صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

engendered, as it was said, by his necromantic art, from the seed of the serpent, cast into the seething blood of infants (the first-born of their parents) during an eclipse of the moon; and kept boiling for nine times nine hours, by a fire fed with maidens' eyes." Or again," Peverell stood, for a moment, gazing on the shocking object that lay before him. The eyes were staring-the features distorted, and smeared with blood-the wound gaping; but the sun shone brightly-all nature smiled around-while a bloated toad, unscared by the presence of Peverell, was dabbling in, and sucking up, the clotted lumps that lay congealed upon the ground." Or again, "If any neighbouring farmer, or his wife, sickened, it was because the hag Margery had stuck a heart of wax full of magic needles; or had made an exact image of the sick person, in wax, and roasted it before a slow fire; the marrow of the sufferer melting away, drop by drop, as the image itself dissolved." Or again,-" Some human bones, a skull, and what seemed to be the body of a new-born infant, with the dried skin of a water-snake coiled tightly round its neck, and two glow-worms shining in the sockets instead of eyes, stood on a table, in a dark corner, near the fire-place. In the opposite corner was a brood of enormous rats, weltering in blood, which

was contained in a brazen cauldron."

to drive them back-corpse-like faces grinned and chattered around them-unseen, icy hands clasped theirs-nightravens shrieked toads croaked, and adders hissed: the ground was strewed with loathsome reptiles of all kinds: low, mourning voices smote their ears, crying, ' Beware! beware!' and a fast-swelling river of blood seemed to exhale from the earth, like a moat, before the doors of the Abbey!"

"As they approached the Abbey, the voices were redoubled. Monstrous shadows reared themselves in threatening attitudes along the walls-the bell tolled, and its beat was like the roaring of cannon-purple and sulphureous flames seemed to burst from the windows-the earth trembled beneath their feet-the rushing winds blew from every quarter of the heavens:-blazing meteors flashed across the darkened sky-fiery hail fell before them at each step, as if

The sketch of the interior, which follows immediately afterwards, is still more delightful :


"The interior was lighted, if light it could be called, with that kind of dusky gloom which is shed over every object by the descending shadows of evening. The eye could distinguish neither the height, nor the length, nor the breadth of the aisles. But pale phantoms, in shrouds and windingsheets, and in every stage almost of mortal decay, were visithat green and yellow hue, as if they had not lain in the Some looked as if life had just departed-others with earth a week-some showed incipient rottenness, in the loss of lips, and eyes, and cheeks-others, with the features dissolving into putrid liquefaction-some were brushing away the worms that crawled out of their ears and mouth-and some, more horrible still, seemed to dress up their dry, fleshless bones, in the living characters of thought and passion! On every side these hideous spectres were seen, sweeping slowly along in the air, or gliding upon the ground, or stalking backward and forward with noiseless motion. Sometimes they would bring their pestiferous faces close, and their smell was of corruption; but if the uplifted hand was raised to put them back, it passed through mere vacancy."


These examples would probably be enough to prove that, in this particular style of writing, the "Five Nights of St Albans" will not yield to the most consummate trash that ever issued from the Minerva Press; but as the charge we make is a serious one, we must, however reluctantly, add a specimen or two additional. The whole scene in the witch Margery's cottage, which occupies a prominent part in the second volume, is in the highest degree disgusting, and almost unfit to be read by persons possessing minds of the most common degree of refineHere is one short sample of it :-" There stood a coffin, not a span long, with the untimely yielded burden of an abortive womb in it; and close by its side the delicate white pap of the dead mother, seemingly fresh severed from the body. A knife, crusted with blood, was fitted into the throat it had cut, which lay, still dripping, in the hellish circle. There, too, was a cadaverous heart, half gnawed away, as if it had been tossed for food to the blood-weltered rats. A grey scalp, with the skeleton fingers of a clenched hand, tugging at the thinly-scattered hairs, was beside it; and Helen fancied it might have belonged to some despairing wretch, who had died blaspheming! Between these horrible objects, burned low, red flames, issuing from human fat and flesh, and emitting a most noisome smell." What can any one think of the taste and dispositions of the ex-editor of the Courier, who allows himself to gloat over such descriptions as these? The story of Alice Gray, the midwife, is, if possible, (and one would think it barely possi-led breast. ble,) still worse. Here is a brief sample of this most amiable episode :-" The maddened husband, and selfdenying father, with the look and gesture of a demon, cast the innocent babe upon the blazing fire, and then heaped upon it the burning embers! Its screams were loud and terrific! The noise of its crackling flesh, as it shrivelled up in the fierce flames, could be distinctly heard!" These are not accidental passages, for we could, with equal ease, quote pages of similar stuff. As the main horrors of the book are connected with the Abbey of St Albans, it may be proper to give one short specimen of what these horrors are. On one of the nights that cauldron, and walked to the four corners of the room, ex"She then poured some of this 'precious syrup' into the Peverell and his companions went to watch, the follow-claiming, I call you from the east-I call you from the ing is a short view of the exterior of the Abbey: west-I call you from the south-I call you from the north!' She next stood in the middle of the room, and whirled round three times, saying all the while, I call you from graves, from woods, from fens, and from rocks! I call you from the deep river and the stagnant pool-I call you from charnel houses, and the grave of the unbaptized babe!'

"Helen remained motionless-silent-but almost frenzied ! Her cheek was pale-her eye wildly following every motion of Margery-her body trembling. The incantation had

We doubt not our readers think that we have now favoured them with a sufficient number of extracts; but there is one other we beg to recommend to their attention, as peculiarly characteristic of Mr Mudford's style. We shall entitle it


"Margery now laid herself flat down, with her mouth close to the ground, and remained in that position for several minutes, writhing her limbs and pronouncing strange words. Sometimes she was still and motionless.


"She arose. Her look was angry. There is some power near, or at work,' said she, which he dreads. I heard his groan in the centre of the earth.'

"Helen remembered the signet, and felt it clip her finger with a burning pressure.


"I will tear him up,' she continued, stamping her foot violently, though his yells affright the dead, and drive back the moon from her path in the heavens! I am strong enough for that.'

"She threw her crutch upon the ground, and exclaimed, Unfold thyself!'

"Helen gazed with mute terror, as she saw the crutch heave, and swell, and enlarge itself, till it gradually assumed the shape of an enormous black serpent, curling and waving about in massy folds.

"Suck me one drachm of blood!' continued the hag, uncovering her withered neck, and dragging out a shrivel

"The reptile coiled itself round her body with a hissing noise, and its eyes gleaming like two rubies. Helen shuddered; and the hag herself screamed, when the serpent darted its forked tongue into her nipple!

"Bravely done!" she exclaimed. Hold it till I bid thee; and then void it, drop by drop, in the cauldron ! Each charmed drop is able to confound the elements, and make turreted castles rock to their foundations in the sudden tempest. But it must fall on the precious syrup made of child's grease, melted by a blue fire, kindled with lizard's brains, or it will not have power to compel Alascon when he is moody.'

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

already gone beyond her acquaintance with such fearful rites; and she knew Margery was now working by tremendously powerful charms-an exertion of her art which she shuddered to think was probably required, in consequence of that golden signet on her finger. She began to dread, too, lest her resolution should be subdued by the intensity of her excited feelings. Once or twice it required all the command she could still exercise over herself to refrain from giving utterance to her agony of mind, though she knew a single word from her, even a half-stifled exclamation, would destroy the whole.

"The hag now bade the serpent give the charmed blood, drop by drop; and no sooner had the gorged creature, rearing its wreathed neck, distilled the warm gore from its opening jaws, than Helen's ears were assailed by the most dismal wailings, and by deep hollow groans from beneath her feet. The walls shook-the earth trembled—the loathsome objects which formed the circle leaped and danced about skulls rattled against skulls-the iron teeth chattered-the low red flames, issuing from the unhallowed human fat and flesh, blazed like torches-the thunder pealed-and the blue lightning flashed-and there were loud howling and screaming, as if the place were filled with ravening wolves and famished eagles.

ture !'"

The limits which must be prescribed to the present review, and the circumstance of our Journal not aiming at the discussion of controversial points in physiological and medical science, must preclude us from disputing with our author many theoretical opinions, on which we are inclined to differ from him. Our notice of his work we wish to be rather analytical, than controversial; and we "In the midst of this wild tumult of unearthly noises, leave him and his contemporaries, whose opinions he arthe voice of Margery was heard crying aloud, Arise, Alas-raigns, to discuss them more at length in the periodicals con! Alascon, arise! Ascend, mighty Spirit of the fu- which are avowedly devoted to this subject. Dr Holland's enquiries refer principally to the cause of animal heat; a subject that has engaged the attention of the most distinguished physiologists, and which has, unquestionably, a All animals, it is high degree of interest attached to it. is more or less distinct from the medium wherein they known, have a tendency to preserve a temperature that live, and which, in diseases, is ascertained to undergo remarkable variations. In fever, the heat of the body has been observed at 107°, in tetanus at 110°, and on some occasions has been said to rise still higher. It manifests variety according to age, season, and climate.

According to Dr Edwards and Despretz, it is said to be lower in the young than in the adult; in infancy, the former has remarked the temperature to be 9440, whilst in the adult it varies from 960 to 98°. The latter asserts, that while in birds it is 105o in winter, it is nearly 111° in summer, gradually increasing in spring, and decreasing in autumn. There appears, also, to be a remarkable difference in the young of warm-blooded animals, as to their power of producing heat. A guinea-pig, soon after birth, is able to resist a low temperature, nearly as well as an adult; but kittens and puppies, when newly born, lose their temperature rapidly, when the external heat is artificially lowered; in a fortnight, however, they again acquire the power of evolving heat. Those animals which are born with their eyes open, can sustain themselves at a given temperature; the opposite class resemble at first cold-blooded animals, and their temperature falls with that of the surrounding media.

Oke, jam satis! From beginning to end, this book seems to us an outrage upon common sense, and common

decency. There is a certain degree of rude strength in some of the conceptions, but it is a strength more befitting a butcher in the shambles, than a Christian knight at tilt or tournament. Besides, all the horrors are gratuitous to a most unjustifiable degree;-they answer no end, they elucidate no secret,-they point no moral. They are a mouldering heap of cross bones, which ought to be buried again in the charnel-house, from which they have been sacrilegiously dug.

you ;—we are not about to describe the sufferings of the rabbits, guinea-pigs, pigeons, pigs, and chickens, that have from time to time been gasping in articulo mortis beneath the scalpel of the physiologist; we have no desire at this moment to excite your sympathy with such horrors, and would not disturb the summer serenity of your thoughts by one unpleasing or unhallowed reflection. Our present remarks are simply to preface a notice of a very interesting and valuable work by Dr Holland, who has devoted much time and industry to physiological pursuits, and whose name, from the freshness of his mind, and the obvious zeal of his disposition in the acquisition of knowledge, is likely, at no distant period, to rank very high in Medical literature.

An Experimental Enquiry into the Laws which regulate the Phenomena of Organic and Animal Life. By George Calvert Holland, M.D., Bachelor of Letters of the University of Paris, formerly senior President of the Hunterian Medical Society, and President of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. Edinburgh. Maclachlan and Stewart. 1829. Pp. 466. 8vo.

THE study of Physiology is commonly regarded as forming one of the most pleasing branches essential to Medical Science; yet it embraces so many subjects of an interesting nature, that they require only to be stripped of the technicalities with which they are often obscured, to command general attention, and be appreciated by the more popular class of readers. The voyager, who, in traversing the wide ocean, is the first to discover some previously unknown island; or the astronomer, who first perceives and demonstrates the existence of some new and distant planet, is not entitled to more credit and praise from his fellow-creatures, than he who is the first to disclose some new and important truth, prevailing as an established law throughout the animal economy. To enter the fields of science with an ardent and anxious mind, to explore their hitherto untrodden paths with unwearied assiduity and zeal, will almost guarantee some degree of success to every enquirer; for so much has yet to be accomplished, and there remain so many truths that have even yet escaped our investigation, that none need despair of ultimately triumphing over difficulties, and making discoveries that may still be of essential benefit to mankind. The experimental philosopher cannot fail to feel animated by this hope; it is the star at once to guide and cheer him in his progress; and thus he may reconcile himself to tasks otherwise of a most irksome and even painful description. But think not, fair and gentle reader! that we wish to summon the spirit of the charnel-house from Surgeon Square to discompose

John Hunter, Wilson Philip, Crawford, Edwards, Brodie, and numerous other distinguished physiologists, have exercised their abilities in endeavouring to explain the source of animal heat; and although various ingenious theories have been hazarded, and experiments performed, very different opinions respecting it are still entertained. Black was the first who regarded the respiratory function as producing changes on the inspired air analogous to those of combustion; and when this resemblance was ascertained, the lungs, which had formerly been supposed to act in cooling the heart, were invested by physiologists with the power of producing animal heat. To this it was replied, that if the heat of the body radiated from the lungs, their temperature must be much superior to that of the other organs of the body;—an objection which appeared at that time of so formidable a kind, that Black did not, it is said, attempt its refutation. Lavoisier advocated a similar theory, but speaks of the hypothesis as being entirely his own, and founded on his own experiments. Crawford, by numerous experiments, carefully conducted, became satisfied that arterial blood has a greater capacity for heat than venous

not awake the infant by its application, and was made much
more sensible than the most delicate thermometer.
same method was in the greater number of instances attend-
ed to in taking the temperature of adults."-Pp. 122-123.
We are then presented with two tables,—the first con-
taining the temperature of forty infants, the second, of
forty adults; and, in each example that is included,
the age, number of respirations, and state of the constitu-
tion, are noted. The result of this experimentum crucis
is, that the medium temperature in the infants is reported
at 99 degrees the medium temperature in the adults at

nating animals:

blood; and thence inferred, that the heat liberated in the
lungs instantly became latent, and thus formed an unob-
served element of arterial blood in its flow through the
body, so that, at the subsequent conversion of arterial into
venous blood in the capillaries, the quantity of heat be-
came evolved and equalized throughout the system. These
conclusions of Crawford have been ably contested by Drs
Delaroche, Berard, and Davy, who, from. their experi-
ments, conclude that the difference of capacity between
the arterial and venous blood is not so considerable as
Crawford represented. Whether his theory, however,
be correct or not, it may be said to be the prevailing
opinion, that our temperature is dependent on respiration,
and therefore on chemical changes. Opposed to this, it
Mr Bro-
has by some been ascribed to nervous energy.
die, an advocate of this opinion, removed the brain of
animals, and continued the respiration artificially.
usual chemical changes of the blood he observed to con-
tinue in the lungs but the temperature of the animal di-
minished, and even more rapidly than if the respiration
had not been continued. He therefore concluded, that
animal heat is dependent on nervous energy, rather than
on chemical changes of the blood. Le Gallois, Dr
Philip, and other physiologists, by experimental investi-
gations carefully conducted, subverted this opinion; but
to detail further the evidence that is recorded on this sub-out a degree of wonder and admiration."-P. 161.
ject, would far exceed the limits that could be allotted to
it in our present Number. We thought it necessary,
however, to enter into these preliminary details, that
those of our readers who have not devoted time to this
interesting enquiry, may more fully appreciate the in-
vestigations of the author of the work at present under

"The subject of torpidity has engaged the talents of the
physiologist and naturalist, and is enveloped in much mys-
The greatness of an effect too often blinds the mind
in attempting to ascertain its cause, by mingling in the en-
quiry a degree of wonder or admiration; and I am disposed
to think that the subject of torpidity has been investigated
by some with a feeling of this kind. The regularity with
which animals have retired to their convenient resorts, the
duration of their repose, and the comparative vigour with
which they have returned to active life, are certainly occur-
rences that cannot be regarded by the reflecting mind with-

The author next proceeds to consider the manner in which the system is adapted to the influence of cold; and afterwards devotes several pages to the torpidity of hiber

"Many theories have been proposed to explain the cause of torpidity. Mangili imagined that the veins are larger, in proportion to the arteries, in hibernating than in other animals. He supposes, in consequence of this arrangement, that there is only as much blood transmitted to the brain, during summer, as is necessary to excite that organ to acIn winter, when the circulation is slow, the small tion. quantity of blood transmitted to the brain is inadequate to Pallas observed the thymous gland, and produce the effect. two small glandular bodies under the throat and upper part of the thorax, unusually large, florid, and vascular, during torpidity. The opinion I have brought forward, to account for the occurrence of the phenomenon-viz., that it depends on the character of the external circulation, the effects of which modify the production of animal heat, whose influence is felt, whether excited or depressed, by every organ of the body-is consistent with a variety of facts and analogies, and in harmony with every appearance which these naturalists have adduced in support of their own view."-P.


Dr Holland endeavours to prove," that the Nervous System has no influence whatever upon the generation of animal heat, excepting in diminishing or retarding those chemical changes on which it depends, by destroying the natural proportions of blood submitted to the action of the air." Our author details a number of interesting experiments, which appear to have been very carefully conducted, and which fully establish this opinion. As the machine used by him in these experiments, for inflating the lungs with air, during the time he destroyed the brain and spiral cord, &c. is an invention of his own, and obviates the objection of injecting cold air,

We have next, successively, chapters on "the means by which the system is enabled to bear a temperature su

it deserves particular attention. By this simple contri-perior to that of the body;" on "the influence of disvance, Dr Holland was enabled to perform a variety of ease in the production of heat ;" on " the function of the experiments on a great number of rabbits, all of which eight pair of nerves;" on "the influence of narcotics on tended to confirm him in the opinion, that the removal of the generation of animal heat and the digestive powers;" the brain, or spinal cord, has no influence whatever on on "the causes which influence the action of the heart;" the apparent developement of animal heat, nor on the de"the physiology of the on palpitation-syncope;" on gree and velocity of cooling. passions;" on "the nature of the vital principle;" on opi-"sympathy," &c.


Dr Holland proceeds to consider and refute the nion of Dr Edwards, to which we have above referred, that the temperature of infants is above that of adults; and objects, with some reason apparently, to the method which Dr Edwards adopted in taking the temperature:

"In his experiments," says Dr Holland, "the thermometer was placed in the arm-pit. There are many objections to this mode of ascertaining the degree of animal heat. The part is particularly subject to perspiration, which may modify very much the results; or, if the arm has been removed from the contact of the body, it will be cooler than usual; or if it has been long applied to this, it will be warmer at one time than another. These circumstances are of sufficient importance to occasion great variations in the indications of the thermometer, and consequent fallacies in the reasoning. The plan which I followed appears to me more correct. Mr Moir, surgeon-accoucheur to the Lying-inHospital, Edinburgh, had the kindness to allow me the opportunity of taking the temperature of infants. The temperature of the body was at all times indicated by the indications which the thermometer gave in the mouth when the infant was asleep. To make the instrument as delicate as possible, it was dipped, for a moment before it was employed, into a cup of warm water, from 5 to 10 degrees above the animal heat. The bulb being thus slightly warmed, did

Many of the subjects treated of in this work of Dr Holland's are not adapted for discussion in a general literary miscellany; nevertheless, we have perused the volume with very considerable interest. The popular reader will find in it much that cannot fail both to amuse and instruct the mind; whilst it claims more imperatively from the man of science, and especially from medical men, a more than ordinary attention. It is obviously the production of a very able writer, who, in discussing the doctrines of Hunter, Wilson Philip, Brodie, &c. has displayed a degree of logical acumen and strength of reasoning, that render him worthy as an antagonist and competitor of all who have preceded him in the same interesting investigation.

Waldstein, or the Swedes in Prague. From the German
of Madame C. Pichler. By J. D. Rosenthal.
two volumes. Second Edition. London. J. Rod-
well, and J. D. Haas.



We have not visited every corner of this world. have not (any more than Captain Parry) reached the

North Pole; and, to the best of our knowledge, we never yet were on the highest pinnacle of Chimboraco. Yet, before we undertook to conduct a periodical like the EDINBURGH LITERARY JOURNAL, it was natural that we should, like Ulysses, seek to increase our experience of men and their ways, by visiting foreign shores. It so chanced, that, in the course of our rambles, we stumbled upon Bohemia,-a country seemingly set apart from the rest of nations by the hand of Nature. Bohemia is a kind of natural basin. It is surrounded on every side by a ring of mountains, (to the north by a double belt.) The land sinks down on every side, from the circumference to the centre. Thither all the various watercourses find their way, and are drained off by the broad Elbe, which has burst a course for itself through those giant mountains which separate Bohemia from Saxony.

Prague, the capital, (really, gentle reader, considering that we started from Dresden, we have arrived at the It was with a strange feeling that we first set foot in scene of the novel now before us with tolerable speed,) the diligence from Dresden to Prague, for the purpose of is characteristic, and worthy of such a land. Surrounded visiting a country of which we had no more definite idea, by slight elevations, highly diversified and romantic, the than could be gathered from the perusal of some thou- site of the city is, not in its individual features, but in sands of romances and romantic dramas. It was most the relative elevations and depressions of its surface, not cruel that there was no less commonplace way of visiting unlike what Edinburgh might be, did a broad and placid this land of inaccessible mountains, dark forests, and stream flow between the Castle-hill and Prince's-street. darker deeds. The inns on the road, too, although bad On the highest elevation stand the Castle and the Minenough to please the veriest novel reader, did not furnish ster. Around the base of the hill, and down to the river us with a single adventure. We have since visited it in side, clusters a city of palaces. A stately bridge connects a more adventurous way; but to talk of that now were to this part of Prague, with the more thronged and busy wander from our subject. We found, that although the districts which lie beyond the Moldau. The aspect of progress of arts has made every country patent to mo- the city tells its history at once, as we may read dead dern travelling, and spread a tiresome similarity of cha-passions and the sufferings of other years in the face of racter over every European nation, yet the jealous care of him who has undergone strange fortunes. Not a street, the Austrian government has been, in a great measure, scarcely a building in the city, but carries the mind successful in keeping its subjects safe from the contamina- centuries back to the time when its foundations were tion. Not that it has been altogether successful. Some laid; and yet scarcely one, but, from the repairs which freslight glimmerings of European culture have found their quent sieges and bombardments have rendered necessary, way thither in spite of it. But, on the whole, there are wears a modern look. more peculiarities in Bohemian society, than in that of any other western nation.

hemians, which almost makes amends for their wretched state of society. There is warmth and endurance in their friendship, when once it is obtained. There is something primitive about them-even in their greetings. "Praised be Jesus Christ," is the salutation. "To all eternity, Amen," is the response. We love them all-their reserved and sturdy men—their dark and stately women, with eyes all liquid fire, and hearts all love-their patron saint, (the holy St John of Nepomuc,) who, having been deprived of life by being tossed from a bridge, has since been constituted the special and exclusive guardian of all such structures-no doubt on account of the affection with which he must, after such an event, be inclined to regard them.

Yet, as Nature (never at a loss) knows always to make up for deficiencies occasioned by accident-compensating the loss of sight by increased intensity of the sense of hearing, and supplying the want of good government and social order, by invigorating personal friendship-there is much to be found in the individual characters of the Bo

It is not, however, the Prague of our day, but Prague at the conclusion of the thirty years' war, that has called The people may be divided into two great nations, into exertion the graphic powers of Madame Pichler. the governing and the governed. The former-the Aus- We are not quite certain, but we have a dim recollection trians engross all places of power and profit, and con- of having heard the name of this lady among the four stitute almost exclusively the military establishment of thousand respectable and industrious ladies and gentleBohemia. The Austrians are the least refined and instruct- men who are at present earning their daily bread in Gered of the Germans; and though, at home, honest and many by the manufacture of romances. It strikes us, (if good-natured to a proverb, they are notorious as oppressive we do not confuse her with some one else,) that she has masters in other lands. The latter-the native Bohe- executed elegant and spirited translations of several of mians-acute and sensitive,―proud,—of an Oriental dis- the Waverley Novels. The Swedes in Prague is an atposition, more prompt and active than persevering-sub-tempt at something in the same style. The time is faside in their forced state of inactivity into torpor. The vourably chosen-near enough the end of the war to adpeasantry seem to have no notions beyond what can help mit of a fortunate termination; a time when all the them to the pleasures of sense, and a rooted hatred of the strange characters a civil war can evolve have received Germans. The aristocracy, not permitted to take the the last finishing touch; a time when, the fierce and reckshare in the business of the state which belongs to them, less character of the mercenary troops having reached its seem to lose their relish even for the social pleasures, and wildest extreme, there is ample scope for adventure. The shut themselves up each in his family circle. The sys- more prominent characters are well chosen. A highlytem of political espionage completes the repulsion engen- gifted and beautiful, but vain and ambitious woman, feels dered in society; and the body politic, kept from falling flattered by the attentions of a young nobleman, beneath asunder by military force, resembles a mass of atoms, whose pacific and domestic demeanour she cannot discowhich, without any internal attraction for each other, are ver a mind capable of the most noble conceptions and held together by an external force. In this discordant mass energy sufficient to give them reality. Her cold heart is are to be found occasionally ingredients of a foreign charac- hurried away, her dull apprehension impressed by qualiter; such as the Jews, who, in the interior, compose the ties more evident to the vulgar gaze, by a man of boundexclusive population of villages,-gipsies, who have gene- less ambition, fierce passion, and versatility of talent. In rally abandoned their roving life, but retain the features the progress of the story, the former is awakened by and much of the character of their tribe, on the fron- events into the character of his country's preserver; the tiers, large bands of fearless smugglers, called into exist- latter, goaded on by his passions, entangles himself ence by Austria's exclusive system, from whom the bands deeper in the meshes of intrigue, and falls in battle, after of robbers, who still occasionally infest the country, draw having seen, one by one, his most cherished hopes decay. The vibrating of Helena's selfish heart between them, as a union with the one or the other seemed most likely to cast a splendour on her, is finely pourtrayed. Several of the subordinate characters play happily into the plot. What most pleases us in the work, is the delicate tact with which the workings of the human heart, the growth and decay of attachment between individua

most of their recruits.

different sexes, are drawn. What we most want in it, is power. In what are meant to be the more stirring scenes, there is a dreadful feebleness. It is not bringing them vividly before us, as some authors do—it is the cold second-hand narrative of one before whose imagination they have been made to pass. After all, however, the story carries us along with it without fatiguing us, and is just such reading as we would recommend to all our fair friends in the approaching hot weather. The transla-mulgating certain opinions on the Millennium, which are tion is well executed.

tyr was the earliest among the Fathers of whose works any considerable portion has reached the present time; and his appearance marks the commencement of what may be termed the Ecclesiastical, in contra-distinction to the Apostolic period. We must refer the curious reader to the work before us, for a vast mass of interesting theological matter.

As the Reverend Edward Irving is at present pro

somewhat extravagant, and which do not seem to attract much attention in Scotland, notwithstanding the revesider that we do him a service by making our readers acrend orator and prophet's exertions, he will perhaps conquainted with

Some Account of the Writings and Opinions of Justin
Martyr. By John, Bishop of Lincoln, and Master of
Christ's College, Cambridge. Cambridge, J. and J.
Deighton; London, C. J. G. and F. Rivington.
8vo. 1829.

JUSTIN MARTYR'S OPINIONS ON THE MILLENNIUM. "We have seen, that among other questions put by Trypho to Justin," says the learned Bishop," he asks

THE work before us, by Dr Kaye, Bishop of Lin

whether the Christians really believed that Jerusalem coln, will add to the reputation which that prelate has would be rebuilt, and that they, as well as the patriarchs, already acquired as a theologian, a scholar, and an ecclesiastical writer, both by his very learned work on the prophets, and Jews, and proselytes, who lived before the writings and opinions of Tertullian, and by other disqui- that although many pure (in doctrine) and pious Chriscoming of Christ, would be collected there. Justin replies, sitions on the early Fathers of the Church. We feel tians were of a different opinion, yet he himself, and as well pleased that the LITERARY JOURNAL should be the first periodical in this country to introduce the Bishop of acres xarà závra, were assured that they who be many Christians as were in every respect orthodox, Lincoln to Scottish readers. The Church of England lieve in Christ should rise in the flesh, and for the space had never, perhaps, greater cause than at present to be proud of her governors. In her Augustan days, during the tified, and enlarged. In confirmation of this opinion, he of a thousand years inhabit Jerusalem, rebuilt, and beaureigns of Elizabeth and James I., she could boast of a Park-quotes Isaiah, lxv. 17, and the Book of Revelation, which er, a Whitgift, and an Andrews, the last of whom was so very learned, that he used to be termed a living Lexicon;" but, not to mention other illustrious Bishops, she at this moment can exultingly point to the names of Blomfield, Marsh, Kaye, and Burgess, prelates whose profound learning, the first as a Grecian, the second as a theologian, the third as an ecclesiastical writer, and the fourth as a Hebraist, reflects a lustre on the times in which they live, and on the church over which they preside. "We may be thankful," says Mr Southey, in his last work, "that the Church of England is at this time, according to the prayer of her own true poet (Wordsworth)


he expressly ascribes to the Apostle St John. At the ral resurrection was to take place, and after the general expiration of the period of one thousand years the generesurrection and judgment, this whole frame of things was to be consumed by fire."-P. 104.

"For her defence replenished with a band
Of strenuous champions, in scholastic arts
Thoroughly discipline: nor (if in course
Of the revolving world's disturbances

Cause should recur, which righteous Heaven avert !
To meet such trial) from their spiritual lives
Degenerate, who, constrained to wield the sword
Of disputation, shrunk not, though assailed
With hostile din, and combating in sight
Of angry umpires, partial and unjust."

In conclusion we have only to add, that we should be glad to see the Bishop of Lincoln's work in the hands of which displays industry, talent, and research of the most every clergyman and theological student, for it is a work striking kind.

Sound Presbyterians though we be, far be it from us to refuse the homage of our admiration to episcopalian genius and profound acquirements.

Florence, the Aspirant. A Novel, in 3 vols.
Whittaker & Co. 1829.

MANY and varied qualifications are necessary to enable any one to attain pre-eminence as a Novelist. He must be intimately acquainted with human nature-he must possess acuteness to distinguish, and skill to analyze, the peculiarities of different characters he must have imagination to invent, and judgment to classify, striking incidents-he must uniformly render the situations of the personages interesting and probable; and, as a subsidiary casion by which it has been prompted. requisite, his language must always be suited to the ocall this, it is obvious that success will, in an especial In addition to relate to events, which though ingeniously depicted, are manner, depend on the choice of the subject. If it either intrinsically common-place, or if it continually lead to abstruse and metaphysical enquiries, the chief aim of the writer will be frustrated. We therefore decidedly ob

The work before us contains the substance of a Course of Lectures which the learned Bishop delivered in the Lent term of 1821. That our readers may form an idea of its plan, we shall enumerate the heads of the nine chapters into which it is divided. 1. On the Writings of Justin Martyr. 2. The Opinions of Justin respecting the Aoyos and the Trinity. 3. Justin's opinions respecting original sin, the freedom of the will, grace, justifica-ject to a religious novel-a work which blends the sution, predestination. 4. Justin's opinions respecting bap-blimest truths with the most absurd fictions, and which, tism and the eucharist, with a particular reference to a under the garb of whining sentimentalism, manifestly passage in the first Apology. 5. The immortality of the degrades, while it professes to recommend, the doctrines soul, the resurrection of the body, the millennium, future of Christianity. If religion is to become the legitimate judgments, angels, demons. 6. The condition of the framework for romance, why ought we to exclude anChristians in the time of Justin, and the causes of the atomy, algebra, or any other complex science? By rapid diffusion of Christianity. 7. The heresies mention- the publication of a religious novel, there is a literary ed by Justin,-miscellaneous observations. 8. An exfraud practised on the reader, which he cannot fail to reamination of the question, whether Justin quoted the sent. He expects to trace a resemblance between the gospels which we now have? 9. Illustrations of the fanciful representation of the novelist, and the actual ocpreceding chapters from the writings of Fabian, Athencurrences of life; but he finds, that the whole zest of the agoras, and Theophilus of Antioch, with additional re- eclaircissement consists in the unnatural reformation of marks. Such are the interesting topics which the learnsome confirmed rake, or in the miraculous endowment ed prelate discusses in the work before us. Justin Mar- of some flirting chambermaid with the acumen of a pro


« السابقةمتابعة »