« السابقةمتابعة »
AN INCANTATION SCENE.
engendered, as it was said, by his necromantic art, from to drive them back-corpse-like faces grinned and chattered the seed of the serpent, cast into the seething blood of in- around them—unseen, icy hands clasped theirs-nightfants (the first-born of their parents) during an eclipse ravens shrieked : toads croaked, and adders hissed : the of the moon; and kept boiling for nine times nine hours, ground was strewed with loathsomne reptiles of all kinds : by a fire fed with maidens' eyes." Or again,—“ Peve- beware!' and a fast-swelling river of blood seemed to ex
low, mourning voices smote their ears, crying, . Beware! rell stood, for a moment, gazing on the shocking object hale from the earth, like a moat, before the doors of the that lay before him. The eyes were staring—the fea- Abbey !" tures distorted, and smeared with blood—the wound ga- The sketch of the interior, which follows immediately ping; but the sun shone brightly—all nature smiled afterwards, is still more delightful : around—wbile a bloated toad, unscared by the presence
“ The interior was lighted, if light it could be called, with of Peverell, was dabbling in, and sucking up, the clotted that kind of dusky gloom which is shed over every object lumps that lay congealed upon the ground.” Or again, by the descending shadows of evening. The eye could dis
- " If any neighbouring farmer, or his wife, sickened, it tinguish neither the height, nor the length, nor the breadth was because the hag Margery had stuck a heart of wax
of the aisles. But pale phantoms, in shrouds and windingfull of magic needles ; or had made an exact image of the sheets, and in every stage almost of mortal decay, were visisick person, in wax, and roasted it before a slow fire; that green and yellow hue, as if they had not lain in the
ble. Some looked as it life had just departed-others with the marrow of the sufferer melting away, drop by drop, earth a week—some showed incipient rottenness, in the loss as the image itself dissolved.” Or again,—“ Some hu- of lips, and eyes, and cheeks—others, with the features disman bones, a skull, and what seemed to be the body of a solving into putrid liquefaction-some were brushing away new-born infant, with the dried skin of a water-snake the worms that crawled out of their ears and mouth-and coiled tightly round its neck, and two glow-worms shi- some, more horrible still, seemed to dress up their dry, ning in the sockets instead of eyes, stood on a table, in a
fleshless bones, in the living characters of thought and pas
sion ! On every side these hideous spectres were seen, dark corner, near the fire-place. In the opposite corner was a brood of enormous rats, weltering in blood, which sweeping slowly along in the air, or gliding upon the
ground, or stalking backward and forward with noiseless was contained in a brazen cauldron."
motion. Sometimes they would bring their pestiferous These examples would probably be enough to prove faces close, and their smell was of corruption; but if the that, in this particular style of writing, the “ Five Nights uplifted hand was raised to put them back, it passed through of St Albans” will not yield to the most consummate mere vacancy." trash that ever issued from the Minerva Press ; but as the We doubt not our readers think that we have now facharge we make is a serious one, we must, however re- voured them with a sufficient number of extracts; but luctantly, add a specimen or two additional. The whole there is one other we beg to recommend to their attenscene in the witch Margery's cottage, which occupies a tion, as peculiarly characteristic of Mr Mudford's style. prominent part in the second volume, is in the highest We shall entitle it degree disgusting, and almost unfit to be read by persons possessing minds of the most common degree of refineHere is one short sample of it :-“ There stood
“ Margery now laid herself Aat down, with her mouth a coffin, not a span long, with the untimely yielded close to the ground, and remained in that position for sehurden of an abortive womb in it; and close by its veral minutes, writhing her limbs and pronouncing strange
Sometimes she was still and motionless. side the delicate white pap of the dead mother, seem- “She arose. Her look was angry. There is some ingly fresh severed from the body. A knife, crusted power near, or at work,' said she, which he dreads. I with blood, was fitted into the throat it had cut, which heard his groan in the centre of the earth.' lay, still dripping, in the hellish circle. There, too, was
“ Helen remembered the signet, and felt it clip her finger a cadaverous heart, half gnawed away, as if it had been with a burning pressure. tossed for food to the blood-weltered rats. A grey scalp,
“I will tear him up,' she continued, stamping her foot
violently, though his yells affright the dead, and drive back with the skeleton fingers of a clenched hand, tugging at
the moon from her path in the heavens! I am strong enough the thinly-scattered hairs, was beside it; and Helen fan- for that." cied it might have belonged to some despairing wretch, “ She threw her crutch upon the ground, and exclaimed, who had died blaspheming ! Between these horrible ob- Unfold thyself! jects, burned low, red flames, issuing from human fat and “ Heleu gazed with mute terror, as she saw the crutch flesh, and emitting a most noisome smell.” What can heave, and swell, and enlarge itself, till it gradually assumed any one think of the taste and dispositions of the ex-edi- the shape of an enormous black serpent, curling and waving tor of the Courier, who allows himself to gloat over such
about in massy folds.
«« Suck me one drachm of blood !' continued the hag, descriptions as these ? The story of Alice Gray, the mid- uncovering her withered neck, and dragging out a shrivelwife, is, if possible, (and one would think it barely possi- led breast. ble,) still worse. Here is a brief sample of this most “ The reptile coiled itself round her body with a hissing amiable episode :-" The maddened husband, and self- noise, and its eyes gleaming like two rubies. Helen shuddenying father, with the look and gesture of a demon, dered ; and the hag herself screamed, when the serpent cast the innocent babe upon the blazing fire, and then darted its forked tongue into her nipple! heaped upon it the burning embers! Its screams were thee; and then void it, drop by drop, in the cauldron !
“ • Bravely done!' she exclaimed. “Hold it till I bid loud and terrific ! The noise of its crackling flesh, as it Each charmed drop is able to confound the elements, and shrivelled up in the fierce flames, could be distinctly make turreted castles rock to their foundations in the sudheard !” These are not accidental passages, for we could, den tempest. But it must fall on the precious syrup made with equal ease, quote pages of similar stuff. As the of child's grease, melted by a blue fire, kindled with lizard's main horrors of the book are connected with the Abbey brains, or it will not have power to compel Alascon when of St Albans, it may be proper to give one short specimen he is moody.' of what these horrors are. On one of the nights that cauldron, and walked to the four corners of the room, ex
“She then poured some of this precious syrup' into the Peverell and his companions went to watch, the follow- claiming 'I call you from the east I call you from the ing is a short view of the exterior of the Abbey :
west-I call you from the south-I call you from the north!' “ As they approached the Abbey, the voices were re- She next stood in the middle of the room, and wbirled round doubled. Monstrous shadows reared themselves in threat three times, saying all the while, I call you from graves, ening attitudes along the walls--the bell tolled, and its beat from woods, from fens, and from rocks!' I call you from was like the roaring of cannon-purple and sulphureous the deep river and the stagnant pool- I call you from charflames seemed to burst from the windows-the earth trem- nel houses, and the grave of the unbaptized babe !'. 'bled beneath their feet-the rushing winds blew from every “Helen remained motionless-silent-but almost frenzied ! quarter of the heavens :-blazing meteors flashed across the Her cheek was paloher eye wildly following every motion skened sky-fiery hail fell before them at each step, as if ) of Margery--her body trembling. The incantation had
already gone beyond her acquaintance with such fearful you ;-we are not about to describe the sufferings of the rites; and she knew Margery was now working by tre- rabbits, guinea-pigs, pigeons, pigs, and chickens, that have mendously powerful charms-an exertion of her art which from time to time been gasping in articulo mortis beneath she shuddered to think was probably required, in consequence of that golden signet on her finger. She began to
the scalpel of the physiologist ;-we have no desire at dread, too, lest her resolution should be subdued by the in- this moment to excite your sympathy with such horrors, tensity of her excited feelings. Once or twice it required and would not disturb the summer serenity of your all the command she could still exercise over herself to re- thoughts by one unpleasing or uphallowed reflection. Our frain from giving utterance to her agony of mind, though present remarks are simply to preface a notice of a very she knew a single word from her, even a half-stifled excla- | interesting and valuable work by Dr Holland, who has mation, would destroy the whole. * The hag now bade the serpent give the charmed blood, and whose name, from the freshness of his mind, and the
devoted much time and industry to physiological pursuits, drop by drop; and no sooner had the gorged creature, rearing its wreathed neck, distilled the warm gore from its open
obvious zeal of his disposition in the acquisition of knowing jars, than Helen's ears were assailed by the most dis- ledge, is likely, at no distant period, to rank very high in mal wailings, and by deep hollow groans from beneath her Medical literature. feet. Tbe walls shook-the earth trembled--the loathsome The limits which must be prescribed to the present reobjects which formed the circle leaped and danced about, view, and the circumstance of our Journal not aiming at skulls rattled against skulls—the iron teeth chattered-the the discussion of controversial points in physiological and low red flames, issuing from the unhallowed human fat medical science, must preclude us from disputing with and flesh, blazed like torches-the thunder pealed--and the blue ligbtning flashed—and there were loud howling and
our author many theoretical opinions, on which we are screaming, as if the place were filled with ravening wolves inclined to differ from him. Our notice of his work we and famished eagles.
wish to be rather analytical, than controversial ; and we " In the midst of this wild tumult of unearthly noises, leave him and his contemporaries, whose opinions he arthe voice of Margery was heard crying aloud, ' Arise, Alas- raigns, to discuss them more at length in the periodicals con! Alascon, arise! Ascend, mighty Spirit of the fu- which are avowedly devoted to this subject. Dr Holland's ture!'" Oke, jam satis! From beginning to end, this book enquiries refer principally to the cause of animal heat ; a
subject that has engaged the attention of the most distinseems to us an outrage upon common sense, and common decency. There is a certain degree of rude strength in high degree of interest attached to it.
guished physiologists, and which has, unquestionably, a some of the conceptions, but it is a strength more befit- known, have a tendency to preserve a temperature that
All animals, it is ting a butcher in the shambles, than a Christian knight is more or less distinct from the medium wherein they at tilt or tournament. Besides, all the horrors are gra- live, and which, in diseases, is ascertained to undergo retuitous to a most unjustifiable degree ;-they answer no
markable variations. In fever, the heat of the body has end,--they elucidate no secret,—they point no moral.
been observed at 107°, in tetanus at 1100, and on some They are a mouldering heap of cross bones, which ought occasions has been said to rise still higher. It manifests to be buried again in the charnel-house, from which they variety according to age, season, and climate.
Accordhave been sacrilegiously dug.
ing to Dr Edwards and Despretz, it is said to be lower in the young than in the adult; in infancy, the former
has remarked the temperature to be 9410, whilst in the Ar Erperimental Enquiry into the Laws which regulate adult it varies from 96° to 98o. The latter asserts, that
the Phenomena of Organic and Animal Life. By George while in birds it is 1050 in winter, it is nearly 111° Calvert Holland, M.D., Bachelor of Letters of the in summer, gradually increasing in spring, and decreaUniversity of Paris, formerly senior President of the sing in autumn. There appears, also, to be a remarkable Hunterian Medical Society, and President of the Royal difference in the young of warm-blooded animals, as to Physical Society of Edinburgh. Edinburgh. Mac- their power of producing heat. A guinea-pig, soon after lachlan and Stewart. 1829. Pp. 466. 8vo. birth, is able to resist a low temperature, nearly as well
as an adult; but kittens and puppies, when newly born, The study of Physiology is commonly regarded as lose their temperature rapidly, when the external heat is forming one of the most pleasing branches essential to artificially lowered ; in a fortnight, however, they again Medical Science; yet it embraces so many subjects of an acquire the power of evolving heat. Those animals which interesting nature, that they require only to be stripped are born with their eyes open, can sustain themselves at of the technicalities with which they are often obscured, a given temperature ; the opposite class resemble at first to command general attention, and be appreciated by the cold blooded animals, and their temperature falls with more popular class of readers. The voyager, who, in that of the surrounding media. traversing the wide ocean, the first to discover some John Hunter, Wilson Philip, Crawford, Edwards, previously unknown island; or the astronomer, who first Brodie, and numerous other distinguished physiologists, perceives and demonstrates the existence of some new and have exercised their abilities in endeavouring to explain distant planet, is not entitled to more credit and praise the source of animal heat ; and although various ingefrom his fellow-creatures, than he who is the first to dis- nious theories have been hazarded, and experiments perclose some new and important truth, prevailing as an formed, very different opinions respecting it are still enestablished law throughout the animal economy. To tertained. Black was the first who regarded the respiraenter the fields of science with an ardent and anxious tory function as producing changes on the inspired air mind, to explore their hitherto untrodden paths with analogous to those of combustion; and when this resemunwearied assiduity and zeal, will almost guarantee some blance was ascertained, the lungs, which had formerly degree of success to every enquirer ; for so much has yet been supposed to act in cooling the heart, were invested to be accomplished, and there remain so many truths that by physiologists with the power of producing animal have even yet escaped our investigation, that none need heat. To this it was replied, that if the heat of the body despair of ultimately triumphing over difficulties, and radiated from the lungs, their temperature must be much making discoveries that may still be of essential benefit superior to that of the other organs of the body ;-an obto mankind. The experimental philosopher cannot fail jection which appeared at that time of so formidable a to feel animated by this hope ; it is the star at once to kind, that Black did not, it is said, attempt its refutaguide and cheer him in his progress; and thus he may tion. Lavoisier advocated a similar theory, but speaks reconcile himself to tasks otherwise of a most irksome of the hypothesis as being entirely his own, and founded and even painful description. But think not, fair and on his own experiments. Crawford, by numerous exgentle reader ! that we wish to summon the spirit of periments, carefully conducted, became satisfied that arthe charnel-house from Şurgeon Square to discompose terial blood has a greater capacity for heat than venous
blood; and thence inferred, that the heat liberated in the not awake the infant by its application, and was made much
more sensible than the most delicate thermometer. The lungs instantly became latent, and thus formed an unobserved element of arterial blood in its flow through the
same method was in the greater number of instances attend
ed to in taking the temperature of adults."-Pp. 122-123. body, so that, at the subsequent conversion of arterial into
We are then presented with two tables,—the first convenous blood in the capillaries, the quantity of heat became evolved and equalized throughout the system. These taining the temperature of forty infants, the second, of conclusions of Crawford have been ably contested by Drs forty adults; and, in each example that is included,
the age, number of respirations, and state of the constituDelaroche, Berard, and Davy, who, from their experi- tion, are noted. The result of this experimentum crucis ments, conclude that the difference of capacity between is, that the medium temperature in the infants is reported the arterial and venous blood is not so considerable as
at 99 degrees—the medium temperature in the adults at Crawford represented. Whether his theory, however,
971. be correct or not, it may be said to be the prevailing
The author next proceeds to consider the manner in opinion, that our temperature is dependent on respiration, which the system is adapted to the influence of cold ; and and therefore on chemical changes. Opposed to this, it afterwards devotes several pages to the torpidity of hiberhas by some been ascribed to nervous energy.
nating animals : die, an advocate of this opinion, removed the brain of
“ The subject of torpidity has engaged the talents of the animals, and continued the respiration artificially. The physiologist and naturalist, and is enveloped in much mys, usual chemical changes of the blood he observed to con- tery. The greatness of an effect too often blinds the mind tinue in the lungs—but the temperature of the animal di- in attempting to ascertain its cause, by mingling in the enminished, and even more rapidly than if the respiration quiry a degree of wonder or admiration; and I am disposed had not been continued. He therefore concluded, that to think that the subject of torpidity has been investigated animal heat is dependent on nervous energy, rather than by some with a feeling of this kind. The regularity with
which animals have retired to their convenient resorts, the on chemical changes of the blood. Le Gallois, Dr duration of their repose, and the comparative vigour with Philip, and other physiologists, by experimental investi- which they have returned to active life, are certainly occurgations carefully conducted, subverted this opinion ; but rences that cannot be regarded by the reflecting mind withto detail further the evidence that is recorded on this sub- out a degree of wonder and admiration.”—P. 161. ject, would far exceed the limits that could be allotted to “ Many theories have been proposed to explain the cause it in our present Number. We thought it necessary,
of torpidity. Mangili imagined that the veins are larger, in however, to enter into these preliminary details, that proportion to the arteries, in hibernating than in other anithose of our readers who have not devoted time to this that there is only as much blood transmitted to the brain,
mals. He supposes, in consequence of this arrangement, iateresting enquiry, may more fully appreciate the in- during summer, as is necessary to excite that organ to acvestigations of the author of the work at present under tion. In winter, when the circulation is slow, the small review.
quantity of blood transmitted to the brain is inadequate to Dr Holland endeavours to prove,
“ that the Ner- produce the effect. Pallas observed the thymous gland, and vous System has no influence whatever upon the gene of the thorax, unusually large, florid, and vascular, during
two sinall glandular bodies under the throat and upper part ration of animal heat, excepting in diminishing or re
torpidity. The opinion I have brought forward, to account tarding those chemical changes on which it depends, by for the occurrence of the phenomenon-viz., that it depends destroying the natural proportions of blood submitted to on the character of the external circulation, the effects of the action of the air." Our author details a number of which modify the production of animal heat, whose influence interesting experiments, which appear to have been very is felt, whether excited or depressed, by every organ of the carefully conducted, and which fully establish this opi- body—is consistent with a variety of facts and analogies, nion. As the machine used by him in these experiments, and in harmony with every appearance which these natufor inflating the lungs with air, during the time he de ralists have adduced in support of their own view."—P.
167. stroyed the brain and spiral cord, &c. is an invention of
We have next, successively, chapters on
the means his own, and obviates the objection of injecting cold air, by which the system is enabled to bear a temperature suit deserves icular attention. By this simple contri- perior to that of the body;" on “ the influence of disvance, Dr Holland was enabled to perform a variety of ease in the production of heat ;" on " the function of the experiments on a great number of rabbits, all of which eight pair of nerves ;" on " the influence of narcotics on tended to confirm him in the opinion, that the removal of the generation of animal heat and the digestive powers;" the brain, or spinal cord, has no influence whatever on
on “the causes which influence the action of the heart;" the apparent developement of animal heat, nor on the de
on “palpitation-syncope;" on the physiology of the gree and velocity of cooling.
passions ;” on “ the nature of the vital principle;" on Dr Holland proceeds to consider and refute the opi
“sympathy,” &c. nion of Dr Edwards, to which we have above referred, that the temperature of infants is above that of adults ; land's are not adapted for discussion in a general literary
Many of the subjects treated of in this work of Dr Hol. and objects, with some reason apparently, to the method miscellany ; nevertheless, we have perused the volume which Dr Edwards adopted in taking the temperature :
with very considerable interest. The popular reader will “ In his experiments," says Dr Holland,“ the thermome- find in it much that cannot fail both to amuse and inter was placed in the arm-pit. There are many objections struct the mind; whilst it claims more imperatively from to this mode of ascertaining the degree of animal heat. The the man of science, and especially from medical men, a part is particularly subject to perspiration, which may mo
more than ordinary attention. It is obviously the prodify very much the results; or, if the arın has been removed duction of a very able writer, who, in discussing the docfrom the contact of the body, it will be cooler than usual; trines of Hunter, Wilson Philip, Brodie, &c. has disor if it has been long applied to this, it will be warmer at one time than another. These circumstances are of suffi- played a degree of logical acumen and strength of reasoncient importance to occasion great variations in the indica- ing, that render him worthy as an antagonist and comtions of the thermometer, and consequent fallacies in the petitor of all who have preceded him in the same interestreasoning. The plan which I followed appears to me more ing investigation. correct. Mr Moir, surgeon-accoucheur to the Lying-inHospital, Edinburgh, had the kindness to allow me the opportunity of taking the temperature of infants. The tem
Waldstein, or the Swedes in Prague. From the German perature of the body was at all times indicated by the indi- of Madame C. Pichler. By J. D. Rosenthal. In cations which the thermometer gave in the mouth when the two volumes. Second Edition. London. J. Rod. intant was asleep. To make the instrument as delicate as well, and J. D. Haas. 1829. possible, it was dipped, for a moment before it was employed, into a cup of warm water, from 5 to 10 degrees above the We have not visited every corner of this world. We animal licat. The bulb being thus slightly warmed, did have not (any more than Captain Parry) reached the
North Pole ; and, to the best of our knowledge, we never hemians, which almost makes amends for their wretched yet were on the highest pinnacle of Chimboraco. Yet, state of society. There is warmth and endurance in their before we undertook to conduct a periodical like the friendship, when once it is obtained. There is something EDINBURGH LITERARY JOURNAL, it was natural that we primitive about them—even in their greetings. “ Praised should, like Ulysses, seek to increase our experience of be Jesus Christ,” is the salutation. “ To all eternity, men and their ways, by visiting foreign shores. It so Amen,” is the response. We love them all their rechanced, that, in the course of our rambles, we stumbled served and sturdy men—their dark and stately women, upon Bohemia,-a country seemingly set apart from the with eyes all liquid fire, and hearts all love, their patron rest of nations by the hand of Nature. Bohemia is a saint, (the holy St John of Nepomuc,) who, having been kind of natural basin. It is surrounded on every side by deprived of life by being tossed from a bridge, has since a ring of mountains, (to the north by a double belt.) The been constituted the special and exclusive guardian of all land sinks down on every side, from the circumference to such structures—no doubt on account of the affection the centre. Thither all the various watercourses find with which he must, after such an event, be inclined to their way, and are drained off by the broad Elbe, which regard them. has burst a course for itself through those giant mountains Prague, the capital, (really, gentle reader, considering which separate Bohemia from Saxony.
that we started from Dresden, we have arrived at the It was with a strange feeling that we first set foot in scene of the novel now before us with tolerable speed,) the diligence from Dresden to Prague, for the purpose of is characteristic, and worthy of such a land. Surrounded visiting a country of which we had no more definite idea, by slight elevations, highly diversified and romantic, the than could be gathered from the perusal of some thou- site of the city is, not in its individual features, but in sands of romances and romantic dramas. It was most the relative elevations and depressions of its surface, not cruel that there was no less commonplace way of visiting unlike what Edinburgh might be, did a broad and placid this land of inaccessible mountains, dark forests, and stream flow between the Castle-hill and Prince's-street. darker deeds. The inns on the road, too, although bad | On the highest elevation stand the Castle and the Minenough to please the veriest novel reader, did not furnish ster. Around the base of the bill, and down to the river us with a single adventure. We have since visited it in side, clusters a city of palaces. A stately bridge connects a more adventurous way; but to talk of that now were to this part of Prague, with the more thronged and busy wander from our subject. We found, that although the districts which lie beyond the Moldau. The aspect of progress of arts has made every country patent to mo- the city tells its history at once, as we may read dead dern travelling, and spread a tiresome similarity of cha- passions and the sufferings of other years in the face of racter over every European nation, yet the jealous care of him who has undergone strange fortunes.
Not a street, the Austrian government has been, in a great measure, -scarcely a building in the city, but carries the mind successful in keeping its subjects safe from the contamina- centuries back to the time when its foundations were tion. Not that it has been altogether successful. Some laid; and yet scarcely one, but, froin the repairs which freslight glimmerings of European culture have found their quent sieges and bombardments have rendered necessary, way thither in spite of it. But, on the whole, there are wears a modern look. more peculiarities in Bohemian society, than in that of It is not, however, the Prague of our day, but Prague any other western nation.
at the conclusion of the thirty years' war, that has called The people may be divided into two great nations, into exertion the graphic powers of Madame Pichler. the governing and the governed. The former—the Aus- We are not quite certain, but we have a dim recollection trians—engross all places of power and profit, and con- of having heard the name of this lady among the four stitute almost exclusively the military establishment of thousand respectable and industrious ladies and gentleBohemia. The Austrians are the least refined and instruct- men who are at present earning their daily bread in Gered of the Germans; and though, at home, honest and many by the manufacture of romances. It strikes us, (if good-natured to a proverb, they are notorious as oppressive we do not confuse her with some one else,) that she has masters in other lands. The latter—the native Bohe- executed elegant and spirited translations of several of mians-acute and sensitive,-proud, of an Oriental dis- the Waverley Novels. The Swedes in Prague is an atposition, more prompt and active than persevering-sub- tempt at something in the same style. The time is faside in their forced state of inactivity into torpor. The vourably chosen--near enough the end of the war to adpeasantry seem to have no notions beyond what can help mit of a fortunate termination ; a time when all the them to the pleasures of sense, and a rooted hatred of the strange characters a civil war can evolve have received Germans. The aristocracy, not permitted to take the the last finishing touch; a time when, the fierce and reckshare in the business of the state which belongs to them, less character of the mercenary troops having reached its seem to lose their relish even for the social pleasures, and wildest extreme, there is ample scope for adventure. The shut themselves up each in his family circle.
more prominent characters are well chosen. A highlytem of political espionage completes the repulsion engen- gifted and beautiful, but vain and ambitious woman, feels dered in society; and the body politic, kept from falling Hattered by the attentions of a young nobleman, beneath asunder by military force, resembles a mass of atoms, whose pacific and domestic demeanour she cannot discowhich, without any internal attraction for each other, are ver a mind capable of the most noble conceptions and held together by an external force. In this discordant mass energy sufficient to give them reality. Her cold heart is are to be found occasionally ingredients of a foreign charac- hurried away, her dull apprehension impressed by qualiter; such as the Jews, who, in the interior, compose the ties more evident to the vulgar gaze, by a man of boundexclusive population of villages,--gipsies, who have gene-less ambition, fierce passion, and versatility of talent. In rally abandoned their roving life, but retain the features the progress of the story, the former is awakened by and much of the character of their tribe, on the fron- events into the character of his country's preserver; the tiers, large bands of fearless smugglers, called into exist-latter, goaded on by his passions, entangles himself ence by Austria's exclusive system, from whom the bands deeper in the meshes of intrigue, and falls in battle, after of robbers, who still occasionally infest the country, draw having seen, one by one, his most cherished hopes decay. most of their recruits.
The vibrating of Helena's selfish heart between them, as a Yet, as Nature (never at a loss) knows always to make union with the one or the other seemed most likely to up for deficiencies occasioned by accident-compensating cast a splendour on her, is finely pourtrayed. Several of the loss of sight by increased intensity of the sense of the subordinate characters play happily into the plot. hearing, and supplying the
want of good government and What most pleases us in the work, is the delicate tact social order, by invigorating personal friendship—there is with which the workings of the human heart,- the much to be found in the individual characters of the Bo- growth and decay of attachment between individur?
different sexes, are drawn. What we most want in it, is tyr was the earliest among the Fathers of whose works power. In wbat are meant to be the more stirring any considerable portion has reached the present time; scenes, there is a dreadful feebleness. It is not bringing and his appearance marks the commencement of what them vividly before us, as some authors do-it is the cold may be termed the Ecclesiastical, in contra-distinction to second-hand narrative of one before whose imagination the Apostolic period. We must refer the curious reader they have been made to pass.
After all, however, the to the work before us, for a vast mass of interesting theo story carries us along with it without fatiguing us, and logical matter. is just such reading as we would recommend to all our As the Reverend Edward Irving is at present pro fair friends in the approaching hot weather. The transla- mulgating certain opinions on the Millennium, which are tion is well executed.
somewhat extravagant, and which do not seem to attract
much attention in Scotland, notwithstanding the reveSome Account of the Writings and Opinions of Justin sider that we do him a service by making our readers ac
rend orator and prophet's exertions, he will perhaps conMartyr. By John, Bishop of Lincoln, and Master of
quainted with Christ's College, Cambridge. Cambridge, J. and J. Deighton; London, C. J. G. and F. Rivington.
JUSTIN MARTYR'S OPINIONS ON THE MILLENNIUM. 8vo. 1829.
“ We have seen, that among other questions put by The work before us, by Dr Kaye, Bishop of Lin- Trypho to Justin,” says the learned Bishop, “ he asks
whether the Christians really believed that Jerusalem coln, will add to the reputation which that prelate has
would be rebuilt, and that they, as well as the patriarchs, already acquired as a theologian, a scholar, and an ecclesiastical writer, both by his very learned work on the prophets, and Jews, and proselytes, who lived before the
coming of Christ, would be collected there. Justin replies, writings and opinions of Tertullian, and by other disqui; that although many pure (in doctrine) and pious Chrissitions on the early Fathers of the Church. We feel
tians were of a different opinion, yet he himself, and as well pleased that the LITERARY JOURNAL should be the
many Christians as were in every respect orthodox, first periodical in this country to introduce the Bishop of ip@oyvápecves xarà závra, were assured that they who beLincoln to Scottish readers. The Church of England lieve in Christ should rise in the flesh, and for the space had never, perhaps, greater cause than at present to be of a thousand years inhabit Jerusalem, rebuilt, and beauproud of her governors. In her Augustan days, during the tified, and enlarged. In confirmation of this opinion, he reigns of Elizabeth and James I., she could boast of a Park- quotes Isaiah, lxv. 17, and the Book of Revelation, which er, a Whitgift, and an Andrews, the last of whom was so
he expressly ascribes to the Apostle St John. At the very learned, that he used to be termed “ a living Lexi
expiration of the period of one thousand years the genecon ;" but, not to mention other illustrious Bishops, she ral resurrection was to take place, and after the general at this moment can exultingly point to the names of resurrection and judgment, this whole frame of things Blomfield, Marsh, Kaye, and Burgess, prelates whose
was to be consumed by fire."-P. 104. profound learning, the first as a Grecian, the second as a
In conclusion we have only to add, that we sbould be theologian, the third as an ecclesiastical writer, and the fourth as a Hebraist
, reflects a lustre on the times in which glad to see the Bishop of Lincoln's work in the hands of they live, and on the church over which they preside. which displays industry, talent, and research of the most
every clergyman and theological student, for it is a work “ We may be thankful,” says Mr Southey, in his last
striking kind. work, “ that the Church of England is at this time, according to the prayer of her own true poet (Wordsworth)
Florence, the Aspirant. A Novel, in 3 vols. London. “ For her deferce replenished with a band
Whittaker & Co. 1829.
Many and varied qualifications are necessary to en-
must be intimately acquainted with human nature—he Degenerate, who, constrained to wield the sword of disputation, shrunk not, though assailed
must possess acuteness to distinguish, and skill to anaWith hostile din, and combating in sight
lyze, the peculiarities of different charactershe must have Of angry umpires, partial and unjust."
imagination to invent, and judgment to classify, striking Sound Presbyterians though we be, far be it from us to
incidents he must uniformly render the situations of the refuse the homage of our admiration to episcopalian ge- personages interesting and probable ; and, as a subsidiary nius and profound acquirements. The work before us contains the substance of a Course casion by which it has been prompted.
requisite, his language must always be suited to the oc
In addition to of Lectures which the learned Bishop delivered in the all this, it is obvious that success will, in an especial Lent term of 1821. That our readers may form an idea of its plan, we shall enumerate the heads of the nine relate to events, which though ingeniously depicted, are
manner, depend on the choice of the subject. If it either chapters into which it is divided. 1. On the Writings of intrinsically common-place, or if it continually lead to Justin Martyr. 2. The Opinions of Justin respecting abstruse and metaphysical enquiries, the chief aim of the the nógos and the Trinity. 3. Justin's opinions respect- writer will be frustrated. We therefore decidedly obing original sin, the freedom of the will, grace, justifica-ject to a religious novel—a work which blends the sution, predestination. 4. Justin's opinions respecting bap- blimest truths with the most absurd fictions, and which, tism and the eucharist, with a particular reference to a
under the garb of whining sentimentalism, manifestly passage in the first Apology. 5. The immortality of the degrades, while it professes to recommend, the doctrines soul, the resurrection of the body, the millennium, future of Christianity. If religion is to become the legitimate judgments, angels, demons. 6. The condition of the framework for romance, why ought we to exclude anChristians in the time of Justin, and the causes of the atomy, algebra, or any other complex science? By rapid diffusion of Christianity. 7. The heresies mention the publication of a religious novel, there is a literary ed by Justin,-miscellaneous observations. 8. An ex- fraud practised on the reader, which he cannot fail to reamination of the question, whether Justin quoted the sent. He expects to trace'a resemblance between the gospels which we now have ? 9. Illustrations of the fanciful representation of the novelist, and the actual ocpreceding chapters from the writings of Fabian, Athen-currences of life ; but he finds, that the whole zest of the agoras, and Theophilus of Antioch, with additional re-eclaircissement consists in the unnatural reformation of marks. Such are the interesting topics which the learn
some confirmed rake, or in the miraculous endowment ed prelate discusses in the work before us. Justin Mar- of some flirting chambermaid with the acumen of a pro