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but cloves (claws), cutting off the first half of the word. In the Spanish tongue serfs are called esclavos, while the stems of cloves are claws. When this transformation of esclavos into clavos was later discovered, everybody derided the partisans of Gomez and their gleeful exultation. Had they only stopped to consider that the celestial exhalations transferred to terrestrial substances adapted to receive them only produce aromatic odours in the countries lying beneath or near to the equator, they would have remembered that Gomez could have found no cloves during the ten months of his voyage.

I was writing this appendix when the wheel of fortune— as is usual—gave a turn; so true is it that she never concedes an ounce of honey, to which she does not add as much, or more, gall. The streets of the illustrious city of Toledo echoed with trumpet blasts, the roll of drums, and the piping of flutes in honour of the renewed alliance with the King of Portugal, already brother-in-law and cousin of the Emperor. This is the result of the Emperor's betrothal to the King's sister, after refusing alliance with the young English princess—a thing esteemed by all Castile to be important. In the midst of the festivities, serious and deplorable news, filling the Emperor's heart and those of the Castilians with disgust, was heard.

In my book describing the voyage around the world, dedicated to Pope Adrian, I said that the ship called La Trinidad, which accompanied the Victoria, was damaged and had remained behind at the island of Tidor, one of the Moluccas which produces spices; there were seventy men on board that ship besides their officers. I knew all their names, from our account books. The Trinidad had been repaired, loaded with cloves and precious stones, and was on her way to Europe, when she encountered a Portuguese fleet. The captain of this fleet, Jorge de Brito, surprised and conquered it, and took it to Malacca, a place supposed to be the Golden Chersonesus. He was careful to strip the vessel of everything it carried, but the saddest of all to recount is the melancholy fate of the sailors. They encountered such terrific seas that, buffeted by incessant storms, almost all of them perished of hunger and exhaustion. It is said that Jorge de Brito, after the capture of the Trinidad, went to the Moluccas and took possession of our islands, which are seven in number, building a fortress on one of them. He likewise seized everything that had been left on the island for the needs of trade. The produce of those two robberies exceeds in value two hundred thousand ducats. Such at least is the report of the sailors and officers who survived and returned with the Victoria.

Cristobal de Haro was the director general of this enterprise for buying spices. He is a man in whom our council had great confidence. He has given me the names of the five ships which accompanied the Victoria, and those of all our sailors down to the humblest members of the crew. He demonstrated to our council, which assembled to hear him, his reasons for estimating our losses at that value, indicating in detail the quantity of spices on board the Victoria, the amount of merchandise they left for buying, either at Maquiana, King Zabazulla's country, which is one of the seven where spices grow, or at Tidor, belonging to another native king and his son, and which is controlled by the administrators and principal lords of both sovereigns. This merchandise had been left in the charge of Juan de Campo, who remained in the archipelago. But Haro made an inventory of the steel and copper blades, the different kinds of hempen and flaxen cloth, pitch, quicksilver, mineral oil, Turkish candles, artists' colours, coral, red umbrellas, hats, mirrors, glass beads, little bells, spoons, and chairs worthy of royalty, not to mention the firearms with their necessary ammunition, which the royal officials in the archipelago, such as the auditor and the treasurer, exchanged for spices to load our vessels. What the Emperor's decision will be is not yet known.1 I think he will hardly disclose it for a few days, because of the renewed alliance with Portugal. Even had twins been born, it would be sufficiently unpleasant to allow such an insult to remain unpunished. I think the affair will be treated first by diplomatic negotiations; but I also hear a piece of news that will not please the King of Portugal.

In spite of his good intentions, the Emperor will be unable to conceal his opinion when the owners of the cargoes petition him for satisfaction. To refuse justice to his enemies would be dishonourable. How then can he refuse it to his own subjects? It is said the elder Portuguese do not conceal their fear of seeing the kingdom destroyed by these audacious attacks. They are also excessively arrogant towards the Castilians, without whose products they would perish of hunger, for that kingdom originally began as a small county of Castile. The Castilians therefore foam with rage. They want the Emperor to bring Portugal again under the domination of Castile, as his father, King Philip, once openly declared was his intention. Time will decide what verdict is to be given. Meanwhile, I wish Your Holiness good health, and humbly kiss your feet.

1 The agreement between the Spanish and Portuguese signed in Zaragoza by which Charles V. ceded and sold to the King of Portugal the Spanish possessions in the Moluccas may be found in Navarrete, op. cit.. torn, iv., P- 389

INDEX

Abdullah, known as El Zagal, de-
fender of Baza, I, 15

Abenamcheios, a cacique, attacks
Spaniards, I, 228; capture of,
228; in plot to massacre Span-
iards, 233

Abibaiba, a cacique, living in the
trees, I, 220/f; and Abraibes
attack Rio Negro, 232; in plot
to massacre Spaniards, 233

Abraibes, kills Raia, I, 231; and
Abibaiba attacks Rio Negro, 232;
in plot to massacre Spaniards,
233

Aburema, the river, I, 273

Aburema, discovery of, I, 323

Acateba, Columbus discovers, I,324

Accursi, Giovanni, of Florence, I,
189, 250

Ada, II, 179; founded by Spaniards,
213

Acosta, cited, note, II, 42, 107

Acuna, auditor of Royal Council,
II, 240

Acuna, Roderigo de, commander
of one of the fleet, II, 402

Adda, referred to, II, 283

Adelantado, the, see Columbus,
Bartholomew

Adrian of Utrecht, counsellor to
King Charles, I, 40; made Bishop
of Tortosa, 41; elected Pope,
41; note, II, 57; urges martyr to
continue works, 246

/Eneas, I, 79

Aganeo, or Boinca, I, 274

Agathyrses, war-paint of, I, 143;
referred to, II, 316

Aguanil, Spaniards in, II, 10

Aguilar, Geronimo de, story told by,
". 29/f; later life of, note, 31;
acts as interpreter, 32, 61

Ahuitzotl, son of Muteczuma, note,

H. 115

Aiguitin, the river, I, 324

Airovistus, conquering of, cited, II,
60

Alaman, cited, note, II, 36, 61, 107

Alaminos, Anton, a pilot, II, 6, 27;
pilots squadron, 12; directs Span-
iards to Tabasco River, 32; sent
to explore West, 36

Alvarado, commander of Badajoz,
1I,26

Albornoz, H, 406

Alcocer, Pedro de, cited, note, I, 36

Alexander VI., on the papal throne,
I, 22,91; Pope, draws a bull, 257

Alexandria, fruits in, II, 308

Alguri, Cansu, reigns in Cairo, I,26

Almazen, Perez, letter to Peter
Martyr, from, I, 33

Almeria, in possession of enemies,
I, 15; Cortes founds, II, 64

Alpha, discovery of, I, 92; harbour
discovered near, 94

Alpheus, I, 388

Alta Vela, an island, I, 391

Alvarado, Pedro de, II, 12; Cortes
leaves command to, note, 129; in
command of camp, 174; captured
in Naciapala, 341; discoveries
made by, 359 et seq; cacique wel-
comes, 362; Cortes sends ahead,
408

Amaiauna, I, 168

Amaquei, a district in Bainoa, I, 368

Amaquemeca, capital of Chalco,
1I,88

Amecameca, note, II, 88

America, first landing of Spaniards
in, note, I, 135

Anacaona, sister of Beuchios Ana-
cauchoa, I, 123; persuades and
helps brother to entertain Span-
iards, I25#.

Ascanio, Cardinal, fall of, note, I,
177; Vice-chancellor, Martyr's
works presented to, II, 245
Asclepiades, see Marco
Asensio, J. Torres, cited, note, II,

"59

Assua, founding of, I, 388

Astapalappa, brother of Mutec-
zuma, II, 137

Astapalappa, town of, Cortes de-
stroys, 174;177

Asti, I, 32

Atata, monster seen near, II, 377

Atici, description of valley of, I,374

Atiec, a district in Bainoa, I, 368

Atonnea, I, 323

Attabeira, I, 168

Attibinico, I, 88

Attibuni, a district of Bainoa, I, 368

Attibunico, a river, I, 374

Attibunicus, river in Hispaniola, I,

365

Anacauchoa, Beuchios, a cacique
king, I, 118; Spaniards enter-
tained by, and his caciques, 123^;
tributes paid by, 123; entertained
on the Adelantado's ship, 126

Anata, a cacique, I, 406

Andrada, Count Fernando de,
governor of Galicia, II, 401

Andrin, note, I, 160

Anghera, heights of, I, I; Counts of,
a
- Anghera, Pietro Martire d', see
Martyr, Peter

Angostora, note, I, 99

Anjou, duchy of, granted to Fred-
erick III., note, I, 85

Anninici, a district in Bainoa, I, 368

Antigua, Blessed Virgin of, I, 74,

391
Antilles, the, I, 61
Antonio, Gian, I, 3
Antonio, Nicolai cited, note, I, I
Arabia Felix, II, 287
Arabia, oysters of, I, 399
Arabo, a district of Caizcimu, I,367
Aramana, a district of Caizcimu, I,

367 .. „

Arambe, Spaniards visit, II, 261

Arbolazzo, sent to King in behalf
of Balboa, note, I, 292

Archipelago, Magellan sails
amongst, II, 157

Arcimboldo, Giovanni, Archbishop
of Milan, I, 4

Arethusa, fountain of, I, 388

Argensola, cited, note, II, 292

Argoglio, Alfonzo, secretary to the
Emperor, II, 301

Arias, Diego, son of Pedro, II, 179;
visits Martyr, 236

Arias, Pedro, d'Avila, sent to
Darien as envoy of King, I, 247;
ships wrecked in storm, begins
again, 250; wife of, 250$; letters
from, 335; arrives at Gomera, 336;
warmly welcomed at Darien, 349;
assumes powers in Darien, II, 49;
reports of, 179; Gonzales re-
proaches, 211; aids plan to
unite Panama and Nombre de
Dios, 214; reports against Gon-
zales by 236; encounters Gonzales,
412; complains of Gil Gonzales,
415; recalled to Spain, 416

Aristotle, cited, I, 65; note, 159,337

Armenicus, I, 386

Arona, heights of, I, I

Arriaga, Luis de, note, I, 107

Atwood Cay, note, I, 60

Aubigny defeated by Andrada, II,
401

Avezac, Pascal d', cited, note, I, 59

Avila, Alfonso d', II, 12, 26; in
charge of ship, 178; captured by
pirates, note, 196

Avila, II, 241; important fortress
at, 350, see Arias, Pedro

Ayllon, Lucas Vasquez, visits Mar-
tyr, II, 258; describes treatment
to make giants, 267; granted per-
mission to found colony, 269;
voyage of, 419

Ayora, Gonzales, royal historio-
grapher, I, 403

Ayora, Captain Juan, I, 350

Ayora, Juan de Cordova, treachery

of, I. 403
Ayqueroa, a canton in Guaccai-

arima, I, 368
Azores called Cassiterides, II, 177
Azzuei, a district in Bainoa, I, 368

B

Babbareo, a lake, I, 372
Baccalaos, route between Florida

and, II, 241; 257
Badajoz, or Pax Augusta, II, 238;

or Pacencio, 400
Badajoz, Gaspar de, I, 357
Badajoz, Gonzales de, adventures

of, I, 404
Badajoz, Juan Ayora de, I, 401

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