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Him that you terti'd The good old lord, Gonzalo,
His tears run down his beard, like winter drops
From eaves of reeds : your charm so strongly works

That if you now beheld them, your affections
Would become tender.

Pro. Do'st thou think so, spirit? - Ari. Mine would, sir, were I human.

Pro. And mine shall. Hast thou, which art but air, a touch ș, a feeling Of their afflictions and shall not myself, One of their kind, that relish all as sharply, Passion as they, be kindlier mov'd than thou art ? Though with their high wrongs I am struck to the

quick, Yet, with my nobler reason, 'gainst my fury Do I take part : the rarer action is In virtue than in vengeance : they being penitent,

s a touch, a feeling] A touch is a sensation, So in Cymbeline :

" a touch more rare

" Subdues all pangs, all fears." So in the 1411t sonnet of Shakespeare :

“ Nor tender feeling to base touches prone.” Again in the Civil Wars of Daniel, 6. I: “I know not how their death gives such a touch."

STEEVENS. o that relish all as sharply,

Pasion as they, - - Pasion is a verb in Shakespeare. I feel every thing with the same quick fenfibility, and ain moved by the same passions as they are. So in The Gent. of Verona: .

"Madam, 'twas Ariadne passioning

" For Theseus' perjury," &c. Again, in his Venus and Adonis:

“ Dumbly the passions, frantickly Me doateth." Again, in Love's Labour's Loft, act I. sc.i:

" I passion to say wherewith.” Again, in Spenser's Faery Queen, b. II. c. 9:

“ to see the maid

“ So strangely passioned” A similar thought occurs in K. Rich. II: Tajte grief, need friends, like you,” &c. STEEVENS,


the gre ou dem., do

The fole drift of my purpose doth extend
Not a frown further : Go, release them, Ariel ;
My charms I'll break, their senses I'll restore,
And they shall be themselves.'
Ari. I'll fetch them, fir.

[Exit. Pro. ? Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes,

and groves ; And ye, that on the sands : with printless foot Do chase the ebbing Neptune, and do fly him, When he comes back; you demy-puppets, that By nioon-shine do the green sour ringlets make, Whereof the ewe not bites; and you, whose pastime Is to make midnight niushrooms; that rejoice To hear the solemn curfew ; by whose aid 9(Weak masters though ye be) I have be-dimm'd

The ? Ye elves of bills, of fanding lakes, and groves;] This speech Dr. Warburton rightly observes to be borrowed from Medea's in Ovid: and “ it proves, says Mr. Holt, beyond contradiction, that Shakespeare was perfectly acquainted with the sentiments of the ancients on the subject of inchantments." The original lines are these :

“ Auræque, & venti, montesque, amnesque, lacusque,

“ Diique omnes nemorum, diique omnes noctis adeste.” The translation of which, by Golding, is by no means literal, and Shakespeare hath closely followed it: Ye ayres and winds; ye elves of bills, of brookes, of

- woods alone ; “ Of Landing lakes, and of the night, approche ye everych

" one." FARMER. re clues of hills, &c.] Fairies and elves are frequently in the poets mentioned together, without any distinction of character that I can recollect. Keysler says that alp and alf, which is elf with the Suedes and English, equally signified a mountain, or a dæmon of the mountains. This seems to have been its original meaning; but Somner's Dict. mentions elves or fairies of the mountains, of the woods, of the sea and fountains, without any distinction between elves and fairies. "TOLLET.

with printless foot Do chase the ebbing Neptune,-) So Milton in his Mafque :

" Whilst from off the waters fleet,

“ Thus I set my printless feet.” STEEVENS. 9 (Weak masters though ye be)-) The meaning of this passage may be ; Though you are but inferior masters of these supernatural

H 3


The noon-tide sun, call'd forth the mutinous winds,
And 'twixt the green sea and the azur'd vault
Set roaring war : to the dread rattling thunder
Have I given fire, and rifted Jove's stout oak
With his own bolt ; the strong-bas'd promontory
Have I made shake; and by the fpurs pluck'd up
The pine, and cedar : graves, at my command,
Have wak'd their fleepers ; op'd, and let them forth
By my so potent art : But this rough magick
I here abjure: and, when I have requir'd
Some heavenly mufick, (which even now I do)
To work mine end upon their senses, that
This airy charm is for, I'll break iny staff,
Bury it certain fathoms in the earth,
And, deeper than did ever plummet found,
I'll drown my book.

[Solemn musick.] Re-enter Ariel : after him Alonso with a frantick gesture,

attended by Gonzalo. Sebastian and Anthonio in like manner, attended by Adrian and Francisco. They all enter the circle which Prospero had made, and there

fland charmd; which Prospero observing, speaks. A solemn air, and the best comforter To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains, Now useless, boil'd within thy skull'! there stand, For you are spell-stopp’d. Holy Gonzalo, honourable man, Mine eyes, even sociable to the shew of thine, Fall fellowly drops.—The charm diffolves apace; And as the morning steals upon the night,

powers, - though you potless them but in a low degree. Spenser uses the same kind of expression, b. III. cant. 8. ft. 4.

Where she (the witch) was wont her sprights to entertain,
" The masters of her art: there was fhe fain
" To call them all in order to her aid.” STEEVENS.

- boild within thy skull!] So in the Midsummer Night's Dream: " Lovers and madmen have such feething brains, &c."



Melting the darkness, so their rifing senses
Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle

Their clearer reason. - good Gonzalo,
My true preserver, and a loyal sir

To him thou follow'st; I will pay thy graces Home, both in word and deed.-Most cruelly Didst thou, Alonso, use me and my daughter : Thy brother was a furtherer in the act; Thou'rt pinch'd for’t now, Sebastian. - Flesh and

You brother mine, that entertain'd ambition,
Expelld remorse, and nature; who, with Sebastian,
(Whose inward pinches therefore are most strong)
Would here have kill'd your king; I do forgive thee,
Unnatural though thou art !—Their understanding
Begins to swell, and the approaching tide
Will shortly fill the reasonable shore,
That now lies foul and muddy. Not one of them,
That yet looks on me, or would know me:-Ariel,
Fetch me the hat and rapier in my cell;
I will dis-case me, and myself present, [Exit Ariel.
As I was sometime Milan :- quickly, fpirit;
Thou shalt e'er long be free.

Ariel enters singing, and helps to attire him.
Where the bee fucks, there fuck I;
In a cousip's bell. I lie :
There I couch when ozols do cry.
On the bats back I do fly,

3 After summer, merrily:
Merrily, merrily, Mall I live now,
Under the blossom that hangs on the bough.


2 Thourt pinch'd for't now, Sebastian.-Flesh and blood,] Thus the old copy : Theobald points the passage in a different manner, and perhaps rightly: “ Thou’rt pinch'd for't now, Sebastian, Aesh and blood.

STEEVENS. 3 After summer, merrily:] This is the reading of all the edi. tions. Yet Mr. 'Theobald has substituted fun-jét, because Ariel H4


Pro. Why, that's my dainty Ariel : I shall mifs

thee; But yet thou shalt have freedom: So, fo, fo. To the king's ship, invisible as thou art :

talks of riding on the bat in this expedition. An idle fancy, That circumstance is given only to design the time of night in which fairies travel. One would think the confideration of the circum. stances should have set hiin right. Ariel was a spirit of great delicacy, bound by the charms of Prospero to a constant attendance on his occafions. So that he was confined to the island winter and summer. But the roughness of winter is represented by Shake. speare as disagreeable to fairies, and such like delicatę spirits, who, on this account, constantly follow summer. Was not this then the most agreeable circumstance of Ariel's new-recovered liberty, that he could now avoid winter, and follow summer quite round the globe ? But to put the matter quite out of question, let us conLider the meaning of this line:

There I couch when osuls do cry. Where? in the cotusip's bell, and where the bee fucks, he tells us : this must needs be in summer. When? when owls cry, and this is in winter:

" When blood is nipp'd, and ways be foul,
" Then nightly fings the staring owl."

The Song of Winter in Love's Labour Loft. The consequence is, that Ariel flies after summer. Yet the Oxford Editor has adopted this judicious emendation of Mr. Theobald. WARBURTON.

Ariel does not appear to have been confined to the island, summer and winter, as he was sometimes sent on so long an errand as to the Bermoothes. When he says, On the bat's back I do fly, &c, he speaks of his present situation only, nor ţriumphs in the idea of his future liberty, till the last couplet;

Merrily, merrily, &c. The bat is no bird of passage, and the expression is therefore pro. bably used to signity, not that be pursues summer, but that after summer is past, he rides upon the soft down of a bat’s back, which 'suits not improperly with the delicacy of his airy being.

Shakespeare, who, in his Midfiummer Night's Dream, has placed the light of a glow-worm in its eyes, might, through the jame ignorance of natural history, have supposed the bat to be a bird of passage. Owls cry not only in winter. It is well known that they are to the full as clamorous in summer; and as a proof pf it, Titania, in the Midlfimer Night's Dream, the time of which is supposed to be May, commands her faeries to-keep backe The clamorous owl, that nightly boots. STEEVENS.


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