass, we break it up into colored most beautiful illustrations of the harmony which bands, which we will call the spectrum, in which we prevails through all the great phenomena of nature have such an order of chromatic rays as are seen in with which we are acquainted—the mutual depend the rainbow of a summer shower. These colored enco of the vegetable and animal kingdoms.

rays are now known to be the sources of all the tints In the animal economy, there is a constant pro- by which nature adorns the surface of the earth, or duction of carbonic acid, and the beautiful vegetable art imitates, in its desire to create the beautiful. kingdom, spread over the earth in such infinite {There colored bands have not the same luminating variety, requires this carbonic acid for its support. { power, nor do they possess the same heat-giving Constantly removing from the air the pernicious property. The yellow rays give the most LIGHT; agent produced by the animal world, and giving the red rays have the function of neat in the highback that oxygen which is required as the life-quick est degree. Beyond these properties, the sunbeam ening element by the animal races, the balance of possesses another, which is the power of producing affinities is constantly maintained by the phenome CHEMICAL CHANGE—of effecting those magical rena of vegetable growth. This interesting inquiry sults which we witness in the photographic prowill form the subject of another essay.

cesses, by which the beams illuminating any object The decomposition of carbonic acid is directly are made to delineate it upon the prepared tablet dependent upon luminous agency: From the impact of the artist. of the earliest morning ray to the period when the } It has been suspected that these three phenomena gun reaches the zenith, the excitation of that vege are not due to the same agency, but that, associated table vitality by which the chemical change is ef- in the sunbeam, we have LIGHT, producing all the fected regularly increases. As the solar orb sinks blessings of vision, and throwing the veil of color towards the horizon, the chemical activity diminish- over all things—HEAT, maintaining that temperaes the sun sets—the action is reduced to its mini- ture over our globe which is necessary to the permum-the plant, in the repose of darkness, passes fection of living organisms--and a third principle, to that state of rest which is as necessary to the ACTINISM, by which the chemical changes alluded vegetating races as sleep is to the wearied animal. to are effected. We possess the power, by the use

These are two well-marked stages in the life of of colored media, of separating these principles from a plant; germination and vegetation are exerted } each other, and of analyzing their effects. A yellow under different conditions; the time of flowering glass allows light to pass through it most freely, arrives, and another change occurs, the processes of} but it obstructs actinism almost entirely: a deepforming the alkaline and acid juices, of producing blue glass, on the contrary, prevents the permeation the oil, wax, and resin, and of secreting those nitro of light, but it offers no interruption to the actinic, genous compounds which are found in the seed, are or chemical rays; a red glass, again, cuts off most in full activity. Carbonio acid is now evolved and of the rays, except those which have peculiarly a oxygen is retained; hydrogen and nitrogen are also calorific, or heat-giving power. forced, as it were, into combination with the oxygen With this knowledge we proceed in our experi. and carbon, and altogether new and more compli ments, and learn some of the mysteries of nature's cated operations are in activity.

chemistry. If, above the soil in which the seed is Such are the phenomena of vegetable life which placed, we fix a deep pure yellow glass, the chemi. the researches of our philosophers have developed. cal change which marks germination is prevented; This curious order—this regular progression-show if, on the contrary, we employ a blue one, it is greatly ing itself at well-marked epochs, is now known to be accelerated; seeds, indeed, placed beneath the soil, dependent upon solar influences; the

covered with a cobalt blue finger-glass, will germi. “Bright effluence of bright essence increate"

nate many days sooner than such as may be exposed

to the ordinary influences of sunshine ;-this proves works its mysterious wonders on every organic form. the necessity of the principle actinism to this first Much is still involved in mystery: but to the call of stage of vegetable life. Plants, however, made to science some strange truths have been made mani. } grow under the influences of such blue media prefest to man, and of some of these the phenomena sent much the same conditions as those which are must now be explained.

reared in the dark; they are succulent instead of Germination is a chemical change which takes woody, and hare yellow leaves and white stalks; place most readily in darkness ; vegetable growth is indeed, the formation of leaves is prevented, and all due to the secretion of carbon under the agency of the vital energy of the plant is exerted in the prolight; and the processes of floriation are shown to {duction of stalk. The chemical principle of the involve some new and compound operations: these į sun's rays, alone, is not therefore sufficient; remove three states must be distinctly appreciated.

the plant to the influence of light, as separated from The sunbeam comes to us as a flood of pellucid } actinism, by the action of yellow media, and wood

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