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ier inspired me when I wrote it. Time, some little glean- quite ignorant of it, and obliged to begin with the alphaings of experience, and the lectures of my worthy father, bet, may learn to read the ancient authors, and to write have removed a load of prejudice, through the dark me- and speak the language, with the same purity and eledium of which I gazed on and judged of every thing. gance that well-educated Greeks now do, in far less time, Well do I remember the orthodox horror with which, on with far less trouble, and with far less danger of conmy first arrival here, I regarded the works of Italian tracting any of that disgust for the study, which is so architects. Their originality now pleases me; though, often the consequence of the dry and difficult mode in strange to say, it was at first the cause of my dislike to which it is usually taught. During a residence of two them. I have been chiefly engaged in drawing, when years in the United States, where I gave lessons, first at the weather permitted, since my arrival in Italy, and the Franklin Institution in Philadelphia, then at the Co have formed a collection of views of the antiquities of lumbian College in New York, and, lastly, at Cambridge, Rome, likewise a few of Naples and Genoa. We know near Boston, my own experience proved the truth of what that, in former times, the sister arts were often pursued I have stated. I have received letters in Greek, pretty successfully hy one man : why not now? For myself, I well expressed, from scholars of three and six months hope and wish to join painting to architecture."
standing; and the same scholars were equally at home in speaking the language. In short, I am quite persuaded,
that whoever wishes it, may become master both of anTHE GREEK LANGUAGE-ANCIENT AND MODERN. cient and modern Greek in a very short time, and that [We have pleasure in laying before our readers a letter from a Greek
the latter can only be properly learnt through the former, gentleman, who has very recently come to Edinburgh with the view
which is its foundation. My Grammar of the modern of giving instructions in that language, and who appears to us to take Greek, and the Orations for the Crown, together with a somewhat novel, but, we think, just view of the proper mode to be
the Prolegomena in modern Greek, seem to me firmly to pursued in the acquisition of this beautiful and interesting tongue.- establish the truth of what I have now advanced, namely, ED. LIT. JOUR.]
that the modern is so incorporated with the ancient, that
it ought to be studied as one and the same language. I TO THE EDITOR OF THE EDINBURGH LITERARY JOURNAL.
shall now, sir, conclude for the present, but will bave Sır,— In the course of the conversation I had with you much pleasure in replying to any questions you may wish yesterday, you asked me, if I mistake not, whether the to put to me upon this subject at any future opportunity. language of Modern Greece differs materially from that Meantime, I have the honour to remain, &c. of the ancient, and whether the difference is similar to
ALEXANDER NEgris. that existing between the Italian and the Latin. In re
Edinburgh, 22d Sept. 1829. ply, I beg to state, that it appears to me very clear that modern Greek neither can nor ought to be considered but as one of those various dialects which, taken together, make the Greek language ; and is, in other words, just
THE DRAMA. one branch of a great tree. Modern Greek, therefore, should not be studied separately, unless by those who It is a pleasant thing to see so many of the “old fami- ? have previously made themselves acquainted with the liar faces" again. It is a pleasant thing to take our staother dialects, and who-being able to read and under- tion once more in our favourite little Theatre, and, restand each of the four ancient dialects in which the chefs- membering the happy hours we have already spent there, u d'æuure of Greek literature are composed— feel also de- anticipate many happy hours yet to come. On Tuesday sirous of acquiring the fifth-that is, the modern-in or- evening last, we were as full of the milk of human kind. 1: der to complete their knowledge of the Greek tongue. ness as a lamb, and our heart bounded within us like the They, on the other hand, who are only beginning to study heart of a child—a manly bright-eyed boy, whom grandGreek, ought unquestionably to consider it as consisting of papa carries off in a coach to see a play for the first or se five dialects, and should be taught to read Homer, Thu- cond time in his life. We positively shook hands with cydides, Demosthenes, and others, not as writers in a Donald the box-keeper, and glad were we to find that the language now extinct, but rather in a language which still Manager had brought down no star from London to fill exists, and is spoken by a whole nation ; for the differ- his place. Much pleased were we to observe Mr Pindar ence between the language in which these authors write, fiddling away once more in the most good-natured style and that which is now spoken, is not so much in the words imaginable, just as if nothing had happened, and to see themselves as in their construction. It is needless to ad- Mr Platt puffing into his delicate flute with the puff of a vert to the objection which has been so often advanced master. Then up went the curtain, and, being in perand refuted, that the pronunciation of the modern Greek haps the most delightful mood we ever were in, Staules, is different from the ancient, as if it were possible that, that funniest of all creatures, made us laugh till the tears after preserving almost every word in the old language, the came over our cheeks. We had scarcely recovered when Greeks should have quite lost sight of its pronunciation, our eyes fell on our old friend Pritchard, whom we are and left that to be discovered by philologians shut up in right glad to see back again ;—whether he be a first-rate their closet. But leaving this question to be decided in any actor or not, he is, at all events, a man of a frank and way that scholars think fit, permit me to remark, that it is gentlemanly bearing, and, in his own parts, is a credit to surely much more natural to learn a language with that our company. Then there was Miss Tunstall, with her pronunciation which, besides being harmonious and beau- clear pipe and good-natured physiognomy ;-we really tiful, is intelligible to a whole nation, than with that pro- can't help liking
her, so we “own the soft impeachment" nunciation which is of no use but in the reading of dead at once. Then there was Mrs Stanley, a fine woman and authors. In both cases, the labour is equal; but in one, a clever, and moreover, a flame of ours about fifteen years the advantage is double. By learning the modern dialect, ago. Then there was Montague Stanley, a nice lad, geta which, as I have already said, is nothing but an appendix ting more easy and graceful, and fit for good things with to the ancient language, we are not only able to enjoy all a little time and experience. And, on Wednesday evel: the modern Greek works, many of which display an ele- ing, was there not Mackay, fresh from Liverpool
, but gance and a beauty truly classical,--such as the poetical with as true a Scotch heart as ever ? and Denham the productions of Chrystopoulos, of Rizos, of Calbos, of judicious, a little unwieldy in tights and silk stockings, Coray, of Coumas, of Economos, and many others,—but but keeping within himself the soul of a King James we are also able to avail ourselves of it in conversation and a Dandie Dinmont? No! we could not be crabbed and correspondence. I am still further of opinion,
that, with these old friends on the first or second night of a by studying .Greek. as a living language, he who is even, season, though the critic's laurel crown were to be the
THE ARAB AND HIS BEARD.
price of our leniency. We were glad even to see Mr Taylor, Mr John Stanley, Mr Power, Mrs Mathews, and the Misses Murray. As for Mrs Nicol and Mrs Eyre, it is long since they have held dominion over the softest portion of our heart. Yet there was a dash of sorrow in our cup of joy. Where was Jones the gentlemanly ?where was his shrill “ ha! ha!" and where his blue or claret-coloured coat, cut so delicately, and fitting so nicely, that it seemed more like the stuff of which a tailor's happiest dreams are made, than a thing of stern reality ? Alas ! Jones is teaching elocution to the Cockneys of London. Where was Mason the facetious ?—where was his caput mortuum face, so full of woe and merriment, that it might make a churchyard laugh?—where was our starved apothecary and our Sir Andrew Ague Cheek? Alas! Mason is “ o'er the border and awa,” in consequence of some slight and mutually-to-be-regretted misunderstanding between him and the Manager. Where was Thorne the obliging ?—where was his “ March to the battle-field,” his prepossessing nose, and his agreeable careless manner ? Alas! Thorne is singing blithely in the English Opera House, “ maybe to return to Lochaber no more.
And where more than all the rest—where was Miss Noel, the gentle and the good ?—where was her sweetly-warbled melody, dear to the Scottish heart, her playful smile, and fine feeling of the truth of nature? Alas! she is in New York, where her husband is lecturing on anatomy, “ across the Atlantic's roar."
Bat a reinforcement of new recruits has been marched up to supply the place of those who are gone; and what are we to say of them? Of Mrs William West we say that she is a pretty woman, somewhat past her best, and on the whole, a pleasing and graceful actress,
ugh in grave and sentimental characters rather too lachrymose and white-pocket-handkerchiefy, and in gayer characters rather too languid and studied. Of Mr Williams we say that he is “ pretty considerable" vulgar, though we daresay he has some humour of a broad and tolerably commonplace kind, and we believe that Scotch characters are his forte. Of Mr M. Rae, from Glasgow, we say that we wish he had left behind him in that city some of his Iri sh brogue, and brought with him a pair of legs capable of moving a little less stiffly through the parts of walking gentlemen. Of Miss Stoker we say that she is a clever little girl, and that we are glad to see her in the way of rising in her profession, but she must not be quite so rompish on the Edinburgh stage as she might be in country towns; her manner is a little trop proshe must soften it down. Of the “
young lady" who made“ her first appearance on any stage" (?)-Miss Weston's younger sister, we believe we say that she is likely to prove an acquisition in the chambermaid line. Of Mr Barton, from Dublin, who is to take the premier role in the company, we say that we do not yet know exactly what to say.
We have seen him only in two characters—the Stranger and Lord Townl-y; we liked him in the first, and were not very well pleased with him in the second; but neither of these characters is well suited to bring out a man's powers. Our judgment rests suspended,-only, we suspect we are going, on the whole, to be pleased with Barton.
On Thursday evening, the first of living actors, KEAN, entered upon an engagement of only six nights. We shall have something to say of him next Saturday. Meantime, we are glad to see him in so much vigour, and expect that hardly an inhabitant of Edinburgh will miss the opportunity of being present at his performances. It was a remark which we heard made by one of the most popular poetesses of the day, that seeing Kean play his
like reading Shakspeare by flashes of lightning."
A STORIE FROM THE ARABYCK TONGUE, COMPYLIT INTILL THE
GUID AULD SCOTYSH TONGUE.
By the Author of“ Anster Fair.”
That I wauken'd wi' the flutter :
And his taile as black 's the gutter.
Gehenna girn'd black in his face.
To shelter themselves for a space ;
As they lay on their beds afeard :
I grippit him bauld by the beard ;
And I gave him a slap on the baffit;
For that o' the Prince o' Tophet!
LINES TO THE BELL-ROCK LIGHT-HOUSE,
SEEN FROM A DISTANCE.
By Robert Chambers. STRANGE fancies rise at sight of thee, Tower of the lonesome, silent sea ! Art thou a thing of earth or sky, Upshot from beneath, or let down from on high A thing of the wave, or a thing of the cloud The work of man, or the work of God? Old art thou ?-has thy blue minaret Seen the young suns of creation set ? Or did but the yester years of time Wake their old eyes on thy youthful prime, Creature of mystery sublime ?
Strange seem thy purposes and fate,
favourite parts, was
No change in thy aspect, place, or form,
And then they all get children, too,
To squall through thick and thin, And seem right proud to multiply
Small images of sin;
Ere half their days are told,
And they are counted old.
The long level sunbeams that gild thee at eve,
balmOr let its bleak pavement be traversed and torn By the white-crested war-waves, from northern seas
borne, Who seem, as they rush to old Albany's strand, A new troop of Norsemen invading the land Or let the rough mood of that long trooping host In the conflict and rage of a tempest be lostAnd to the wild scene deepest darkness be given, Save where God pours his fire through the shot-holes
of heavenIn calm or in breeze—amidst tempest and flameThou art still the same beautiful, terrible same!
A BACHELOR'S COMPLAINT.
That, like the vesper star,
Shed light and joy afar !
THEY'RE stepping off, the friends I knew,
They're going one by one ; They're taking wives to tame their lives,
Their jovial days are done;-
To join me in a spree;
They look askance on me.
He loved her for her golden hair
That o'er her shoulders hung ; He loved her for her happy voice-
The music of her tongue.
He loved her for her airy form
Of animated grace ; He loved her for the light of soul
That brighten'd in her face.
I hate to see them sober'd down
The merry boys and true,–
At pictures fancy drew;
Their puddings and their soups,
In formidable groups.
A comely sort of face,
Conduct herself with grace,
The caution and the state,
Of furniture and plate.
He loved her for her simple beart,—
A shrine of gentle things;
Her gay imaginings.
But not for him that bosom beat,
Or glanced that merry eye, Beneath whose diamond light he felt
It would be heaven to die.
He never told her of his love,
He breathed no prayer--no vow; But sat in silence by her side,
And gazed upon her brow.
0! give me back the days again
When we have wander'd free,
The fruit from every tree ;
They've all deserted me ;
Look stupid, and sip tea.
And when at length she pass'd away,
Another's smiling bride,
By Jove ! they go to bed at ten,
And rise at half past nine ;
A pint or so of wine ;
They very rarely dance,
Nor open a romance.
Of taxes, and of crops ;
They go about to shops ;
And learn'd in butcher meat,
For every thing they eat.
The deeper thoughts that in my bosom lie,
Afloat far off in the cerulean sky.
Within the caverns of the rock-ribb'd hill;-
They feel not summer's heat, nor winter's chill; And when the storm uproots the mountain pine,
Or covers o'er with snow the lofty peak, They rest like liquid diamonds in their mine,
Calm and unchanged, when all without is bleak ;So slumber ye, my thoughts, while all unseeing The cold crowd passes by, and knows not of your being.
H. G, B.
detail, to convey to any one versant in the studies of which they treat a tolerably correct notion of their author's lead
ing doctrines, yet are they ill adapted for communicating The History of the Hebrew Commonwealth, from the Ear- to tyros full and satisfactory information. They are liest Times to the Destruction of Jerusalem, 1. D. 72. rather a mere outline, to be filled up by oral communicaTranslated from the German of John Jahn, D.D., for- tions; or a thread to guide the hearers through the lamerly Professor of the Oriental Languages, of Biblical byrinthine mazes of the lecturer's dissertations. There Antiquities, and of Theology, in the University of Vic are many advantages attending this mode of instruction, enna: with a Continuation to the time of Adrian. Two which combines the facility and charm of oral communivolumes. London. Hurst, Chance, and Co.
1829. cation with the systematic and solid character of bookFamily Library. No. VI. History of the Jews. Vol learning. We think it but fair to apprise the English II. London. John Murray. 1829.
public of these facts, lest they should be led to judge of a
work as an independent whole, which was only meant to The first of these works is a reprint of a translation be used along with the running comment of a lecturer's originally published in America, which was executed annotations. Such an act of justice is particularly neby Calvin E. Stowe, a pupil of the Andover Theologi- cessary in the case of Dr Jahn, whose work condenses into cal Seminary, under the superintendence of Professor two, not preternaturally extensive volumes, the history Stewart of that Institution, and Professor Gibbs of New- not only of the Jews, but of the revolutions of empire haven. The English publisher informs us, that “ the in the East, from the earliest times down to the conquest whole has been thoroughly revised ;” and intimates that of Jerusalem. this was necessary, in order to render it fit for the
We took occasion lately-while reviewing the first vomore classical English reader. As we have never seen lume of Milman's history of the Jews—to turn our readthe American edition, we are unable to speak of its exe- ers' attention to the leading features in their history precution ; but there is a statement in Mr C. E. Stowe's vious to the Babylonish captivity; and we are not sorry preface, which serves, in some measure, to illustrate the to have so early an opportunity of adding a few observaprinciples upon which he proceeded :—" It is the duty of tions on their subsequent fortunes down to the period of a translator,” he says, to give a faithful representation their final dispersion. There are but scanty materials of his author's meaning, without violating the purity of for constructing the history of the nation during this pehis own language. In executing the following work, I riod. Some brief notices in Ezra, Nehemiah, and the have uniformly endeavoured to make this principle my later prophets; the books of the Apocrypha, as far as any guide ; but I have found it more difficult to adhere to, reliance can be placed upon them ; Josephus, who seems than I supposed it would be, before I commenced the task. to have derived his information, so far as it does not rest There is such a total diversity in the whole mode of con-exclusively upon the information contained in these books, structing sentences in the German and English languages, from floating rumours and traditions; and lastly, a few that it is no easy achievement for a translator to do jus-incidental allusions in the Ethnic writers, form the whole tice to himself, and at the same time remain faithful to of our store. The Rabbinical traditions were collected his original. I hope, however, I can venture to say, that at too late a period to allow of our reposing any confidence I have not failed, in any important instance, to give a in them. true expression of my author's meaning ; but I must leave Professor Jahn is evidently acquainted with all these the reader to judge how far I have succeeded in preser- sources of information, and he has turned them to account ving the purity of the English language.” Every indi- with a critical and discerning spirit. His book, which, vidual, and every nation, have certain idiomatic expres- as we have hinted above, almost deserves to be called a sions, which give a colour as it were to their modes of History of the Political Revolutions of the Eastern World, thought. It is these characteristics which a translator gives a distinct, although extremely condensed, view of finds most difficult to retain, and yet in them not unfre- the internal structure of the Jewish commonwealth, and quently much of an author's power of charming consists. its relations to surrounding states. Being, however, a We are inclined to suspect that Mr Stowe bas ventured mere outline, it leaves on many occasions the reader's occasionally to the weather-side of the English language, mind unsatisfied. We had hoped that Mr Milman's sein order to retain the impress of individuality which the cond volume, as he avowedly confines bimself to the hisoriginal bears ; and that the superintendent of the reprint, tory of the Jews, would have filled up the blanks. We a lover of well-turned sentences and classical English, has regret to say that we have been disappointed. In the ear-' been shocked at the solecisms of the young divine. We lier part of the volume, the narrative is painfully confuare rather afraid that this discussion may appear prosy, sed. This we incline to attribute to the author's attempt but we like to see fair play.
to give a greater individuality to this part than his limits Dr Jahn's work seems (for we have not read the ori- admit of. He ought to have contented himself with taginal), from its extreme condensation, to have been meant king a general and comprehensive view of the stream of ** a text-book for his prelections, while professor at the events, sinking those minor details which are neither inUniversity of Vienna. These text-books form at present Auential nor characteristic. In the latter part of his voa large proportional part of the solid literature of Ger- lume he amends this ; but we fear he gives a greater scope many. Although they treat their subject in sufficient to his rhetorical powers, than the stern simplicity of his
tory warrants. There is, no doubt, an eloquence of his- of Jerusalem. We leave this for the present to Mr Miltory, but it is essentially different from that of poetry; man, who will doubtless do its horrors ample justice in and Mr Milman's partakes more of the latter. This his- his third-volume, which we shall be glad to receive as tory is, indeed, just such a one as we should have ex- soon as published. pected from a poet ; in whose mind vivid and impressive images will always maintain the ascendency over the formless fragments of truth, elicited by painful investiga- The Library of Entertaining Knowledge. Vol. II. Part tion.
II. Vegetable Substances—Fruits. London. Charles The period to which we call our reader's attention, exo Knight. Sept. 1829. 12mo. Pp. 422. tending to well nigh 700 years, is one of great interest to the student of Scripture history, and also to him who loves to pleasure, and, we hope, some edification. It is written in
We have read this treatise upon Fruits with much trace, with a philosophic eye, the gradual change superinduced by time on national character. To him whose knowledge
a good, popular style, preserving a proper medium between of the Jews is derived exclusively from the Old and New too much science and too much superficiality. The two Testaments, there is a wide and impassable gulf between great divisions of the subject are, fruits of the temperate the nation over which the house of David ruled, and that climates, and tropical fruits. The former has four suhir which our Saviour was born. The Canonical Books divisions, fleshy fruits, pulpy fruits, stone fruits, and nuts.
rin a dead silence respecting the long intermediate Altogether, the present volume of this publication, the pera , and present us only with an account of two iso
first Part of which relates to Trees, and the second to lated assemblages of men standing far apart in the wide Fruits, is exceedingly excellent, and of great practical
value. ocean of time.
Their governors are different, and hold their power on different terms; the prophets have ceased; new sects and divisions have arisen among themselves, The Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical and new relations to the external world, and their reli- Science. No. I. Oct. 1829. Edinburgh. Daniel gion, almost the only feature of their social system that Lizars. 8vo. Pp. 80. marks their identity, is altered, not in its own nature, but in their reception of it. Instead of resting, as formerly, tions of men ardent in the pursuit of science; but, con
We do not wish to damp, at the very outset, the exeron their hearts, and spreading its deep root within them, it has become a problem of intellect, a coldly received dog- sidering that two Scientific Journals, conducted by such ma respecting whose precise meaning they dispute and
men as Dr Brewster and Professor Jameson, are at precavil . The Synagogue is
, in their eyes, almost of equal im- sent starving in this country, we cannot help fearing that portance with the service of the Temple. It is no doubt
a degree of youthful enthusiasm, more to be pleased with the same Jewish nation which we saw in earlier time, than to be imitated, has led to the publication of the work fierce, free, and enthusiastic, situated in a land of miracles,
before us. But now that it is begun, let its conductors and well fitted, by its fervid and imaginative tempera- and activity, they will force their way in spite of every
go on with spirit; and if they can evince superior talent ment, for such an abode; but it is with this nation, as with one whom we have known in youth, and having
obstacle. We have read the whole of their first Number, lost sight of him during the interval, meet again in old and with several of the papers it contains we are well age, decrepid, cold, retaining the forms without the vigour of Science and the Arts,” is too vague and general, and,
satisfied. The “ Introductory coup d'æil at the Progress of his earlier intellect,-changed-sadly changed, from the blooming and warm-hearted boy, whom we loved with in point of fact, tells us nothing, but that we are in a difmore than the love of woman.
ferent state now from what we were in the time of Adam Nor should we overlook the different point of view
and Eve. The “ Description of the Landes of Acquifrom which we see them at these two different periods of tania,” by Mr Ainsworth, one of the editors, is a more their history. In the earlier, our attention is riveted on
valuable contribution ; and so are the articles on the the outward appearance of the nation, on its public forms cles," by Mr Kemp, and on the “ Island of Jersey," by
“ Electricity of the Simple and Compound Galvanic Cirand institutions. We behold it as one great whole, one dense and solid structure. Of their household lives and
Mr Alexander Sutherland. Among the “ Scientific Reloves we catch but occasional and hasty glimpses; and views,” all of which are respectably written, the best is rarely can we distinguish amid the hubbub the accents of that on Sir Rufane Donkin's “ Dissertation on the Nian individual voice. In the New Testament, on the con
ger,” in which, although we think Sir Rufane is treated trary, it is to their domestic life that we are introduced.
with too little ceremony, a very considerable knowledge What political institutions could do for man, had been
of the subject is shown. The “ Geographical Collections," done; it was now necessary that the individual, as well
which form a new and interesting division of the work, as the community, should be inspired and elevated. The
are judicious and important. The “ Natural-Historical mission of the Saviour was not to the Jews, but to all
Collections” are also very much what they should be ; and mankind. He addressed himself not to those peculiari- In future Numbers, we advise the omission of such small
the “ Miscellaneous Intelligence" is carefully compiled. ties which political establishments superinduce, but to those universal feelings which nothing can destroy. He trifling articles as that entitled “ Oral Information on the did not promulgate laws—he did not suggest institutions Origin of the Gorkhas,” which is like presenting a single - he taught moral and religious truths. He taught that, mouthful of food to a starving man. while laws and tribunals were necessary for keeping in check such as knew or acknowledged no other guides, Rudiments of Geography, on a New Plan. the Christian must look for counsel and support to higher sources to his own conscience and to an Omnipotent
merous Engravings of Manners, Customs, and Curiosi
By William c. Woodbridge, A.M. Second
Edition. London. We have dwelt at some length on the difference, real
Whittaker, Treacher, and Co. and apparent, which exists betwixt the primitive Israel- A Companion to the Globes : Comprising an Astronomia
1829. Pp. 214. ites and their descendants at the time of our Saviour, because we wish to place in a broad light the interest at
cal Introduction, &c. ge. Designed for the use of
Schools and Private Families. taching to their intervening history-a study which is but
By R. T. Linnington.
London. too much neglected among us.
Third Edition, Revised and improved.
On this wide subject, however, we have left ourselves no room to enter. For
Whittaker, Treacher, and Co. 1829.
There is a certain class of books, which, we believe, oft re-told, yet still thrilling tale, of the final destruction editors seldom or never think of reading. School-books