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is formed abundantly; the plant grows most health those complicated phenomena already briefly defully, and the leaves assume that dark green which scribed. belongs to tropical climes or to our most brilliant In these experiments carefully tried, we are enasummers. Light is thus proved to be the exciting bled to imitate the conditions of nature, and supply, agent in effecting those chemical decompositions at any time, those states of solar radiation which which have already been described; but, under the belong to the varying seasons of the year. influence of isolated light, it is found that plants } Such is a rapid sketch of the mysteries of a flowwill not flower. When, however, the subject of our er. “ Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; experiment is brought under the influence of a red they toil not, neither do they spin ; and yet I say glass, particularly of that variety in which a beau unto you, Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed tifully pure red is produced by oxide of gold, the like one of these." whole process of floriation and the perfection of the Under the influence of the sunbeam, vegetablo seed is accomplished.

life is awakened, continued, and completed; a wonCareful and long-continued observations have drous alchemy is effected; the change in the condiproved that in the spring, when the process of ger- Ştion of the solar radiations determines the varying mination is most active, the chemical rays are the conditions of vegetable vitality; and in its progress most abundant in the sunbeam. As the summer ad. those transmutations occur which at once give beauvances, light, relatively to the other forces, is large- ty to the exterior world, and provide for the animal ly increased; at this season, the trees of the forest, races the necessary food by which their existence the herb of the valley, and the cultivated plants is maintained. The contemplation of influences which adorn our dwellings, are all alike adding to such as these realizes in the human soul that sweet their wood. . Autumn comes on, and then heat, so? feeling which, with Keats, finds that necessary for ripening grain, is found to exist in

“ A thing of beauty is a joy forever; considerable excess. It is curious, too, that the

Its loveliness increasing, it will never autumnal heat has properties peculiarly its own-s0 Pass into nothingness, but still will keep decidedly distinguished from the ordinary heat, that

A bower quiet for us, and a sleep Sir John Herschel and Mrs. Somerville have adopted

Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing. & term to distinguish it. The peculiar browning or

“Such the sun and moon, scorching rays of autumn are called the parather

Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon mic rays: they possess a remarkable chemical action

For simple sheep; and such are daffodils, added to their calorifio ono; and to this are due With the green world they live in.”


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(See Plate.)

See oursels as others see us.
It wad from mony a blunder free us,

An' foolish notion.

Old men have no right to dream

Is that the moral of your story? -of young women. Please let us finish a maxim before you break in with interruptions. And now to commence according to the rule and formula of old established

Once upon a time there was an old gentleman. He had buried his wife, and his children were all married and gone, even to his youngest daughter, his pet and his pride, who audaciously preferred a rattling young blade of a military lover to her dear, gouty, generally good-humored, but sometimes querulous old father. Young people have such fancies—the more shame for them; but we were all young once, even you and I, dear madam. Don't bridle, for what were the use of that nicest of Dollard's “fronts," if not to hide the incipient gray hairs? We might as well acknowledge our years, and

{ The old gentleman was not ill-looking. We have

seen his portrait (and so may you, if you will turn back to the commencement of this magazine). He was fond of comfort, for which we are inclined to impute small blame to him; for all seok comfort, and some find it in being uncomfortable themselves. Others are in a state of bliss when they can make their dependents or friends miserable. And others. in a more humane spirit, actually find pleasure in denying themselves, to make other people happy.

There is no accounting for tastes, except such taste { as that of our old gentleman who lived once upon a

time. Look at his surroundings, and then say,

cynic as you may be, if Diogenes himself could { refrain from exelaiming, "Now this is what I call


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A warm evening in the summer. A shady nook She cast an eye up at the old family portraits which where overhanging shrubbery, skilfully, but not too peeped out from the hall, and thought they sneered formally arranged, has protected the place from the at her. Little cared she for that, while busy fancies noonday beams. Still, with a delicate perception { whispered in both ears at once a promise of my lady of what old blood delights in, the genial and mel. Betty in spite of them, and the wheel droned the low rays of the setting luminary are permitted to steal same music, as plainly as Bow Bells indicated his in, and slightly gild the old gentleman's bald os fortune to the young Whittington, future Lord frontis. He has been reading doubtless, some sound Mayor of London. So she spun on and dreamed old author, whose word he can take without taxing pleasant dreams awake, while the old gentleman his critical perceptions to guard against heresies. } dreamed dreams of a mixed complexion, asleep. And he has wisely cared for a modicum of creature} He thought the bells were ringing for his mar. comfort, just enough to etherealize the mind into riage, and the ale was running, and the boys were that half-dreamy, half-spiritual mood which is the shouting long life to the old gentleman who married true appreciative of the beauties of a summer after- his housekeeper's daughter, to do despite to his own noon.

kith and kin. He felt a little insulted at congratuThe old gentleman has been asleep. Of what use lations which in any other case of nuptial rejoicing is a book of a summer evening, if it do not serve as would have been grateful, and was even inclined in an opiate ? Even Godey's incomparable magazine, his dream to quarrel with the lads who had no and our very lucubrations in it, have served that business to rejoice at his wedding, as if a wedding purpose on occasion, and may again, many times, were not everybody's business. But he saw in his we hope. The old gentleman has been dreaming, dream that his daughters, who seemed to be both and thereby hangs a tale.

present and absent, were offended at the rejoicings, He went to sleep muttering, as Betty very kindly and forthwith he changed his note, and ordered the adjusted his head to the chair back, that one of his butler to tap another barrel! own daughters ought to have been there to perform He scowled, for an impertinent fly alighted on these little offices of kindness for him. Indeed, he his nose. A gentle hand brushed it away, and he did not intend to go to sleep at all, for he was de- smiled again; for he thought in his dream that termined to be cross and angry. And, to waken while all the world scouted and persecuted him, the himself into a flagitious mood, he thrust hugo } disinterested housekeeper's daughter stood between pinches of snuff up his nostrils, intending thereby him and harm: and he dreamed-wicked old to irritate himself up to some desperate resolve, gentleman-that she folded his head to her bosom, through the medium of his nostrils. But summer, } and he cared not a rush for all the world beside. nature, and that creature comfort, and the book, and Perhaps she did place her hand upon his brow—and altogether were too much for him, and though he } its velvet touch soothed him into gentle slumbers. only meant to shut his eyes and think, he shut his “A change came o'er the spirit of his dream." eyes and slept, with the open snuffbox in one hand, He thought that the bride was scoffed at, and that and a closed pinch in the other.

his daughters dared to look contemptously upon her, Betty, who knew his humor, went to her wheel. His old boon companions, too, slighted the toast Now Betty was young, and buxom withal, very good when “ The Bride" was given, and he would have looking, for she had a love of a face, and arms that challenged them one by one “ severally according a sculptor might envy. Her fingers were taper and to the roll,” only that a lurking suspicion that he pretty, for she was a housekeeper's daughter. That himself was an old fool, warned him to keep quiet. such mothers know well how to provide for such { So he muttered in his sleep, “As good as the best daughters, we might easily prove to you from many of you !" and dreamed that he looked defiance on a high family's annals. Betty knew just what work them all, and made his will, and cut his heirs off she must do, not to seem to feel above her station, with a shilling--all but the entail. “As good as the and yet to show that whoever should lift her above best of you," he muttered again; and Betty, who it by a matrimonial noose would do himself a com- } had stopped her wheel at the first sound, sent it fort, and her a simple act of justice. The learned merrily flying round again, while a thousand happy and judicious Mr. Richard Hooker, a giant in thoughts and proud resolves danced through her British polemics, was caught in such a trap, and head. Happy Betty! bitterly he rued it. But Mr. Hooker, learned in Then the old gentleman dreamed again of his books, was simple in the world. The certain old bridal guests. The mother of the new wife, where gentleman who lived once upon a time was the was she? He wanted to whisper to her to leave off reverse of this. Still he dreamed, as we told you that big bunch of keys, but her position appeared at the outset--and, more to his discredit, he dream to be anomalous. She was dowager lady, houseed of Betty.

keeper, and guest all at once, and he could not Drone, drone, buzz! went the wheel. Trust me, reconcile her various callings, and was troubled. He Betty was not listening only to its hum, though that wondered in his dream--for it is remarkable what was pretty music, as you and I perhaps remember. { crowds of thought can be packed into an afternoon




nap-he wondered in his dream if all these incon } “Yes," said his daughter, "and the men too; gruities could ever be reconciled, and-for he hear them still." thought his fate was fixed-if he ever should be “Hip! hip! hip! hurrah !" sounded in the dig. comfortable and easy again!

tance. But presently in his dream he saw something “And I thought there was a crowd in my housewhich sorely disturbed his philosophy. The village and, and, and confusion.” barber was among his guests! Now, the barber had “So you might, for I have made the greatest once been his butler, and a great man in his house- tumult to get in, and should not have succeeded at hold. Great men have their infirmities, and the all, if I did not know the way myself.” butler had his. He was too fond of tasting; and “Why, where are all our people ?” asked the old practice, while it improved his judgment in one man, bewildered. department of his vocation, injured him in others. “All run to hear the news, I suppose, or to tell So he resigned, upon a hint, and retired upon a pension, setting up an independent establishment “The news? Where am I? What is it? Where's under his old master's patronage, and still keeping my snuff box ?" the run of the hall. Moreover, he looked sweet “Here, sir,” said Betty, 'picking it up from the upon the housekeeper. And she, the servants hint ground, courtseying to the daughter as she handed ed, looked sweet upon him. Now the certain old the box to the father. “But the snuff is all spilled." gentleman might have considered all this a very "Humph," growled the certain old gentleman. good joke, under ordinary circumstances; but when "And who are you? Are you Betty Martin, and one marries into a family, you know

nobody else ?” Was it another fly? Again Betty was compelled “Nobody else, sir,” sighed Betty, with another to leave her wheel to soothe the old gentleman. courtesy and a tone of sad presentiment. The sight of the ci-derant butler, now barber and “Such a dream !" yawned the old gentleman. prospective father-in-law--the curious looks of the } And he drew his daughter to his breast, and kissed old family servants under the new regime-the { her with a fervor of affection which surprised and quandary whether the barber was to be addressed delighted her. “I believe I am awake now, thank as John Butler, John Barber, or my lady's father Heaven! But those bells and shouts-what is this in-law.

news, daughter ?!! Upon our word, such a dilemma would be a quan “Bonaparte has been beaten, his army cut to dary for a man wide awake, and in possession of pieces and broken up forever !" all his senses. To a dreaming man it was dreadful. “Hurrah! I could shout myself. Who brought It was worse than the nightmare. It was" gorgons, the tidings to the village ?" hydras, and chimeras dire" rolled into one big monster.

“But those bells, haven't they been ringing all “ John, go to the pantry !" shouted the certain old day-all the afternoon, I mean?” gentleman-that is, he dreamed he shouted.

“Only five or ten minutes, father. I came in a “And I"_ said the housekeeper.

chaise, and the postboy has set the villagers crazy." “And I” said the housekeeper's daughter. “But” — but what, did not then transpire.

And then the old gentleman, in his sleep all the {The old gentleman left the philosophy of dreams, time, be it understood, forgot the claims of the bride and the discussion thereof, until another occasion. and the mother-in-law, and choleric, aimed to collar Betty by this time having disappeared his daughter the upstart, whereupon the barber resisted, and produced from her pocket THE GAZETTE EXTRAORdashed soap in his eyes! He waked with a scream. DINARY, and pointed out to her father, who was His snuff box lay at his feet, and Betty flew to his pleased in spite of himself, the name of her husband aid, holding open his eye with her hands while she among those who had distinguished themselves on strove to blow out the angry particles with her gentle that greatest of modern battle-fields—WATERLOO. breath. She never looked prettier; but who could The wars were soon over. Betty's hopes were at see that, with spuff in his eyes?

an end, so she supplanted her mother, and married “What is the matter ?" said his daughter, who just the ex-butler, John Barber, herself. The certain then bounced in upon him, in her travelling dress. old gentleman's pet daughter was domiciled in his

“MY EYE AND BETTY MARTIN," said the old gen house again, and the ensign, her husband, vinditleman, with a smile on his lips, and a tear in his cated her preference by becoming a general. He eye. “I've had such dreams! I thought the bells retired on half-pay early enough to aid his wife in were all ringing !"

comforting the last days of her father; and, after “ You may well think that," answered his daugh. some years had passed away, the certain old gen. ter; “listen to them now!"

tleman ventured to tell this his dream. Whether “And I thought there was a barrel of ale witir } it was the origin of the saying " My Eye and Betty the tap running on the green, and the boys shout. } Martin” or not, we are not prepared to aver; but

it was certainly a good illustration.

" I did.”




(See Plate in August Number.)


Į worth and talents were a passport to her society,

was Mr. James Madison, then one of the most conThis loved and honored lady, whose character is spicuous members of Congress; and, in the year the subject of this brief memoir, was born in North} 1794, Mrs. Todd became the wife of that eminently Carolina, in the year 1767. Shortly after her birth, great and good man. From the time of her marMr. and Mrs. Payne, her parents, removed to Phila riage till Mr. Madison came into the administration, delphia, and joined the Society of Friends, or Qua- she lived in the full enjoyment of that abundant kers. Accordingly, Dolly Payne was educated in į and cordial hospitality which characterized the wife the strict system of that society to which her parents of a Virginia gentleman. Her house was never belonged ; a system which, taking morality and vir without guests, who were freely and kindly bidden tue for its basis, forbids the vanities of fashionable to partake of the social pleasures of the happy dolife.

mestic circle. Never were circumstances more in But we find it satisfactorily proved that these accordance with disposition, and Mrs. Madison apexternal accomplishments may be dispensed with peared to be in the very sphere for which nature without diminishing the attractions of the sex. And, had designed her. although Miss Payne was not indebted to acquired In 1801, Mr. Madison was appointed Secretary graces of mind or manners, admiration and pure of State, and removed with his family to Washingosteem followed her wherever she was known. ton, leaving, among their Philadelphia friends, uni

The kindness and benevolence of her disposition versal, kind, and pleasant recollections, which enwere the charms which fascinated her admirers, im- } dured to the latest hour of the lives of this much parting a beaming grace and brightness to her honored and loved pair. countenance never to be effaced; charms which the } A lady, who was herself an eye-witness, gives the withering hand of Time could not destroy, and following description of the metropolis of the Union which shone forth in brilliant lustre till their owner at that period. She says: “The infant metropolis reposed in the silent tomb.

of our country was at that time almost a wilderness. Although a strict member of the Society of Friends, The president's house stood uninclosed on a piece sho soon became the observed of all observers, for of waste and barren ground, separated from the tho beauty, which hereafter was destined to be so capitol by an almost impassable marsh. The build. celebrated, began to attract attention; and the love- ing was not half completed, and standing, as it did, ly Quakeress was soon not only the object of gene- amidst the rough masses of stone and other materal admiration, but of serious and devoted attach rials collected for its construction, and half hidden ment.

by the venerable oaks that still shaded their native In the year 1790, this lady became the wife of soil, looked more like a ruin in the midst of its John Todd, Esq., a talented young lawyer of Phila- fallen fragments and coeval shades than a new and delphia, and a member also of the Society of rising edifice. The silence and solitude of the surFriends. During the lifetime of Mr. Todd, she rounding space were calculated to enforce this idea; lived in the simplicity and strictness of the society for, beyond the capitol hill, far as the eye could to which she belonged. But this exalted happiness reach, the city, as it was called, lay in a state of was not long to be hers; death, which is ever ready } nature, covered with thick groves and forest-trees, to pluck the fairest flower, or sever bonds never wide and verdant plains, with only here and there again to be united here below, took from her side a house along the intersecting ways, that could not her beloved husband, after a sickness of only a few yet be properly called streets. The original prodays, leaving her a young widow with an infant į prietors of the grounds on which the city was loson.

cated, retained their rural residences and their Her mother, Mrs. Payne, of one of the oldest habits of living. And new inhabitants were throngfamilies of Virginia, then a widow, resided in Phila ing from every part of the Union, bringing with delphia, and Mrs. Todd became an inmate in her { them the primitive modes and customs of their refamily, where congregated the good and distinguished spectivo States. Mr. Madison, from Virginia, Mr. of that day, when the worth and wisdom of the land Gallatin, from Pennsylvania, General Dearborn, assembled there in council to guide the destinies of from Massachusetts, and Robert Smith, from Maryour infant republic. Among the many suitors whoso } land, were the heads of the several departments of

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government. These were followed by political } exhibiting to advantage those high and noble feelfriends and dependents, to fill the subordinate places ings, which had so often triumphed over the aniin the several departments."

mosity of party spirit, and gained for her husband Such materials, and such unsimilarity of habits, so much popularity and good-will. But, in the must have given to society a most novel aspect; and third year of the presidency of Mr. Madison, our nothing but their entire dependence upon each other history became one of war with England; and then could have formed that close and intimate circle, it was that, in this “second war of the Revolution," which became so blended together as almost to form the energies of the nation and of her rulers were one complete harmonious family. Mr. Jefferson, for { called forth. years after his retirement, often recurred to that { The president was occasionally censured, with all time, observing that the perfect unanimity that pre the bitterness of party animosity; but Mr. Madison, vailed in his cabinet made him feel that they were confiding in the entire purity of his motives, and all members of his family.

the justice of his fellow-citizens, ever left his acts to Mr. Madison held the office of Secretary of State be duly estimated when the effervescence of popular for eight years, during which time he, with his excitement should subside; and, with unaltered family, resided in Washington, reciprocating civili- { equanimity, he continued his social intercourse with ties with all around him in the kindest manner. persons of all opinions. Much of this depended upon his lady, who, although News now arrived that the British forces had placed, as she must have been, in a most conspicu landed some miles below the city, and that the meous, and not enviable situation, conciliated the tropolis was marked for destruction. good-will of all, without offence to the numerous As soon as this was known, the commanders of competitors for her interest and influence.

our army met, but were divided in their opinion as At a time when the restless spirit of party began to the route to be taken ; nor were they unanimous to manifest itself, covering every path with thorns, in the measures to be adopted to oppose the enemy, this estimable woman held the branch of concilia who were now at their doors. tion, ever ready to promote peace and good-will. A General Winder, with his army, had stationed politician of the present day exclaimed, on a memo himself at Bladensburg, expecting that might be rable occasion, "We are federalists, we are all re- the route which the enemy would take on their way publicans.” In her intercourse with society at that { to the capitol. This had been strenuously opposed day, Mrs. Madison reduced this liberal sentiment to by the Secretary of War, which caused some unpractice; her circle was the model of polished life, pleasantness at the moment. and the dwelling of cheerfulness.

The president, anxious to settle this unbappy " When the term of Mr. Jefferson's presidency } difference, went himself, accompanied by several drew near its close, the spirit of political intrigue, members of the cabinet and other personal friends, which, for the last eight years, bad lain dormant, to Bladensburg, where they, to their great surprise, was again roused into activity. A new president found the two armies preparing to engage. must be chosen, and there were several competitors Being so near the city, the inhabitants were much for the people's favor. Each bad their zealous and alarmed for the result of the battle, and all the disuntiring partisans, who left no means unemployed may attendant on a besieged city displayed itself to insure success. Private society felt the baneful among the unarmed citizens. influence of these political intrigues ; social inter Tho sound of the cannon was distinctly heard. course was embittered by party spirit, and personal The cabinet party, who had gone to hold a council confidence often violated. Mr. Madison was assailed of war, had now been absent two days, and no signs with all the violence of political animosity, and of their return. The whole city was in confusion. calumnies were invented where facts were wanting." The few friends remaining with Mrs. Madison urged

Mrs. Madison, who felt the attacks on her hus her to leave the city; but she peremptorily refused, band with keen sensibility, always met the assail even if she was taken prisoner, till she was assured ants with a mildness and condescension that dis of Mr. Madison's safety. The carriage was several armed their hostility of its individual rancor, and times brought to the door; but they could not preoften converted political enemies into warm per vail on her to enter it until her husband's return. sonal friends. The magic influence which the ten. The following extract from a letter to her sister, der of her snuff box exerted, won from the most written in all the tumult and confusion which surobdurate a relaxation from hostility; for none par- rounded her, shows her attachment for her husband, took of its contents, so graciously and kindly offered, and her firm patriotism to her country : and retained a feeling inimical to its owner. The eventful moment arrived, and Mr. Madison

Tuesday, Aug. 23, 1814. was declared President of the United States.

“DEAR SISTER: My husband left me yesterday Mr. Jefferson soon retired to Virginia, and Mr. į morning to join General Winder. He was anxious Madison took possession of the presidential mansion. to know if I had courage or firmness to remain in Here, ngain, Mrs. Madison had an opportunity of the president's house until his return; and, on my

VOL. XLV.-38

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