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eisely similar form, whieh has been engraved by Wilkinson, and is eopied in Fig. 1. It is partieularly eurious, as showing how sueh sandahi were held upon the feet, the thong whieh erosses the instep being eonneeted with another passing over the top of the foot, and seeured to the solo between tho great toe and that next to it, so that tho sole was held firmly, however the foot moved, and yet it allowed tho sandal to be east off at pleasure.

Wilkinson says that "shoes, or low boots, were ulso eommon in Egypt; but these are believed to have been of late date, and to have belonged to Greeks; for, sinee no persons are represented in the paintings wearing them, exeept foreigners, we may eonelude they were not adopted by the Egyptians, at least in a Pharaonie age. They were of leather, generally of green eolor, laeed in front by thongs, whieh passed through small loops on either side, and were prineipally used, as in Greeee and Etruria, by women."

One of the elose-laeed shoes is given in Fig. 3, from a speeimen in the British Museum; it embraees the foot elosely, and has a thong or two over the instep for drawing it tightly over the foot, something like the half boot of the present day: the solo and upper leather are all in one pieee, sown up the boek and down the front of tho foot, a mode of eonstruetion praetised in England as late as the fourteenth eentury.

The elegantly ornamented boot here given is eopied from a Tbehan painting, and is worn by a


gayly-dressed youth from one of the eountries bordering on Egypt: it reaehes very high, and is a remarkable speeimen of the taste for deeoration, whieh thus early began to be displayed upon this artiele of apparel.

In Saered Writ are many early notiees of ehoes: when Moses exhorts the Jows to obedienee (Deut. Xxix.}, he exelaims, "Your elothes are not waxen old upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon thy foot." In the Book of Ruth (ehap, iv.), wo have a eurious instanee of the important part performed by the shoo in the aneient days of Israel, in sealing any important business: "Now this was tho manner in former time in Israel, eoneerning redeeming, and eoneerning ehanging, for to eonfirm all things; a man plueked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor; and this was a testimony in Israel." Ruth, and all the property of three other persons, are given over to Boaz by the aet of tho next kinsman, who gives to him his shoe in the presenee of witnesses.

\ The aneient law eompelled the eldest brother, or • nearest kinsman by her late hushand's side, to marry a widow, if her hushand died ehildless. The j law of Moses provided an alternative, easy in itself,

< but attended with some degree of ignominy. The | woman was, in publie eourt, to take off his shoe, j spit before his faee, saying, " So shall it be done f unto that man that will not build up his brother's

house;" and prohably the faet of this refusal was S stated in the genealogieal registers in eonneetion ? with his name, whieh is prohably what is meant by j his "name shall be ealled in Israel, the house of S him that hath his shoe loosed." (Deut . xxv.) j The editor of "Knight's Pietorial Bible," who j notiees these eurious laws, also adds that the use of \ the shoe in tho transaetions with Boaz are perfeetly j intelligible; the taking off the shoe denoting the \ relinquishment of the right and the dissolution of j the obligation in the one instanee, and its transfer j in the other. The shoe is regarded as eonstituting

< possession, nor is this idea unknown to ourselves, it

< being eonveyed in the homely proverhial expression 5 by whieh one man is said to " stand in the shoes of j another;" and the vulgar idea "of throwing an old 'shoe after you for luek," is typieal of a wish that j temporal gifts or good fortune may follow you. The ? author lost quoted says that, even at the present

time, the use of the shoe, as a token of right or oeeupaney, may be traeed very extensively in the East; and, however various and dissimilar the instanees may seem at first viow, the leading idea may be still deteeted in all. Thus among the Bedouins, when a man permits his eousin to marry another, or when a hushand divorees his runaway wife, he usually says, " She was my slipper, I have east her off." (Burekhardt's "Bedouins," p. 65.) Sir F. Henniker, in speaking of the diffieulty he had in persuading the natives to deseend into the eroeodile mummy pits, in eonsequenee of some men having lost their lives there, says, "Our guides, as if preparing for eertain death, took leave of their ehildren; the father took the turhan from his own head, and put it upon that of his son; or put him in hia plaee, by giving him his shoes, * a dead man's shoes.'" In Western Asia, slippers left at the door of an apartment denote that the master or mistress is engaged, and no one ventures on intrusion, not even a hushand, though the apartment be his wife's. Messrs. Tver man and Ben net, speaking of the termagants of Benares, say, " If domestie or other business ealls off one of the eomhatants before the affair is duly settled, she eoolly thrusts her shoe beneath her hasket, and leaves both upon the spot, to signify that she is not satisfied:" meaning to denote, by leaving her shoe, that she kept possession j of the ground and the argument during I^er unavoidable absenee.

From all these instanees it would appear that this employment of the shoe may, in some respeets, bo eonsidered analogous to that whieh prevailed in the Middle Ages, of giving a glove as a token of investiture when bestowing lands and dignities.


It should be observed that the same Hebrow word (naal) signifies both a sandal and a shoe, although always rendered shoe in our translation of the Old Testament. Although the shoe is mentioned in Genesis and other books of the Bible, little eoneerning its form or manufaeture ean be gleaned. That it was an artiele of eommon use among the aneient Israelites, we may infer from the passage in Genesis, ehap. xiv. 23, the first mention we have of this artiele, where Abraham makes oath to the King of Sodom u that he will not take from a thread even to a shoe-latehet," thus assuming its eommon eharaeter.

The Gibeonites (Joshua ix. 5—13) K eame with old shoes and elouted (mended) upon their feet," the better to praetise their deeeit, and therefore they said, u Our shoes are beeome old by reason of the very long journey."

Isaiah "walked three years naked and harefoot:" he went for this long period without shoes, eontrary to the eustom of the people, and as "a wonder unto Egypt and Ethiopia."

That it beeame an artiele of refinement and luxury is evident from the many other notiees given, and the Jowish ladies seem to hare been very partieular about their sandals: thus, we are told in the Apoeryphal book of Judith, although Holofernes was attraeted by the general riehness of her dress and personal ornaments, yet it was "her sandals ravished his eyesand the bride in Solomon's Song is met with the exelamation, "How beautiful are thy feet with sandals, 0 prinee's daughter!*'

The aneient has-reliefs at Pereepolis, and the neighborhood of Babylon, seeond only in their antiquity and interest to those of Egypt, furnish us with examples of the boots and shoes of the Persian kings, their nobles, and attendants; and they were exeeuted, as appears from historieal as well as internal evidenee, in the days of Xerxes and Darins.

From these sourees we here seleet three speei

[merged small][graphic][merged small]

i who has eharge of a ehariot, upon a has-relief

i now in the British Museum, brought from Persepo

i lis by Sir R. Ker Porter, by whom it was first en

; graved and deseribed in his interesting volumes of

j travels in that distriet. Fig. 2, also from Perse

polis, and engraved in the work just quoted, deli

i neates another kind of boot or high shoe, reaehing

only to the ankle, round whieh it is seeured by a

j haud, and tied in front in a knot, the two ends of

> the hand hanging beneath it; this shoe is very eomj mon upon the feet of these figures, and is generally

worn by soldiers or the upper elasses; the attendants or eouneillors round the throne of these early sovereigns frequently wear sueh shoes. Fig. 3, seen

j upon the feet of personages in the same rank of life,

j is here eopied from a Persepolitan has-relief repre

i senting a soldier in full eostume; it is a remarkably

j interesting example, as it very elearly shows the

\ transition state of this artiele of dress, being some

j thing between a shoe and a sandal: in faet, a shoe

i may be eonsidered as a eovered sandal, and in the

j instanee before us, the part we now term "upper

\ leather" eonsists of little more than the laeings of

I the sandals rendered mueh broader than usual, and

i fastened by buttons along the top of the foot; the

; shoe is thus rendered peeuliarly flexible, as the

( openings over the instep allow of the freest move

\ ment. Sueh were the forms of the earliest shoes. l Close boots reaehing nearly to the knee, where

i they are met by a wide trowser, are not uneommon

i upon these seulptures, being preeisely the same in

£ shape and appearanee as those worn by the modern

< Cossaeks. Indeed, there is nothing in the way of

j boots that may not be found upon the existing

j monuments of early nations, preeisely resembling

> the modern ones. The little figure here given might

[graphic][merged small]



Tuere is something in the eharaeter of (Ehlensehlager and of his writings so simply and purely healthful, in a temperament so alive to the poetry of life, an organization so serene and happy, and a result so equable and uniform, that we are earious to know under what eireumstanees the true and honest nature of the poet was preserved through a long; life, free from all hitter and unhealthful mixtures. He seems to unite with the warmth, the sunny light, the spontaneous vivaeity of the south, the steady sustained ealmness and reserved ideality of the north. Like his own Antonio,

"Nature in him is kind;
The Kindling Are not merely warms, but burns;
Yt't |itu-sion never with the vulture's elaw
Seizea upon him."

Though born in poverty, the eireumstanees of his life were, for sueh a nature, most happy. His father, organist and stoward of the royal eastle of Frederiekshurg, in a suburb of Copenhagen, seems to have possessed the same easy and serene disposition as his son; and to have been a most kind and indulgent parent, leaving tho gentlo boy to unfold his eharaeter without severe eontrol, or a too ehildish indulgenee. But it was from his mother, as he tells us, that his genins was inherited. She was a German, of refined nature, and delieately nurtured. He says, "I resembled her in eharaeter, and in person also. For the earnestness and melaneholy in my charaeter I have to thank hor, and my father for my healthy organization and eheerful disposition. My mother possessed both sensihility and imagination; the tragieal that I have been able to embody I derived from her; but, alas! I brought no laurel wreath to divide with her; those I gathered were laid upon her grave.

"In my seeond year, I was sleeping, one night, by my father's side, when I was awakened by a great tumult in the house. My father opened the window, and I saw the old familiar stork soaring away over tho trees. In the morning, I went into my mother's \ ehamber, and found the little puppet the stork had \ left in tho night lying in the bed by my mother's j side." This was his only sister, Sophia Wilhelmina j Bertha; aeeording to the tradition of Danish ehil-! dren, brought as a ehoiee blessing by that saered j domestie guardian, the stork.

Tho eireumstanees of (E hi en seh lager's ehildhood 5 were favorable to his poetieal development. He was I


born in a small house, just at the entranee of the splendid avenue of beeeh-trees leading to the royal eastle of whieh his father was the stoward. This royal residenee was filled with pietures, statues, and the ehoieest works of art. Opposite was Suderfield, whieh had been eonverted into a beautiful English park. "Our mode of life," he says, "differed in summer and in winter, as mueh as the seasons. In summer, tho apartments were erowded with eelebrated men, and beautiful, well-dressed women: the whole eourt was there. We ehildren eould look through the door and see the whole royal family sitting at the table, while the loveliest musio was playing within. Every Sunday evening there was Turkish musio in the gardens, and the people eould walk therein. The English park, on the eontrary, was saered to the royal guests, and was always still, retired, and solitary. My father kept the key, and my sister and myself were allowed to wander within tho shadow of its noble trees." Late in the autumn, the whole royal family removed to tho eity. There was no longer musio and feasting, but earpenters, painters, and deeorators, from whom tho future poet and artist learned more, perhaps, than from the high-born and well-dressed guests. The aetual northern winter eame, and the eastle was to tho stoward's family a eomplete hermitage, with two dogs and two sentinels, sheltered, like them, within its heavy walls. In storms, in rain and snow, the father sat in his blouse, with the smallest dog at his side, and read aloud to his family. They followed Albert Julins and Rohinson Crusoe to their islands; roved in fairy-land with Aladdin and his lamp; or laughed at Don Quixote and Holberg's eomedies.

In this desultory, independent manner of life, (Ehlensehlager reaehed his twelfth year, having, as he says, loarnt nothing; but the reader feels that these years, passed in the midst of an extensive park, surrounded by works of art, aeeompanied by inspiring musie, eould never have been lost upon a poetieal organization like his.

(Ehlensehlager's passion for the stage began to display itself in his twelfth year. He began to write eomedies, and with the aid of his sister and a young friend of his own age, performed them to their own and the satisfaetion of their older friends. His father intended to edueate him for a merehant; but the gentleman in whose eounting-house he was to have been plaeed, not being able just then to reeeive him, the plan was ahandoned, and his father, with his usual good nature, eonsented that he should try his fortune upon the stage. After a suifieient time spent with the daneing, the feneing, and the posture-master, (his mental preparation had been going on almost from his hirth, for almost his whole study had been the drama,) and he had submitted to the diseipline of the harber, also to that of the delieate shoe and glove-maker, he made his first appearanee upon a publie stage. His father went seeretly into the theatre; but his mother and sister remained at home as long as the tender mother's anxiety would permit: notwithstanding the winter evening was eold and dark, she eould not preserve her self-possession, and remain eoldly absent. At the moment the pieee was to begin, she went to the lobby of the theatre, and wept and prayed for her son. The sentinel's wife, who misunderstood her emotion, said, "Ah! madam, do not weep; perhaps he may yet be eonverted." His mother lived to witness his eonversion from that devotion to the life of an aetor, whieh, no doubt, seeretly made one of the petitions of that mother's heart, on this evening of her prayer.


His sueeess as an aetor was only moderate; he soon found ont, also, that, to see the rainbow and the beautiful halo of the planets, one must not be in the mist or rain-drops of whieh they are formed, but observe them from a far different point of viow.

In the two years that (Ehlensehlager spent on the boards, ho gained mueh knowledge of life, and aequired many valuable aequaintanees among amateurs and artists. He formed at this time a friendship with Rahbek, the Danish poet, whose wife was both apirituelle and aeeomplished; also a elose intimaey with two brothers by the name of (Ersted; students, the one of law, the other of medieine, both lovers of poetry. These brothers were, like twins, always together. They were peeuliar also, and remind one, in some degree, of tho brothers Cheeryble. They lived for eaeh other's friendship; went about in winter in great overeoats, that also served for dressing-gowns, and leaned, like the Siamese twins, on eaeh other. But these Dioseuri shone in genins like stars, and what was beneath their heavy overeoats eould not long remain eoneealed. In their elasses in the eollege, they took both honors and prizes. Under the auspiees of these brothers, (Ehlensehlager was admitted to hear the leetures, then highly valuable, in the eollege of Copenhagen. He says, "When I entered the halls, it seemed as though the old books in parehment, and the now in modern hindings, looked reproaehfully at me, and asked, 'Wherefore have you left us?' I thought to myself, what ean this mean?" He was already tired of the drudgery of the stage, although his passion for the drama was not ahated, and therefore he understood the silent reproaeh of the books. He felt, also, that there was danger of his falling into the dissipated levity of tho life of an aetor; at least, of those whose whole time is not absorbed by taking the first rank as histrionie artists.

Influeneed by the adviee of tho (Ersteds, (Ehlen

sehlager left the stage, and entered upon a eourse of study to prepare himself for an examination, in order to enter the law elasses of the university. He spoke with his father, who, as usual, left him to follow his inelination. "I was now again," he says, "in heaven." In the intervals of study, he eould plan his tragedies, and write them out upon tho days when there was no leeture. In the hours of stndy, also, the dry folios of the law were often negleeted for the eharms of Horaee and Virgil.

His life had now beeome more earnest; he had a goal before him, that of beeoming a lawyer, and of taking his plaee among his fellow-men as an advoeate. By joining the law sehool, he was introdueed to the literary elubs of young students, that seem, in Copenhagen, to be soeieties that really love letters and eaeh other. The kindest and most honorable and elevated tone of feeling prevails. The young men eall eaeh other thou, and with a spirit of freedom and equality swear to eaeh other brotherhood while belonging to the same elub, although in the world they are separated by a wide differenee in rank and in worldly eireumstanees.

These literary brotherhoods of young students admit them to a speeies of happiness whieh belongs to the male sex, and to the eleet only among them, and in the period of youthful enthusiasm. Women hare not yet formed sueh pure and devout attaehment to literature and the arts as to form soeieties among themselves for their own eulture and for devotion to the arts. Many reasons might be givon for and some against sneh eomhinations, but this is not the plaee to diseuss them.

Here (Ehlensehlager beeame aequainted (in their own language) with the works of those shining stars in the literature of Germany, Herder, Goethe, and Sehiller, and eorreeted the false taste whieh had led him to prefer Kotzebue's tragedies, Sehiller's "Robbers," and Goethe's first works, to tho more manly literature of their later writings. "The Sorrows of Werter," he says, retained always the power over him that it first exerted upon his imagination. The preferenees and tastes ripened by years must have slumbered in the bud of ehildhood; but many of the illusions and superstitions of youth remain, even after years have unfolded the power of art, and knowledge has ehased away the shadows of ignoranee. "Happy are those," he says, "who ean eat of the tree of knowledge, without being hunted from the paradise of innoeenee and nature."

Before (Ehlensehlager had finished his law studies, he had the grief to lose his mother; that fond mother that he so mueh resembled in mind and person; the only friend to whom he had imparted his early efforts at poetry and literary eomposition, over whieh she rejoieod with the proud tenderness of a mother, but antieipated not his future sueeess. He says, "I saw those eyes, so like my own, beeome dim with the approaeh of death; I felt those hands, that had ever been busied in the servioe of others, beeome eold and lifeless. Thus she slept . My father elosed her eyes, and we followed to plaee the loved form in the Gods-jield, where I also wish, hereafter, to rest." Sorrow eould not remain long an inmate of a heart eo light; it eould not long intrude upon his buoyant spirits; he says his happy temperament soon drow him from the shadow to the sunshine of life.

After the death of this tender mother, the fireside of his home was less attraetive, but the loss was soon alleviated through the influenee of her who was to be his future wife, Christiana, the daughter of Counsellor Heger. The poet Rahbek had married a sister, and thus introdueed him to the family. Although there is a very ineonvenient absenee of dates in this autohiography of the poet, he was at this time apparently about twenty years old. He had, as yet, published nothing; his prospeets eould not have been very flattering. His studies were not yet finished, and only in his profession of the law eould he hope for sueeess suifieient to allow him to marry. He thus deseribes the lady to whom he ventured to offer all he possessed—a true and honest heart:—

"She was a beautiful girl of seventeen, well formed, and full of energy. Her eyes were large and blue, her eomplexion snow-white, with a delieate rose in her eheeks. Nature had been so bountiful to her in hair that, when she suffered the beautiful Monde tresses to fall down, they formed a eomplete veil to her person. She, like all the Heger family, was aeeomplished and witty. The first time I saw her she was weaving a wreath of eorn flowers, as blue as her own eyes. The erown is still mine; and although the leaves have fallen out, they still retain the deep blue of her eyes. It was after a lonely afternoon walk, that I entered the eounsellor's house with Rahbek, the poet, son-in-law of tho family. The beautiful girl sat industriously at her needle, and when she raised her head at my entranee, I thought I read a eertain pleasure in her eyes. An animated eonversation ensued, afterwards a good supper with good wine. Christiana was full of wit and humor."

For the want of a better word, I must translate Christiana's peeuliar humor by the word quizzing. She was instantly alive to everything peeuliar in the eharaeter or appearanee of her friends, and with ready wit plaeed the peeuliarity before them. Like all the Heger family, she possessed the talent of imitating the voiee and manner of others, and gave to all her aequaintanees pet names, indieating their peeuliarities. For this speeies of wit, (Ehleneehlager gave her the name of tho Anahaptist.

After the delightful evening mentioned above, eneouragod, we presume, by tho glanee of her blue eyes, the poet says he followed Christiana wherever she went to walk by star or moonlight. In these heavenly but emharrassing walks, the Anahaptist lost her inelination to quiz her eompanion. He says,

"We went silently, arm in arm; I was one-syllabled, emharrassed, and very serious—Christiana also. At last love, that had so long robbed mo of eourage, gave it to me, and I came out stuttering with my timid deelaration." Christiana, the joker, seems to have been well prepared for it. He says, "She understood my metaphors and aphorisms right well, and she did not leave me in despair." Ho was permitted to speak to her father.

This father was an extraordinary man; an easy man for the serious affairs of life. Before the bomhardment of Copenhagen, he was possessed of a large property. Ilia beautiful house and splendid gardens were destroyed by that event. Although a lawyer and eounsellor, he possessed many other talents. Our poet says he was a very good smith, joiner, and turner; an exeellent hortieulturist and ornamental gardener. His strawherries exeelled those of the royal gardens. He sketehed beautifully. Thorwaldsen, when in Copenhagen, spent his evenings at his house, sketehing with him for the instruetion of his daughters. Ho was an aeeomplished musieian, and when alone with the piano phantazied* so as to eharm all who aeeidentally heard him. Ho ground glasses for teleseopes, and wrote a treatise, in Freneh, upon opties. He was familiar with tho manufaeture of the papier-maeht, and made beautiful artieles, partieularly snuff-boxes, whereon he painted lovely landseapes. His works in this art, whieh he also taught his daughters, were eelebrated and sought for * in other eountries. Being expert in making fireworks, he often amused his friends by sueh exhihitions; but a young servant having been aeeidentally injured by the fall of one of his roekets, he ahandoned this art . He was a eourtier, and had taken part in the Italian opera, upon the eourt theatre.

(Ehlensehlager approaehed this man of universal talents with great anxiety and timidity. He made a humble speeeh, setting forth his own small merits, whieh eonsisted, like Othello's, only in this, that he had loved and wooed his daughter; that he had nothing but his love, and the prospeet and promise of his friend; that in two years' time be should finish his studies, and then he hoped to begin to earn his living. The father listened politely, rang the bell, ealled for his daughter, said a fow words in her ear, plaeed her hand in that of her lover, and—ehanged the subjeet—whereby, says (Ehlensehlager, "he did me a great serviee." This transaetion speaks well for the merit of (Ehlensehlager, or we must presume that, if the father treated every subjeet as summarily as that of his daughter's happiness, his various aeeomplishments are not so wonderful.

(Ehlensehlager now studied his profession with more determined industry, but he eould not resist the invitations of the muses. He was eontinually making hasty exeursions to Parnassus, and indeed loitering there. At this time he wrote for the aea

* Improvised.

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