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where not being thoroughly satisfied in some of their principles he returned to England 1631, and having embraced the religion of the church of England, published an excellent treatise entitled, “ The Religion of Protestants a safe way to Salvation,” for which he was preferred to the chancellorship of the church of Sarum, and made master of Wygston-hospital in Leicester. He was inserted in the list with other loyalists to be created D. D. in the year 1642, but came not thither to receive that honour. It was the general opinion of the times that he was a Socinian, but in his last letter at the end of his works, he appears an Arian. It is very certain he refused to subscribe the thirty-nine articles, for some years after his conversion, (1.) Because he did not believe the morality of the fourth commandment. (2.) Because he did not agree to the damnatory clauses in the Athanasian creed, and therefore could not read the common prayer. He objected also to the twentieth article, of the church's power to decree rites and ceremonies ;" to the nineteenth article, - that works done before the grace of Christ, &c. are not pleasing to God ;” and indeed, says the writer of his life, to the articles in general, as an imposition on men's consciences, much like the authority which the church of Rome assumes*.
Mr. Chillingworth blesses God, that when he had entertained some thoughts of subscription, two unexpected impediments diverted him from it ; " for (says he) I profess since I entertained it I never enjoyed quiet day nor night, till now that I have rid myself of it again ; and I plainly perceive, that if I had swallowed this pill, howsoever gilded over with glosses and reservations, and wrapped up in conserves of good intentions and purposes, yet it would never have agreed nor stayed with me, but I should have cast it up again, and with it whatsoever preferment I should have gained as the wages of unrighteousness ; but now, I thank God, I am resolved, that I will never do that while I am living and in health, which I would not do if I was dying: and this I am sure I would not do, and therefore whenever I make such a preposterous choice, I will give you leave to believe, that I am out of my wits, or do not believe in God—t.”. Notwithstanding these resolutions, he was prevailed with to subscribe, by his godfather archbishop Laud, to qualify him for the above-mentioned preferments. How the pill was gilded over is not certain ; the writer of his life says he subscribed as articles of peace not of belief. Mr. Chillingworth was a quick disputant, and of very high principles, for in one of his sermons before the king, he says, that " the most unjust and tyranvical violence of princes may not be rejected ; this being unlawful, even though princes be most impious, tyrannical, and idolatrous.” But though his political principles were high, he was low enough with regard to the authority of councils, fathers, and convocations, in matters of faith : adhering steadfastly to that celebrated declaration, “ that the Bible alone is the religion of a Protestant.” He was an excellent mathematician, and served as engineer in Arundel-castle in Sussex, in which he was taken prisoner, and when indisposed had the favour of being lodged in the bishop's house at Chichester, where he died January 20, 1643-4. It is surprising, that lord Clarendon should say, “ The parliament-clergy prosecuted him with all the inhumanity imaginable, so that by their barbarous usage he died within a few days* ;" when, as he himself acknowledged, he wanted for nothing; and by the interest of Dr. Cheynel, who attended him in bis sickness, was courteously usedt. The doctor would have reasoned him out of some of his principles, but could not prevail, and therefore at his interment, after a reflecting speech upon his character, threw his book, entitled “ The Religion of Protestants a safe way to Salvation,” into the grave, saying, “ Get thee gone, thou cursed book, which has seduced so many precious souls; earth to earth, dust to dust; get thee into the place of rottenness, that thou mayest rot with thy author, and see corruption." A most unchristian and uncharitable imprecation !
Chillingworth's Life, p. 273.
+ Ibid. p. 79.
Among the considerable statesmen who died this year, may be justly reckoned John Hampden, esq. of Buckinghamshire, a gentleman of good extraction, and one of the greatest patriots of his age, as appears by his standing trial with the king in the case of ship-money, which raised his reputation to a very great height throughout the kingdom. He was not a man of many words, but a very weighty speaker; his reputation for integrity universal, and his affections so publicly guided, that no corrupt or private ends could bias them. He was indeed a very wise man, of great parts and modesty, and possessed of the most absolute spirit of popularity, says lord Clarendon, I ever knew. He was one of the impeached members of the house of commons, and in the beginning of the war took the command of a regiment, and performed the duty of a colonel on all occasions punctually, being a man of great personal courage, not to be tired out by the most laborious, and of parts not to be imposed upon by the most subtle, but because he fought against the court, lord Clarendon says (if this be not an interpolation of the editors) that he had a head to contrive, a tongue to persuade, and a hand to execute, any mischief*. Which is very unaccountable in one whom his lordship had commended as a person not only of cheerfulness and affability, but of extraordinary sobriety and strictness of life. Mr. Hampden was certainly in all respects one of the greatest and best men of his age, and the parliament sustained an irreparable loss in his death, which happened June 24, about a week after his shoulder-boné had been broken by a musket-ball, in a skirmish with prince Rupert's forces in Calgrave-field.
Chillingworth's Life, p. 314. 325. + Dr. Cheynel's kindness extended to the procuring a commodious lodging for Mr. Chillingworth ; to engaging the physician, as his symptoms grew worse, to renew his visits; and to securing for him the rites of burial, which some would have denied him. Yet be held the opinions of Mr. Chillingworth in the greatest detestation, and treated his name and memory with virulence and asperity, as appears from the above speech at the interment of this great man, and by a pamphlet he published, entitled, " Chillingworthi Novissima; or the sickness, heresy, death, and burial, of William Chillingworth,” &c. which Bishop Warburton calls" a vil. lanous book ;” and tells us, that “Mr. Locke speaks of it in the harshest terms, but not more severely than it deserves." The fact is, as bishop Hoadley states it, “ Dr. Cheynel was a rigid zealous Presbyterian ; exactly orthodox; very unwilling that any should be supposed to go to heaven but in the right way. And this was that one way, in which he himself was settled ; and in which he seems to be as sincere, and honest, and charitable, as his bigotry and his cramped notions of God's peculium could permit him to be.” Years after this Dr. Snape, a clergyman of name in the church of England, displayed the like temper and spirit to Dr. Cheynel, in the Bangorian controversy ; which I mention to introduce bishop Hoadley's excellent conclusion from both these instances of bigotry; namely, " that an intemperate heat scorches up charity in one church, as well as in another; and every where equally lays waste the most amiable duties of Christianity: and that men of the most opposite persuasions, agreeing in the same narrowdess of principles and notions of zeal, though differing from one another in many particulars, even to a degree of mutual destruction, can kindly and lovingly unite in condemning the best principles of all religion as subtle atheism, or indifference, or infidelity; and in declaring them to be the principles of all irreligion, when their several schemes and systems are likely to suffer from them.” So the sentiments on toleration, charity, and free inquiry, as they were defended by Chillingworth and by Hoadley's friend, were condemned by Cheynel
and Snape. Hoadley's works, vol. 2. p. 622, folio ; and Palmer's Nonconformists' Memorial, vol. 2. p. 466.—Ed.
John Pym, esq. member for Tavistock in all the parliaments of king Charles I. was a man of the greatest experience in parliamentary affairs of any man of his time. He was an admirable speaker, and by the gravity of his countenance and graceful behaviour, could turn the house which way he pleased; he was a man of business and for moderate measures, according to lord Clarendon, till the king impeached him of high treason. In his private life he was eminent for true piety and exactness of manners; and though inclined to the Puritan party, not averse to the hierarchy with some emendations. He was one of the lay-members of the assembly of divines, and at the head of all public business, the fatigue of which wore out his constitution, and put an end to his life, December 8, 1643, in the sixtieth year of his age.
The news of no man's death was more welcome to the royOldmixon's History of the Stuarts, p. 227. Dr. Grey endeavours to establish the authenticity of this passage by a large quotation from the Weekly Miscellany, by Richard Hooker, of the Temple, esq. -To Mr. Neal's account of Hampden it may be added, that he was born in the year 1594, and died the 24th of June 1643, leaving ten children behind him. The parliament, as a testimony of his service to the public, ordered the sum of 5,0001. to be paid to his assignees out of the excise. Mr. Baxter has placed him with the saints in heaven (Everlasting Rest, p. 82, 83); and lord Cobham with the worthies in his elysium at Stow. Under his bust is this inscription :
" JOHN HAMPDEN, “Who with great spirit, and consummate abilities, began an opposition to an arbi. trary court, in defence of the liberties of his country; supported them in parliament, and died for them in the field."
He argued the case of ship-money with the judges for twelve days together, in the exchequer-chamber: and “had more reason to triumph (says Mr. Granger), from his superiority in the argument, than the crown had for its victory in the cause." Biographical History of England, vol. 2. p. 212, 8vo. and Mrs. Macaulay's History, 8vo. vol. 3. p. 432, 433, note, in which work the character of this great man is fully delineated. -Ed.
alists than his, who spread a report, that he died of the morbus pediculosus* ; to confute which aspersion, his body was exposed to public view for many days, and at last interred in the most honourable manner in Westminster-abbey. A little before his death, he published his own vindication to the world, against the many slanders that went abroad concerning him, wherein "he declares himself a faithful son of the Protestant religion, and of the orthodox doctrine of the church of England. He confesses he had been for reforming abuses in the government of the church, when the bishops, instead of taking care of men's souls, were banishing their bodies into the most desolate places ; bringing in new canons, Arminian and Pelagian errors, and such a number of rites and ceremonies as the people were not able to bear.—When since that time they had, as much as in them lay, fomented the civil differences between the king and his parliament, abetting and encouraging malignants with large supplies of men and money, and stirring up the people to tumults by their seditious sermons. For these reasons (says he) I gave my opinion for abolishing their functions, which I conceive may as well be done as the dissolution of monasteries, monks, and friars, was in king Henry the Eighth's time. He concludes with declaring, that he was not the author of the present distractions; with acknowledging the king for his lawful sovereign, but thinks, when he was proscribed for a traitor, merely for the service of his country, no man can blame him for taking care of his own safety, by flying for refuge to the protection of parliament, who were pleased to make his case their own.”
THE OXFORD PARLIAMENT. PROGRESS OF THE WAR. VISITA
TION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE BY THE EARL OF MANCHESTER. COMMITTEES FOR PLUNDERED, SEQUESTERED, AND SCANDALOUS MINISTERS.
The campaign being ended without any prospect of peace, both parties endeavoured to strengthen themselves by new and sove
• Dr. Grey has the candour to discredit this report ; and says, from the funeral sermon for Mr. Pym by Mr. Marshal, that it was confuted by the testimony of near a thousand people who saw the corpse, and of eight physicians who were present at the opening of the body. Yet the doctor repeats, from Clarendon, the calumnies of those who accused him of raising considerable sums by dishonest practices, of corrupting witnesses, and selling his protection for bribes ; though he was exculpated before the tribunal of parliament, vindicated his conduct by his own pen, and left his private fortune at so low an ebb, that the parliament expended a considerable sum in the payment of his debts; an evidence sufficient of itself to confute his enemies. Mr. Pym was called, in early life, Phæbi deliciæ, lepos puellæ. He was commonly called “King Pym;" and from his experience in the forms of parliament, his knowledge of the law and constitution, his powers of argument and clocution, and his known honesty and integrity, he enjoyed an unrivalled authority in the lower house. Mrs. Macaulay, vol. 4. p. 92, 94 ; and Granger's Biographical History, vol. 2. p. 211.-ED.
reign acts of power. The parliament experiencing the want of a great seal, for many purposes, gave orders that one should be made*. They continued to list soldiers, to levy taxes, and to use every method to support their causet, which their policy suggested, and their necessity urged. On the other hand, the king raised contributions without form of law † ; ordered the removal of the courts of justice from Westminster; and that he might seem to act in a parliamentary way, summoned the members who had been expelled the houses, and all others willing to withdraw from the rebellious city of London, to meet him at Oxford S, January 22, 1643—4, which was, in effect
, disannulling the act for continuing of the present parliament. In obedience to the proclamation, there appeared forty-nine peers, and one hundred and forty-one of the house of commons, not reckoning those employed in his majesty's service, or absent with leave. Lord Clarendon says ||, the appearance of both houses with the king was superior in number, as well as quality, to those at Westminster ; which must be a mistake; for though the majority of peers were on that side, Mr. Whitelocke, assures us, that upon a call of the house of commons, the very day the others were to meet at Oxford, there were present two hundred and eighty members, not reckoning one hundred more, who were engaged in their service in the several counties.
This is a very considerable majority; though if there had been only forty, the king could not bave prorogued or dissolved them, without their own consent. However, the Oxford members styled themselves the parliament, lord Littleton being speaker for the peers, and serjeant Evers for the commons**.
Their first step was to satisfy the world they desired peace, such a peace, to use the king's own words tt, " wherein God's true religion may be secured from the danger of Popery, sectaries, and innovations: the crown
Rashworth, vol. 5. p. 560. of “What was all this (says Dr. Grey) but high treason ?" To confirm his opinion he refers to Dr. Wood's Institute of the Laws of England, and to the 25th of Edw. III. cap. 2, as authorities to shew, that the acts of parliament were acts of treason. As if laws formed to preserve the allegiance of the subject to a king act. ing constitutionally and fulfilling faithfully his part of the political contract, applied to extraordinary emergencies and to a sovereign who had violated the constitution. As if laws made to restrain individuals bound the majority of the representative body of the nation. See also Rapin, vol. 2. p. 494, folio.-Ed.
'" And pray (asks Dr. Grey), what form of law had the rebels for raising contributions ? That form of law, our readers will probably reply, and that spirit of the constitution, which invest the representatives of the people with the power and right of appointing the taxes.-ED.
$ The impolicy of this step is forcibly, though somewhat jocularly, represented by Mr. Selden : " The king calling his friends from the parliament (said this great man), because he had use of them at Oxford, is as if a man should have use of a little piece of wood, and he runs down into the cellar, and takes the spigot : in the meantime all the beer runs about the house : when his friends are absent the king will be lost.” Table-talk on the word King.-ED. || Clarendon's Remains, p. 165.
| Memoirs, p. 76. ** Rushworth, p. 567. 688. Rapin, p. 496. 502, folio. Oldmixon's History of the Stuarts, p. 246.
# On another occasion, in his speech to the inhabitants of Somersetshire, July 13, 1644.-ED. VOL. II.