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with a violent fit of illness, which obliged him, in 1652, to have recourse to the bath for his recovery. Returning from whence, he set out again for Scotland, as one of the commissioners for uniting that kingdom with the new - erected English commonwealth ; which having brought to a successful conclufion, he returned with the others again to London.

The Dutch war having now been carried on for some months, lieutenant-general Monk, on the death of colonel Popham, was joined with the admirals Blake and Dean in the command at sea ; in which service he had made his first military essay, as has been before related ; and, on the second of June, 1653, he, by his courage and conduct, contribnted greatly to the defeat then given to the Dutch fileet, and lit

vise to the next btained on the thirty-first of July following.

While general Monk, and the other admirals, were thus triumphing over the nation's. enemies, and encreasing the honour of the commonwealth abroad, Cromwell was paving his way to the supremacy at home; which, on the fixteenth of December, 1653, he obtained under the title of protector.

In this capacity he foon concluded a peace with the Dutch, who obtained much more fa: vourable terms from him than what the couns. cil of state and parliament had appeared willing to grant..' General Monk, who lay, with,

his fleet on the Dutch coast, remonstrated fo warmly against this peace, and those remon-, frances were so well received by Oliver's own (called the Little, or Barebones) parliament ; and Monk, on his return, was treated so kindly by them, that Oliver is said to grow jealous of him to that degree, that he closeted hiin, to find whether he was inclined to any other interest; but, on receiving satisfaction from the general on this head, he not only took him into favour, but, on breaking out of fresh troubles in the north of Scotland, where the marquis of Athol, the earl of Glencairne, major-general Middleton, and several more of the nobility and others, had raised forces on the behalf of king Charles II. fent him down there commander in chief, for which poft he set out in April, 1654,

Arriving at Leith, he fent colonel Morgan with a large detachment against the Royalists; and, having assisted in proclaiming the protector at Edinburgh, on the fourteenth of May, followed himself with the rest of the forces, Through the general's prudent management, this war was finished by August, when he returned from the Highlands, and fixed his abode at Dalkeith, a seat belonging to the countess of Buccleugh, within four or five miles of Edinburgh; where he constantly refided during the time, which was five years, that he stayed in Scotland ; amusing himself with the pleasures of a rural life, and beloved by the people, though his government was

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more absolute than any of their princes had dared to practise.

The war in Scotland being put an end to thus fpeedily and happily for the protector, he appointed a council of fate for that part of bis government; consisting of the lord Broghill; general Monk; colonel Haward, created earl of Carlisle after the restoration Ionel William Lockhart ; colonel Adrian Scroop; colonel John Whetham ; and majorgeneral Defoorough; who came to Scotland in September, 1655, and began to exercise their authority, which was very extensive.

The majority of these commiffioners (three of whom, lord Broghill, colonel Howard, and colonel Whetham, were afterwards

very

inftrumental in the restoration) concurred with general Monk in almost every thing he proposed; by which means the government of Scotland fill remained chiefly in his hands; which, together with his affable behaviour towards the better fort of all parties, made Cromwell begin to entertain fome fufpicions of him and, in order to prevent his influence from growing too powerful, the protector used to make frequent changes in the forces under his command, by recalling such regiments as were most trufted by the general, and sending in their room thofe who were most violent and refractory at home; who gave him much trouble to bring them into order, and makethem submit to that discipline which he obliged all under him ftrialy to observe.

Nor was this distrust entirely without some appearance of foundation. It is certain that the king entertained good hopes of him, and to that purpose wrote to him from Colen on the twelfth of August, 1655. However, the general made no scruple of discovering every Itep taken by the Cavaliers which came to his knowledge, even to the sending the protector this letter, and joined in promoting addresses to him from the army in Scotland ; one of which was most graciously received by the prote&or on the nineteenth of March, 1657; and the same year he received a fummons to Oliver's houle of lords.

About this time George, second son of general Monk died in his infancy, which was a great affliction to his father, who was doatingly fond of him. From this period, to the death of Oliver, the general maintained Scotland in subjection, and lived free from all difturbance, not intermeddling further with the mad politicks of those times, than to put what orders he received from England punctually into executtion; in pursuance of which plan he proclaimed Richard Cromwell protector there after his father's death, Richard having difpatched Dr. (afterwards Sir Thomas) Clarges then commissioner of the Scotch and Irinte forces, whose fifter the general had some time before owned for his wife, with letters to him ; to which he returned a suitable and respecte ful, answer, aiming only at fcuring his own command ; at the lame time joining with the

more absolute than any of their princes had dared to practise.

The war in Scotland being put an end to thus speedily and happily for the protector, he appointed a council of fate for that part of bis government; consisting of the lord Broghill, general Monk; colonel Haward, created earl of Carlisle after the restoration ; coIonel William Lockhart ; colonel Adrian Scroop; colonel John Whetham ; and majorgeneral Defoorough; who came to Scotland in September, 1655, and began to exercise their authority, which was very extensive.

The majority of these commiffioners (three of whom, lord Broghill, colonel Howard, and colonel Whetham, were afterwards very inftrumental in the restoration) concurred with neral Monk in almost every thing he proposed; by which means the government of Scotland fill remained chiefly in his hands ; which, together with his affable behaviour towards the better fort of all parties, made Cromwell begin to entertain fome fufpicions of him ; and, in order to prevent his influence from growing too powerful, the protector used to make frequent changes in the forces under his command, by recalling fuch regiments as were most trusted by the general, and fending in their room thofe who were most violent and Fefractory at home; who gave him much trouble to bring them into order, and make them submit to that discipline which he obliged all under him strictly to observe.

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