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bably drew upon him ; for, at this time, the prevailing party in England began to set their sovereign at open defiance, and to charge him, amongst other attempts against the constitution and religion of the nation, with the crime of having encouraged the rebellion and maffacre of Ireland,

The earl of Ormond, however, having defeated the rebels at Kilruth, and distinguished himself by many cther actions as a general: and subject, the king, fince his affairs were at that time in such a situation that he had no. thing but honours to bestow, thought it proper to distinguish him by a higher title; and therefore, in 1642, created him marquis of Ormond.

About the same time, a controversy between him and the earl of Leicester, then lord-lieutenant, was decided in such a manner gave him power to dispose, while the lordlieutenant was absent, of all the posts that fhould become vacant in the army : by which his interest was encreased, and his authority confirmed ; as the soldiers had no means of obtaining preferment but by gaining the approbation of their general : but this new dig. nity conferred no ftrength, and he was only exposed to the mortification of feeing himself unable to return the regard which had been thewn him by his master, by any important service ; which he had every day less hopes ofeffe&ing, as the parliament declared more openly against the king. Some forces were in



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deed sent, but under commanders who rather hindered than promoted the subjection of the rebels; for, by plundering all indiscriminately, they weakened those most who were least able to bear new losses ; by disregarding all those who acted by the king's authority, they destroyed the union which was necessary to suc. cess; and, by treating the whole kingdom with unreasonable feverity, they encouraged the opinion, that nothing less than extirpation was intended ; and therefore added to the ardour of resentment the fury of despair.

The marquis, restrained in the execution of his power, by directions from the justices, unreasonably and offensively circumftantial, and was so much perplexed with distrust and misrepresentation, that nothing prevented his resignation of his command, but the certain knowledge that he would be succeeded by some one not equally anxious to promote the advantage, and defend the honour, of the king.

About this time it was thought necessary to send the army into the field, and an expedition was intended for the conquest of Roseand Wexford. The marquis of Ormond set: out therefore with his forces, and came before Rose on the twelfth of March, 1643 ; and would soon have been able to take it, being at first but weakly garrisoned, had not the justices neglected to send him, not only am. munition, but victualsfor his soldiers ; all which being to be transported by sea, were fo


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ħegligently provided, ihat the wind, which was for niany days faroorable, altered before the vessel was ready for the voyage ; and the årmy, instead of annoying the enemy, had no care so presling as that of procuring bread, which was sent, in a very little quantity, from the garrison of Duncanton.

Having no provisions, and being unable to Iye before a town well provided, they first refólved upon an attack, which was made without success, though with no great loss; but there was no time for enlarging the breach, ör proceeding by more slow and certain mear thods, for Preston had now gathered an army of fix thousand foot, and fix hundred and fifty horse ; and, by having poffeffion of the country, cut off the foragers, and reduced the be-. siegers to the necellity of abandoning their de. fign, or of starving in their camp. A council' was called in this exigence,, by which it was foon determined to come to an engagement, for there was indeed nothing else in their power : and therefore the army was immediåtely drawn off from before the place, and marched against the enemy, who, de termining to give them battle, waited only for the attack.

The battle lasted not long before Preston's troops gave way, and fled first to

a bog, and then over the Barrow, where he broke down the bridge behind him, and left the marquis to fupply himself with neceffaries from E.6.


receive any

the country, which was now wholly at his mercy.

But the distrefs and poverty of the army was the same after the victory as before it'; for, though the country, which was now open to them, furnished them with provisions for their retreat, yet, being naked and exhausted, it would not supply any flores for a longer support, and therefore they returned. to Dublin, where they found the fame distress; and where they were again to represent, to remonstrate, to petition, and to ftarve. The justices were unwilling that the king should

information of the state of the nation, cr of the army; and therefore the marquis of Ormond, who was not equally inclined to make his fovereign contemptible, fent, without their concurrence, such a narrative as was concerted by him with feveral of the privy. council.

This, with other accounts which had been transmitted, had such an effect, that Sir Wil. liam Parsons was at length removed from his poft of lord-justice, and was succeeded by Sir Henry Tichbourne, who had more affection for the king's service. But the change of one of the governors, though it might set the marquis free from fome embarrasments, could contribute very little to the support of the army, whose necessities grew every day more preffing, and whose hopes of relief became more diftant; for the Papists enlarged their


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quarters on every fide, and the imprudence of.
fome officers, and the barbarity of others, by.
whom the Protestants were commanded, was
fuch, that they were perpetually encreasing
that hatred which, among bigots, was naturally
raised by the imputation of heresy, and dir-
posed multitudes to rise against them, who had
of themselves no inclination to war, or neces-
fity of living by plunder.
Distress thus hourly

, encreasing; and the enemy, though they were often driven out of the field, yet returning to it with greater numbers, it was at length thought convenient by the king, that a cessation of arms should be proposed ;, and a commission to treat was sent to the marquis of Ormond, who thought it necessary, but knew not how to set it on foot without inconvenience or disgrace to his sovereign.

It was necessary, to the king's honour, that the first offer should be made by the rebels ; and it was likewise proper, that the council should own, in some folemn manner, their conviction of the impracticability of establishing the peace of the nation by any

other means. In order to procure the first overtures from the Irish, agents were employed who, after long deliberation, prevailed upon them to propose a cessation for twelve months ;, and, that the justices might have no pretences that a negotiation of such importance was set on foot, either without their concurrence, or in opposition to their advice, the marquis first


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