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garland, “If these things are granted (says he) we may have the title of a king, and be waited upon bareheaded; we may have our hand kissed, and have swords and maces carried before us, but as to real power we should remain but the outside, the picture, the sign, of a king.”. His majesty therefore rejected them in the gross, with this sovereign reply, “ Nolumus leges Angliæ mutari.”
The propositions relating to religion are these :
Prop. 4. “ That he or they to whom the government and education of the king's children shall be committed, be approved of by both houses of parliament, and in the intervals of parliament by the majority of the privy-council; and that such servants against whom the houses have any just exception be removed*.
Prop. 5. “ That the marriages of the king's children be with consent of parliament, under penalty of a premudire on such as shall conclude them otherwise, and not to be pardoned but by parliament.
Prop. 6. “ That the laws in force against Jesuits, priests, and Popish recusants, be strictly put in execution, without any toleration or dispensation to the contrary; and that some more effectual course may be enacted by authority of parliament, to disable them from making any disturbance in the state, or eluding the laws by trusts or otherwise.
Prop. 7. “ That the votes of Popish lords in the house of peers may be taken away, so long as they continue Papists; and that your majesty will consent to such a bill as shall be drawn, for the education of the children of Papists by Protestants, in the Protestant religion.
Prop. 8. “ That your inajesty will be pleased to consent, that such a reformation be made of the church government and liturgy as both houses of parliament shall advise, wherein they intend to have consultation with divines, as is expressed in their declaration for that purpose ; and that your majesty will contribute your best assistance for the raising of a sufficient maintenance for preaching ministers through the kingdom ; and that your majesty will be pleased to give your consent to the laws, for the taking away of innovations and superstitions, and of pluralities, and against scandalous ministers.”
To these propositions his majesty replied as follows:
To the fourth and fifth, concerning the education and disposal of his children, " that he had committed them to the care of persons of quality, integrity, and piety, with special regard to their education in the principles of the true Protestant religion, but that he would never part with that trust, which God, nature, and the laws of the land, had placed in him; nor would he suffer any to share with him in his power of treaties; but he assured them, that he would not entertain any treaty of marriage for his children without due regard to the Protestant religion, and the
• Rushworth, part 3. vol. 1. p. 793.
honour of his family; and that he would take such care of the prince of Wales, and his other children, as should justify him to God as a father, and to his dominions as a king.”
To the sixth proposition, concerning Popish recusants, his majesty admitted, “ that if they could find any more effectual course to disable them from disturbing the state, or eluding the laws, by trust or otherwise, he ought to give his consent to it.'
To the seventh, concerning the votes of Popish lords, his majesty replied, 66 that he was informed, those lords had prudently withdrawn from the house of peers, but he did not conceive that a law against the votes of any, where blood gave them their right, was so proper, in regard of the privilege of parliament; however, his majesty was content, that as long as they did not conform to the doctrine and discipline of the church of England, they should not sit in the house of peers, but only vote by proxy
As for a bill for the educating the children of Papists in the Protestant religion, he should be very glad of it, and would encourage it."
To the eighth proposition, touching reformation of church government and liturgy, his majesty refers them to his declaration of December 1, in which he had declared, " that he was willing to remove illegal innovations; that if his parliament advised him to call a synod to examine into such ceremonies as gave offence, he would take it into consideration, and apply himself to give due satisfaction therein ; but he was persuaded in his conscience, that no church could be found upon earth, that professed the true religion with more purity of doctrine than the church of England; nor where the government and discipline are more beautified, and free from superstition, than as they are here established by law; which his majesty is determined with constancy to maintain, as long as he lives, in their purity and glory, not only against all innovations of Popery, but from the irreverence of those many schismatics and separatists wherewith of late this kingdom and the city of London abound, for the suppression of whom bis majesty requires the assistance of his parliament. As for such matters in religion which were in their own nature indifferent, his majesty refers them to his first declaration, printed by advice of his privy-council, in which he had declared, that he was willing, in tenderness to any number of his loving subjects, to admit that some law might be made for the exemption of tender consciences from punishment or prosecution for such ceremonies ; provided it be attempted and pursued with that modesty, temper, and submission, that the peace and quiet of the kingdom be not disturbed, the decency and comeliness of God's service discountenanced, nor the pious, sober, devout actions of the first reformers scandalized and defamed. His majesty adds, that he had formerly referred the composing the present distractions about church government and liturgy to the wisdom of the parliament, but desired he might not be pressed to any single act
on his part, till the whole be so digested and settled by both houses, that his majesty may clearly see what is fit to be left as well as what is fit to be taken away. His majesty observes with satisfaction, that they desire only a reformation, and not, as is daily preached in conventicles, a destruction of the present discipline and liturgy, and promises to concur with his parliament in raising a sufficient maintenance for preaching ministers, in such manner as shall be most for the advancement of piety and learning; but as for the other bills, against superstitious innovations and pluralities, bis majesty can say nothing to them, till he sees them.”
It was now apparent to all men, that this controversy, which had hitherto been debated by the pen, must be decided by the sword ; for this purpose the queen was all this while in Holland negotiating foreign supplies : her majesty pledged the crownjewels, and with the money arising from thence purchased a small frigate of thirty-two guns, called the Providence, and freighted it with two hundred barrels of powder, two or three thousand arms, seven or eight field-pieces, and some ready money for the king's service, all which were safely conveyed to his majesty at York, about the beginning of June. The parliament had been advertised of the queen's proceedings, and acquainted the king with their advices; which at first he was pleased to disown, for in his declaration of March 9, he tells the parliament, “ Whatsoever you are advertised from Paris, &c. of foreign aids, we are confident no sober honest man in our kingdom can believe, that we are so desperate, or so senseless, as to entertain such designs as would not only bury this our kingdom in certain destruction and ruin, but our name and posterity in perpetual scorn and infamy *.” One would think by this that the king did not know what was doing with the crown-jewels, though they were carried over with his leave, and, as Mr. Whitelocke † says, that with them and the assistance of the prince of Orange, a sufficient party might be raised for the king. But in this answer, as in most others, his majesty had his ambiguities and reservations. I
It was the king's great misfortune never to get possession of a
Clarendon, vol. 1. part 2. p. 445. 462.
+ Memorials, p. 52. Bishop Warburton contends that by “ foreign aids” the king understood, what the parliament certainly meant, foreign troops. His lordship therefore asserts, " there is no ambiguity here ; but there is neither end nor measure (he adds) to this historian's prejudices and false representations." The exact state of the mat. ter is, that the parliament in their declaration do use the words " foreign force," and explicitly mention the loan of four thousand men apiece by the kings of France and Spain. The king in his answer says, only in general, “ that whatever their advertisements from Rome, &c. were, he was confident no sober honest man," &c. without using, as Mr. Neal inaccurately represents him doing, the terms “ foreign aids." But will it follow from hence, that the king's answer was free from ambiguity and reservation, or Mr. Neal's charge false ? If what Mr. Whitelocke says were true, there was a duplicity and ambiguity in the king's reply: and it consisted in this, not in the use of an equivocal term, but in censuring the measures, of which he was suspected, as senseless, desperate, and pernicious; at the same time he was actually taking such or similar steps.-Ed.
convenient place of strength upon the coast. The governor of Portsmouth declaring for him, the parliament immediately ordered the militia of the county to block up the place by land, while the earl of Warwick did the same by sea, so that it was forced to surrender for want of provisions, before the king could relieve it. The like disappointment befel his majesty at Hull
, which he besieged a second time, July 4*, with three thousand foot and about one thousand horse, while sir J. Pennington the king's admiral blocked it up by sea; but the governor drawing up the sluices laid the country under water, and obliged the army to retire. This was a severe disappointment, because his majesty had sent word to the parliament, June 14, that “ by the help of God and the law, he would have justice upon those that kept him out of Hull, or lose his life in requiring it to
On the other hand the commons, upon the desertion of the king's friends, ordered a general call of the house, June 16, and that every member should answer to his name on forfeiture of 1001. The lords ordered the nine peers that went after the great seal, to appear at their bar, June 8, and for their nonappearance [June 27] deprived them of their privilege of voting in the house during the present parliament. As the commons had taken all imaginable precautions to hinder the king from getting the forts and magazines of the kingdom into his possession, they ordered all suspected places to be searched for arms and ammunition ; in the archbishop's palace at Lambeth they seized arms for about five hundred men, and lodged them in the Tower of London ; in Cobham-hall they seized five cart-loads of arms; and below Gravesend about one hundred pieces of cannon. As soon as they heard the king had received supplies from beyond sea, and was preparing to besiege Hull, they ordered their ordinance for raising the militia to be put in execution in Essex (June 7] when all the regiments appeared full, besides a great number of volunteers, who declared they would stand by the parliament in this cause with their lives and fortunes. The king forbade the militia's appearing in arms without his consent, according to the statute 7 Eliz. cap. 1, and issued out commissions of array, according to an old statute of 5 Henry IV. appointing several persons of quality to array, muster, and train the people in the several counties: but the parliament by a declaration endeavoured to prove these commissions to be illegal, contrary to the petition of right, and to a statute of this present parliament; and went on with mustering the militia in several other counties, where the spirit of the people appeared to be with them. The execution of these counter-commissions occasioned some skirmishes wherever the two parties happened to meet.
On the 10th of June, 1642, the parliament published proposals
According to Dr. Grey, there is an error in this date; for the king issued a prorlamation of his intention to besiege Hall, upon the 11th of July ; so could not my rinun to it upon the 4th. ED.
+ Hushworth, p. 601.
for borrowing money upon the public faith at eight per cent. interest, allowing the full value of the plate, besides one shilling per ounce consideration for the fashion.' Upon information of this, the king immediately wrote to the lord mayor of London, to forbid the citizens lending their money or plate, upon pain of hightreason; notwithstanding which such vast quantities were brought into Guildhall within ten days, that there were hardly officers enough to receive it. Mr. Echard computes the plate at 11,000,0001. which is monstrous, for in reality it was but 1,267,3261.: the gentry of London and Middlesex brought in the best of their plate, and the meaner sort their gold rings, thimbles, and bodkins. Lord Clarendon says, this zeal of the people arose from the influence and industry of their preachers; which might be true in part, though it was rather owing to a quick and feeling apprehension of the danger of their liberties and religion, by an inundation of Popery and arbitrary power.
The king also tried his credit with the people, by publishing a declaration inviting his subjects to bring in their money, plate, horses, and arms to York, upon the security of his forests and parks for the principal, and eight per cent. interest, with very little success, except among the courtiers and the two universities.
July 7, bis majesty sent letters to the vice-chancellor and heads of colleges in Oxford, desiring them to lend him their public stock, engaging upon the word of a king to allow them eight per cent. for that and all other sums of money that any private gentleman or scholar should advance. Hereupon it was unanimously agreed in convocation, to entrust bis majesty with their public stock, amounting to 8601. which was immediately delivered to Mr. Chaworth, his majesty's messenger. The several colleges also sent his majesty their plate; and private gentlemen contributed considerable sums of money, to the value of above 10,0001. * The two houses of Westminster being informed of these proceedings, published an ordinance, declaring this act of the university "a breach of trust, and an alienation of the public money, contrary to the intent of the pious donors, and therefore not to be justified by the laws of God or man;" that it was also contrary to their engagements, for the university being yet in the hands of the parliament, the lord Say, and his deputy-lieutenants had been with the several masters and heads of houses, and obtained a solemn promise from each of them, that their plate should be forthcoming, and should not be made use of by the king against the parliament; and yet contrary to their engagement they sent it away privately to York, where it arrived July 18, as appeared by his majesty's most gracious letter of thanks to As soon as the two houses were informed of this, they sent for the four principal managers of this affair into custody, viz. Dr. Prideaux bishop of Worcester, Dr. Samuel Fell dean of Cbrist-church, Dr. Frewen, and Dr. Potter, who absconded, and
Clarendon, vol. 2. p. 88.
† Rushworth, part 3. vol. 1. p, 759.