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fra God stich be musicmeister deiser to the arms. He sent that abt to Lood, and next day to Windsor being see to the con of EET se told them that the Lord bed left them: that be suid w prosper thar coasutatioes, but destroy the bs discos among themselves because they had sought to destroy the people of God. those who had stood by theon in their greatest discuits He then went to the general, ad without noting his hat tow biz, that God was bigbls dis pleased with him for compitting of saints to prison. The like message be delivered to Croate requiring bit to take effectual means for the enlargement of the Decabers of the arms, who were committed for sot depiring with the general council He then took his lare of the cécars teising them. he had now dose his errand, and must never see them any more. After which be went to London, and took leave of his friends there, teiling them his work was dose, and desiring some of them to be careful of his wife. Thursdas December 6. be returned to Lford in perfect health ; next day he toid his wife, that be bad nos Enished his work, and must go to his father. Saturday morning. December 11, he was taken speechless, and about four in the afternoon be died
CHAPTER X. THE SECOND CIVIL WAR THE CONCLUSION OF THE ASSEMBLY
OP DIVINES. THE PROGRESS OF PRESBYTERY. THE TREATY OP THE ISLE OF WIGHT. DEATH AND CHARACTER OF KING CHARLES I. HIS WORKS, AND THE AUTHORS OF HIS UNHAPPY
SUFFERINGS. AXXO 1648. The king was all last winter a close prisoner in Carisbrook-castle, attended only by two servants of bis own, and debarred of all other conversation, without the knowledge of the governor ; nevertheless, by the assistance of some particular friends, he sent and received several letters from the queen, though his correspondence was discovered oftener than he was aware. His majesty made several attempts to escape, but was always prevented; captain Burley attempted to raise the island for him, but was apprehended and executed. However, in pursuance of the secret treaty with the Scots, already mentioned, an army was raising in that kingdom, to be commanded by duke Hamilton; but the English cavaliers, impatient of delay, without concerting proper measures among themselves, or with the Presbyterians, took up arms in several counties, to deliver the king from his confinement, and to restore him without any treaty with his parliament. The Welch appeared first, under major-general Langhorn, colonel Poyer, and Powel, three officers in the parliament-army, who had
• Rashworth, p. 944.
privately accepted commissions from the prince of Wales *. These were followed by others in Dorsetshire, Devonshire, Sussex, Surrey, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Kent, Northamptonshire, Essex, and in the city of London itself. The insurrection in the city began on Sunday April 9, in Moorfields, by a company of young fellows with clubs and staves crying out, for God and king Charles. But after they had done some mischief in the night, and frighted the mayor into the Tower, they were dispersed next morning by the general at the head of two regiments. The Kentish men under the earl of Norwich, having plundered some houses were defeated near Maidstone, and having a promise of pardon, the main body laid down their arms ; notwithstanding which the earl with five hundred resolute men crossed the Thames at the Isle of Dogs, and came as far as Mile-end Green, expecting assistance from the city ; but being disappointed, he joined the Essex cavaliers under sir Charles Lucas and lord Capel, who surprised the parliament's committee at Chelmsford, and then shut themselves up in Colchester, where they maintained themselves against general Fairfax for ten weeks, till being reduced to the last extremity, they were forced to surrender at discretion, August 28t; after which the general marched round about the country, and having quieted all insurrections in those parts, returned to his head-quarters at St. Albans about Michaelmas. While Fairfax was in Kent and Essex, lieutenant-general Cromwell reduced the Welch about the end of June. At the same time, the earl of Holland and duke of Buckingham appeared at the head of five hundred horse and some foot near Kingston-upon-Thames, but they were soon dispersed; the earl was taken prisoner at St. Neot's in Huntingdonshire by colonel Scroop, and the duke of Buckingham, with great difficulty, escaped into the Low Countries. About the same time several of the parliament's ships revolted to the prince of Wales, then in Holland, who went on board, and with prince Rupert, lord Hopton, and others, sailed to the coast of
Rushworth, p. 1007. + Dr. Grey is displeased with Mr. Neal, that he does not inform his readers, what use general Fairfax made of the power with which this unconditional surrender invested him. He seized sir Charles Lucas and sir George Lisle, and made them instant sacrifices to military justice. All the prisoners exclaimed against this as an unusual piece of severity: and some historians have censured it as a bloody step. Mrs. Macaulay represents it as an instance of the humanity of the general, tbát, though he had been provoked by many irritating circumstances in the conduct of the besieged, he selected the two chief commanders only, to avenge the innocent blood they had caused to be spilt. The fact was, that these two gentlemen had shewn themselves most implacable ; had prevented the soldiers from accepting terms of indemnity offered by the parliament in the beginning; that the besieged had been exposed to the utmost extremities of famine; and that the Independente regarded the engaging the kingdom in a second war as an unpardonable crime. When sir Charles Lucas urged that the sentence of the general was unprecedented, * parlia. ment-soldier standing by told him, " that he had put to death with ba mn hand some of the parliament's soldiers in cold blood." At which he was ditayed A few days after, a gentleman in mourning for sir Charles las sparing in his presence, the king wept. Mrs. Macaulay's History, syl. $.p. Win White. locke's Memorials, p. 328-330.- Ep.
England, with a design to relieve Colchester ; but although disappointed, he landed five hundred men about Deal and Sandwich, and blocked up the Thames' mouth; but when the earl of Warwick came up with the parliament's fleet, he sailed back to Holland, and most of the ships returned to the obedience of the parliament.
It was not without great difficulty that the king's friends in Scotland prevailed with the parliament of that kingdom to consent to the raising an army against England, the commissioners of the kirk and the whole body of their ministers being vehemently against it ; and when it was put to the vote, eighteen lords and forty commoners entered their protests, from a strong suspicion, that by the vast resort of loyalists to Edinburgh, there was a private agreement between Hamilton and that party, to lay aside the covenant, and restore the king without any conditions ; to prevent which the Scots parliament gave express orders, that none should be received into their army, or join with them at their entrance into England, except such as should take the covenant; but Hamilton, who betrayed their cause, found means to evade the order, by which means he ruined himself, and the party he intended to serve
The Scots army entered England July 11th, to the number of twenty thousand foot t and six thousand horse, under the command of duke Hamilton, and were afterward joined by sir Marmaduke Langdale at the head of four thousand foot, and seven or eight hundred horse ; but these being Englishmen and cavaliers who had not taken the covenant, were not incorporated with the Scots forces, but were obliged to march a day before them, which was Hamilton's contrivance to evade his orders; nevertheless, they composed one army, Langdale being to receive all his orders from Hamilton, and to act only by bis directions. But though there was a private understanding between the generals, the subalterns and soldiers of both parties were not acquainted with it, and had the same incurable jealousy of each other as formerly ; from the same motive the Presbyterians in the parliament at Westminster commissioned their army to oppose the Scots, though they came into England with an avowed intention of restoring the king upon the terms of the covenant; which was the supreme object of their wishes,
• Rapin, vol. 2. p. 550. 553, folio. Hamilton's, Memoirs, p. 339.—Bishop Burnet endeavours to exculpate the duke from such a charge, and imputes the miscarriage of the expedition, in which he was leader, to his yielding to the counsels of others. The bishop sets against the report of his betraying the army several instances of his generous and disinterested conduct, in his care to preserve the army and to act for the king's advantage, at the risk of his own liberty and safety. Memoirs of the Duke of Hamilton, p. 365.-ED.
† Dr. Grey here censures Mr. Neal for often speaking at random : because bishop Burnet, on the authority of Turner the adjutant-general, says, that “ the forces of the Scots amounted only to ten thousand foot and four thousand horse." Menoirs of Hamilton, p. 356. But it may afford a sanction to Mr. Neal's representation, that, since he wrote, Mrs. Macaulay and Mr. Hume have given the same estimate of the army, led by duke Hamilton into England. With these agree Whitelocke, Memoirs, p. 327.-Ev.
It may seem surprising, however, that there was no good understanding between the two parliaments, when those of England sent commissioners to Edinburgh to accomplish it; but the Scots, being strongly persuaded that the parliament at Westminster was still governed by an army of Independents, all that Mr. Marshall and the rest could say was not sufficient to divert them from their enterprise, which is the easier accounted for, when the strength of the Hamiltonian faction, and their obligations to the king by their secret treaty, are considered. This engagement appears from the duke's letter to Lambert, in which he acquaints him, that he was commanded to enter England with an army, for maintaining the solemn league and covenant; for settling religion ; for delivering the king from his base imprisonment; and freeing the parliament from the constraint put upon them * The state of affairs had undergone a considerable change by the rising of the English cavaliers; the army was in the field, and divided into several distant parts of the kingdom, and the Presbyterians in as full possession of the government as ever ; they were renewing the treaty with the king, and sending propositions to the Scots to join with them; but the good understanding between the two nations having been interrupted last winter, by the growing influence of the army, who were no friends to covenant-uniformity, the Scots would not be satisfied with the present diminution of their power, unless they were entirely disbanded, and therefore had not changed the instructions to their general. On the other hand, the parliament could not with safety disband their army while the cavaliers were in the field ; nor could they forbid their opposing the Scots, who had joined the common enemy, and were marching into England with an armed force, to deliver the king from his imprisonment, although they had concerted no measures with the two houses, or communicated their secret treaty with his majesty in the Isle of Wight. Thus the two parliaments of England and Scotland opposed each other, when both had the same views, and were actuated by the same principles. If the Scots army had been commanded by a general the Presbyterians could have confided in, and had marched directly for London without joining the cavaliers, the parliament of England would have gladly received them, and the citizens of London have opened their gates; for the English Presbyterians wished them well; but by joining the common enemy, who were in arms all over the kingdom, they were staggered; and duke Hamilton, who betrayed their cause by trilling away a whole month in the north, gave the English army, which was distributed into various parts, time to reunite and defeat all their enterprises t.
The Scots, invading England in this hostile manner, and in the inidst of so many insurrections, awakened men's fears, and made them apprehend the cause was to be fought over again.
• Rushworth, p. 1194.
+ Hamilton's Memoirs, p. 337. 345. 353, &c.
And while the parliament was alarmed on every side, the English army gave them strong assurances they would stand by them, and march wheresoever the committee of the two houses (appointed to manage their motions) should direct. However, general Fairfax, who engaged heartily against the cavaliers, refusing to march against the Scots, because they had openly declared for the covenant, colonel Lambert was ordered into the north, with a flying squadron to harass them, till lieutenant-general Cromwell could come out Wales to his assistance. The Scots having been joined by sir Marmaduke Langdale, who had seized the important town of Berwick, marched through Cumberland and Westmoreland into Lancashire, without opposition ; but upon the 17th of August, Cromwell, having joined Lambert, and refreshed his troops, faced them near Preston with eight or ten thousand men, and after a sharp engagement with the cavaliers under sir Marmaduke Langdale, who were almost a day's march before the duke, routed the whole Scots army, and took eight or nine thousand prisoners, with all their artillery and baggage ; Hamilton fled with three thousand horse, but was so closely pursued by Lambert, that he surrendered without striking another stroke, and all his men were dispersed or made prisoners. Cromwell after this action pursued his victory, marching directly for Edinburgh, which opened its gates; and having entered the city and changed the magistracy to his mind, he left three regiments of horse to keep the country quiet, and returned into England October 11, laden with martial glory and renown *
Before the army left London, and while their influence over the parliament continued, the commons, having taken into consiration the affair of settling the government, voted unanimously, that the government of the kingdom should be still by king, lords, and commons, and that the propositions at Hamptoncourt should be the ground-work for a settlement, which shews, that there was no design, as yet formed, of changing the government into a common-wealth, at least nothing appeared, though the agitators, who were the chief managers of the army, began to mutter, that if the king could not be brought to reason he must be set aside, and the duke of Gloucester, or one of his younger children, placed on the throne t.
The army bad no sooner left the neighbourhood of the city, but the Presbyterians resumed the management of public affairs. May 5, the parliament resolved to maintain the solemn league and covenant, and to unite with the kingdom of Scotland upon the propositions of Hampton-court I The militia of the city of London was restored to the lord-mayor and common-council; the
“So he did (says Dr. Grey), but it was in the same sense that a company of bighwaymen or banditti would return laden with martial glory and honour, after obtaining a good booty from the lawful owners of it.” This remark shews the strain and spirit of Dr. Grey's Examination of Mr. Neal. Lord Clarendon, speak. ing of this transaction, with more truth and candour, calls it “ this great victory." --Ep. + Rushworth, p. 1074.
• Rapin, p. 501, 508. 511. 518.