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LITERARY CRITICISM.

the consistency of a sun-dried brick.

From the upper

parts of the plain, the traveller along the Tigris sees the Travels in Chaldæa, including a Journey from Bussorah to journey of many days their relative position seems still

mountains of Persia, but at such a distance, that after a Bagdad, Hillah, and Babylon, performed on foot in the same, awakening an impression in his mind that he 1827. With Observations on the sites and remains of is spell-bound, and toiling onwards without making any Babylon, Seleucia, and Ctesiphon By Capt. Robert

progress. Mignan, of the Hon. East India Company's Service. One vol. 8vo. Pp. 334. London. Henry Colburn derate-sized tree to the passenger's eye.

The whole extent of the plain offers scarcely one mo

Thick and exand Richard Bentley. 1829.

tensive groves of brushwood are, however, plentiful, rising The author of this work is so modest in his pretensions, somewhat above the height of a man. The neighbourthat he would be a hard-hearted critic indeed who could hood of cities and villages is generally enlivened by planttreat him with severity. Nor are the works of travellers, ations of the date palm. The marshy pieces of ground except in such cases as those of Humboldt, the French are clad even in summer with green herbage, reeds, and Saverus, and some other professedly scientific men, to be bulrushes. In the dry parts either bare soil is exposed, tried by the same standard that is applied to other liter- or it is thinly covered with a short sere herbage, withered ary productions. Every authentic piece of information thistles, and a prickly shrub called the camel's thorn. from a distant and imperfectly-known country is valu- Some of the brushwood forests are haunted by lions and able, inasmuch as it may serve to correct or extend our other beasts of prey. The banks of the rivers are inhaprevious knowledge of it: and every traveller who quietly bited by flocks of buffalos. The light gazelle bounds over and sensibly tells the story of what he has himself seen, the open plain. The pelican, and a number of smaller is worthy of attention.

birds, none of them remarkable either for plumage or Of Captain Mignan's antiquarian researches, we are song, are frequently to be met with. The finest kind of inclined to think that they contain several important cor- hawks used in hunting the antelope are found in this disrections of the statements of his predecessors. With re- trict. The excessive heat to which the inhabitants are gard, however, to the subject which he treats most in de exposed during the day, renders the body extremely sentail-the ruins of Babylon--we are still disposed to rest sible to the diminished temperature which succeeds at more confidently upon the statements of the late Mr sunset. The clearness of the atmosphere overhead, gives Rich, because that gentleman's observations and measure- a lustre to the heavenly bodies unknown in more northments were made at more leisure, and with a more com- ern latitudes. But the vapours which load the horizon plete apparatus, than Captain Mignan could command, cause the sun to appear, for some time after his rising and more especially because they were made without a and before his setting, a dull red mass, unsurrounded by view to any preconceived theory. This, however, is a rays. discussion upon which we do not at present intend to The greater part of the country is subject to the Pasha enter, We proceed to lay before our readers a sum- of Bagdad. He appoints the governors of the smaller mary of the information scattered through the volume towns : each of whom farms his district at a certain anbefore us respecting the present state of the plains of nual rental, and is left to repay himself as he best may, Shinar—the scene of the earliest human civilisation of by squeezing money out of those subjected to him. The which we possess any records--the scene of the fiercest authority exercised by each of those magistrates in his imconflicts between the various successive aspirants to the mediate vicinity, and a standing army kept on foot by domination of the world—the scene of the triumphant the Pasha, are the only guarantees for the preservation of grandeur of the Assyrian, the Mede, and the Persian-civil order. When to the evident inadequacy of such a the scene of Alexander's death, and of Haroun Alraschid's defective organization, we add, that Irak-Arabi (as it is splendour.

termed) is a frontier province, and recall to the reader's Our author's excursion led from Bussorah, along the mind the weakness and confusion at present existing in Shut-ul-Arab, as the natives term the river forined by the Ottoman government, we need scarcely add, that the the confluence of the Tigris and the Euphrates, to Koote; traveller is rather insecure both as regards his person and thence along the Tigris, here called the Dialah, to Bag- property. dad; and thence to Hillah, a town situated among the The population may be divided into two great classes ruins of ancient Babylon. The whole. district which -the inhabitants of the cities and villages, and the inhahe traversed is a vast plain, varied with slight undulations, bitants of the plains. It is among the former only that Intersected by the Tigris and Euphrates, by some streams we are to look for traces of regulated society, commerce, of less magnitude, and by a great number of canals. and industry. They consist of a mixture of Turks, ArFrom the rapidity of the two principal rivers, the angle menians, Jews, and a populace of domiciliated descendof its inclination to the plane of the sea must be consider- ants of the native tribes. The frame-work of society is able. During the winter season, a great part of the dis- nearly the same as is to be met with in all the dependentrict is under water, and even during the dry season most cies of the Turkish Empire. Their commerce extends of the hollows continue pools or marshes. The soil on little beyond the exporting the raw produce of their counthe rising grounds, on the contrary, which consists of a try, and receiving the manufactured goods of other counmixture of hard clay and sand, iş baked by the heat to tries in return. It is chiefly conducted by means of cara

What seems

One per

vans which traverse the desert, at stated intervals, to with a tolerably secure prospect of success. Aleppo and other mercantile depots. There is also some rather a disadvantage, considering their mode of life, is, trifling commercial intercourse between Bussorah and that they are almost all of them short-sighted; and few Bagdad by water carriage. It consists principally of In- of them can bear to fix their gaze steadily upon any object dian manufactures brought from Calcutta and the Malabar for a length of time. They have some rude manufactures coast, by ships of five hundred tons burden; about eight among them, which afford them employment when conof which trade up the Persian Gulf annually under the fined to their tents. Captain Mignan saw them busy English flag, and several under Arab and Persian colours. making a coarse kind of cloth from the wool of their The camel is the chief instrument of the land carriage. sheep. They first spin it into yarn, winding the threads The roads are in a state of nature, except where a bridge round small stones; these they hang on a stick, fixed in of boats has been stretched across some of the principal a horizontal position between some shrubs or trees, to rivers. The vessels on the Tigris are constructed of reeds form a woof; then passing other threads alternately beand willows thickly coated with bitumen ; the prow is tween these, they thus weave the cloth which they wear. the broadest part of the boat, being extremely unwieldy The chief employment of the men, however, is the chase, and bluff, and the whole as clumsy as possible.

or levying an arbitrary impost upon such travellers and The industry of the country is almost exclusively agri- caravans as pass through the district where their docks cultural; and even that is confined to the neighbourhood feed. They lately attacked the caravan from Bagdad to of cities. The cultivation of the ground is rude; but the Aleppo, before it had well cleared the suburbs of the forreturn, owing to the fertility of the soil, and the kindli- mer city. Captain Mignan seems inclined to attribute ness of the climate, exuberant. One of their methods of their increased audacity to a retrograde movement of the supplying the want of moisture is ingenious enough. The province in civilisation. Perhaps it might as justly be camel's thorn (hedysarum alfagi) abounds everywhere. attributed to the late troubles of the empire, which have "The Arabs divide the stem of the plant in spring near the somewhat loosened the bonds of government. root; a single seed of the water-melon is then inserted The Arabs are witbal a merry race, with a keen relish in the fissure, and the earth replaced about the stem of for drollery, and endued with a power over their features the thorn. The seed becomes a parasite ; and the nutri- that is shown off in the richest exhibitions of grimace. tive matter, which the brittle, succulent roots of the me- When they halt at night, they amuse themselves with lon are ill adapted to collect, is abundantly supplied by songs and interminable stories. Their melodies are simple, the deeper-searching and tougher fibres of the root of the and not a little monotonous : the subject of their songs camel's thorn. Two other sorts of industry, altoge- are brief exhortations to behave bravely. They dance, ther peculiar to this country, are, the quarrying of bricks too; and when on a march, they have an extempore fafrom the numerous mounds which mark the site of former shion of securing instrumental music. A kettle covered cities, and the search after coins, and other antiquities, with an empty oil-skin bag serves for a drum. The barwhich the wealthy Turks and Armenians purchase to mony of the instrument is heightened by the clapping of dispose of to Europeans. Both of these give employment hands, and a loud chorus of a peculiar strain. to numbers.

son at a time comes forward and dances, keeping up & Beyond the immediate neighbourhood of the cities, the constant wriggling motion with his feet, hands, breast, laws of the government are respected only where its mi- and shoulders, until his gestures become too fatiguing to nisters are personally present to enforce them. The mi- be continued. Their superstition is extreme. Nor is this gratory tribes regulate themselves by their own laws, and to be wondered at. Their religion has received into its constitute a different, and, in a great measure, independ-creed every wild tale of supernatural power that the ferent nation. This juxta-position of two different and un- tile East has produced. Ignorant though they be, they mixing races of men, however strange to those who are know that they tread upon the ruins of primeval empires. accustomed only to European institutions, is nothing un- The ghosts of the various superstitions which have en common in the East. In Persia, for example, the la- countered and shattered each other in this border land of bourers and the commercial part of the nation, together two great divisions of the human race, hover chilly over with their priests, and the attendants of the court, have them. When the moon shines down on the shapeless been domiciled in cities ; while those tribes which furnish mounds, the only remnants of ancient Babylon, the halfthe warriors of the nation continue to live under the tents barbarous natives draw shuddering closely together, and of their forefathers, and, in a great measure, to be a law hear in the breeze that moans around their tents, the evil unto themselves.

spirits wailing over the times when they were worshipped The external appearance of the Arab is not very invi- in the land. ting. In the encampment of an opulent tribe, which is Besides the observations made on the journey, the narfrequently surrounded as far as the eye can reach with ration of which fills the greater part of his book, Captain their flocks, may be found men and women, children, Mignan has given us some interesting historical and geohorses, mules, dogs, and asses, huddled together in groups graphical details respecting Bussorah, from native writers. beneath their long goat-hair tents. They are, in general, | The plates, too, which accompany the work, afford a betdirty, and in rags. Captain Mignan tells us, that he on ter idea of the objects represented than any description one occasion saw the process of slaughtering a sheep, and could. The map of Chaldea and Babylon, however, is preparing it for food. The animal's entrails and hoofs, particularly inaccurate : to say nothing of the egregious dipped once or twice into water, were devoured raw; the blunder of appending to it a scale of distances, according rest of the animal, unflayed and unshorn, was put into a to which, Hillah (among the ruins of Babylon) is not vessel, and half boiled, after which they drank the soup, three miles distant from Bagdad. But of the work itself and voraciously devoured the half-warmed carcass. In we have pleasure in recommending an attentive perusal

. passing through their tents, our author was occasionally exposed to annoyance by their eager curiosity; in other The Venetian Bracelet, The Lost Pleiad, A History of respects they were civil enough. The Desert Arabs, in particular, are a haughty and warlike race. They are

the Lyre, and other Poems. By L. E. L., author of the

Improvisatrice, the Troubadour, and the Golden Violet. not only excellent horsemen, but maneuvre, when collected into a troop, with considerable dexterity. One of

London. Longman, Rees, Orme, & Co. 1829. Pp.

307. them, who served Captain Mignan as a guard from Bagdad to Hillah, seemed impressed with the belief, that his We have a liking for Miss Landon, because she possesses single presence was as effective a protection as the united genius, and because she is anxious to turn that genius to strength of a whole caravan. Our traveller insinuates, as much account as possible. It is for this very reason however, that they are not fond of giving battle

, unless that we do not choose to pass over her faults in silence

or to bestow upon her that injudicious and indiscriminate must have an unhappy passion,” she adds, perhaps a little praise to which a few of her own personal friends have, too flippantly, “I can only console myself with my own perhaps sincerely, but certainly erroneously, imagined she perfect unconsciousness of so great a misfortune.” Now, was entitled. An ardent, or we might say, an impassioned this being the case, we ask at once, why ever speak in the temperament, lies at the foundation of Miss Landon's first person, when you discourse concerning unhappy paspoetical powers. Such a foundation is not a bad one, sions? If you know nothing about them practically, yet but it requires to be skilfully built upon. In the present strive to give the reader the impression that you do, deday, the poetry of feeling—that poetry which speaks to pend upon it, you will make numerous mistakes, for you the senses and to the heart—bas attained to much emi. are writing about what you do not thoroughly undernence; but we suspect it has arrived at the culminating stand. If you wish to make others weep, you must have point, and, having served its purpose, is destined speedily wept first yourself. If you have been crossed in love, to lose its temporary popularity. In making this remark, then you may harp upon these crosses with some chance we allude, of course, not to that poetry in which we find of doing it naturally; but if you have never been crossed strong feelings mingled with strong thoughts, but to that in love, and if truth to nature be above all other requimore unsubstantial species of composition in which a sites in poetry, then, for Heaven's sake, strike into some stimulus is given to the affections and the passions by different strain. In like manner, if you have never met the mere force of continual appeals to the softer part of with any very severe misfortunes, and are, on the whole, our nature, without any very good and ostensible cause a lively, good-natured sort of girl, as we believe you to being shown why such appeals should be made. The eye be, why should you for ever be lamenting over miseries gazes with delight upon the gorgeous colours of the sum- which do not exist ? Byron was a gloomy man, and it mer evening clouds, but were these gay pageants to remain was therefore all very proper that his poetry should le for ever, it would soon turn away from them with indif- gloomy; but if you are not gloomy, then assume a tone ference, to rest upon the softer loveliness of the blue ex- inore in unison with the ordinary feelings of humanity, panse. So it is with much modern poetry. It is too and also with your own dispositions, else a heartless luscious,—too full of gaudy colouring,—too much adapted affectation will pervade every thing you write—affectafor certain dreamy and sickly states of the mind,—and tion of the very worst kind, that which attempts to ex

too little in unison with the real state of things in this cite sympathy for imaginary sorrows, and to raise a be: sublunary sphere. In the prince of all our poets—Shak- lief, like a cunning mendicant, that you are in a much

speare—where shall we find any such specimens of East- more desolate condition than you ever were, or ever will ern voluptuousness and morbid sensibility as have of late be. Poetry does not consist in such tricks as these. Yet teemed from the press ?

Miss Landon is continually pouring out such sentiments It is somewhat remarkable that, in this respect, the as the following: march of poetry has been entirely in the opposite direction

“ My days are past to that of prose. · The puling sentimental trash which, Among the cold, the careless, and the false. towards the conclusion of last century, formed the staple What part have I in them, or they in me?” commodity of all our circulating libraries, has given place Or, to the more rational historical novels of Sir Walter Scott

“ We do too much regard
: and others, or to the very slight tincture of romance which Others' opinions, but neglect their feelings;

characterizes the straight-forward transactions of a tale of Thrice happy if such order were reversed.”
fashionable life. But with poetry, the case is widely dif- Or,
ferent. Pope has been laid upon the shelf, and Moore “ I'm weary, weary: day-dreams, years,
has taken his place upon the table. Sense has been sa-

I've seen alike depart,
crificed to sound; and the head has been allowed to lie And sullen care and discontent
fallow, while the heart has been called upon to produce a Hang brooding o'er my heart.”
crop of feelings upon all occasions, and at a moment's warn-

Now, not to speak it profanely, not one word of this is ing. Byron, the master-spirit of modern times, is greatly true. Miss Landon does not pass her days among the to be blamed for this rush towards so palpable an extreme cold, the careless, and the false;" sullen care and disconin the poetical world. But in his case, the diseased ego

tent do not hang “ brooding o'er her heart ;" and she does tism of his tortured mind is scarcely offensive, because it not, nor does any one else, pay too much regard to the makes us more intimately acquainted with the secrets of opinions of others, to the neglect of their feelings; for his mighty nature. A similar display of selfish sorrow

opinions are exactly what we ought to pay regard to, in coming from the lips of smaller persons ceases to be any opposition to feelings. But this is not all. Miss Lanthing but ludicrous, for it only gives them a resemblance don is also very fond of indulging in such reflections as to the frog in the fable. If Byron himself has too little these : abstract thought in his works, and too much palaver about

“ The worthlessness of common praise, his own feelings, and if this is pardoned simply because

The dry rot of the mind, his talents carried it through, and because there was a

By which its temple secretly, stern sincerity in the intensity with which he preyed upon

But fast, is underminedhimself, there is surely no reason why they who are anxi- Alas! the praise given to the ear, ous to imitate his beauties should also involve themselves Neer was, nor c'er can be, sincere, with his faults.

And does but waste away the mind These observations have a reference to Miss Landon.

On which it preys :-in vain She bas good, strong feelings, and without them nobody

Would they, in whom its poison lurks,

A worthier state attaincan write poetry; but she does not make a good, healthy

Indifference-proud, immortal aimuse of them. She allows them to run into a channel of

Had aye the demigods of fame." affectation; and often, when she thinks she is pathetic, she is simply unnatural. It may perhaps startle Miss This is terribly morbid; and if Miss Landon thinks it Landon to be accused of affectation ; but of affectation fine writing, she is quite mistaken. It is not true to we most distinctly do accuse ber. In her preface to the nature, and therefore bad. A kind of suspicion, that she present volume, she tells us, that with regard to the fre- is too apt to fall into this vein, seems to cross the mind quent application of her works to herself, considering that of the authoress occasionally; and in one of these better she sometimes pourtrayed love unrequited, then betrayed, moods, she says of herself, with great justice—at least we and again destroyed by death, the conclusions are not suppose she alludes to herselfquite logically drawn, as the same mind cannot have suf

“ I have fed fered such varied modes of misery. “ However, if I Perhaps too much upon the lotus fruits

Imagination yields,-fruits which unfit

Upon the same theme, wbich appears to absorb so much The palate for the more substantial food

of Miss Landon's attention, we have the following pretty Of our own land-reality.”

passage: This is exactly what we are aiming at. We wish to inculcate that all poetry must rest upon reality, not less than

“ Then came the wanderings long and lonely, imagination, and that Miss Landon, and many of her

As if the world held them-them only; school, place far too little store by the former. Be fer

The gather'd flower, which is to bear

Some gentle secret, whisper'd there; vent, be fanciful, be pathetic, but, above all, be real,- be The seat beneath the forest tree; true to yourself, and your own nature, and the world The breathless silence, which, to love, around you. If you paint woe, let it be woe which actu- Is all that eloquence can be ; ally exists,—not your own blue-devilism. This may im- The looks, ten thousand words above; pose for a time, but the healthy part of the public will

The fond, deep gaze, till the fix'd eye soon discover the deceit, and, instead of weeping by your

Casts ench on each a mingled dye; bed-side, will laugh at the ingenious pretences by which

The interest round each little word,

Though scarcely said, and scarcely heard you have contrived to enter yourself upon the doctor's Little love asks of language aid, sick-list.

For never yet hath vow been made We wish to rouse Miss Landon, therefore, to some- In that young hour, when love is new v; thing more manly, and honest, and substantial. She is He feels at first so deep, so true, worth taking this trouble with, because there are stamina

A promise is a useless token, in her. Let her cease to whine so much about love

When neither dreams it can be broken.

Alas! vows are bis after sign! unrequited love, and white roses, and drooping violets,

We prop the tree in its decline! and pale young men who die nobody knows why; let her

The ghosts that haunt a parting hour, study history, and passing from her dreamy land of blue With all of grief, and nought of power ; skies and broken vows, let her watch the active and ac- A chain half sunder'd in the making, tual developement of human passion in all stages and The plighted vows already breaking ; spheres of life, and she will come then to find that men

From such dreams all too soon we wake, and women, such as they are, have been, and will always

For, like the moonlight on the lake, be, afford far higher materials for poetry than the maudlin

One passing cloud, one waving bough,

The silver light, what is it now?"-Pp. 74-5. creations of a love-sick brain. We have good hopes, that as Miss Landon gets older, she will see the propriety of The following lines upon the poet's fate are still more attending to this advice ; in which case she will cease to to our taste. The most popular of our living bards (whosing merely for boys and tender girls, she will become ever that may be) need not have been ashamed of writing far less of a mannerist, and she will take a better grasp them : of her subject, and give more individuality to her concep

- Trace the young poet's fate : tions.

Fresh from his solitude, the child of dreams, Yet, with all her faults, we like Miss Landon, as we

His heart upon his lips, he seeks the world, said at the outset. She is full of enthusiasm, and has a To find him fame and fortune, as if life good deal, as we have also said, of that je ne sai quoi, Were like a fairy-tale. His song has led commonly called genius. One can never be very angry The way before him: flatteries øll his ear, with her, and she writes at times with great earnestness

His presence courted, and his words are caught; and truth. It is needless to particularise the contents of

And he seems happy in so many friends. the volume before us. Its leading features very much

What marvel if he somewhat over-rate

His talents and his state? These scenes soon change resemble those of its predecessors, although we think, on

The vain, who sought to mix their name with his; the whole, it is superior to any of them. “ The Vene- The curious, who but live for some new sight; tian Bracelet,” “ The Lost Pleiad,” “ A History of the The idle,-all these have been gratified, Lyre," and “ The Ancestress,” are tales simple in inci- And now, neglect stings even more than scorn. dent, but prettily told, and full of many sweet, delicate, Envy has spoken, felt more bitterly, and feminine sentiments. The “ Poetical Portraits"

For that it was not dreamt of; worldliness and “ Miscellaneous Poems" are unequal, some being

Has crept upon his spirit unaware;

Vanity craves for its accustom'd food; very good, and others so poor that they should bave been

He has turn'd sceptic to the truth which made left out altogether. Miss Landon does not seem to have

His feelings poetry; and discontent yet quite learned the secret of how to improve a book by Hangs heavily on the lute, which wakes no more abridging it. Without farther preface, we shall select a Its early music:-social life is fillid few passages from her volume, which we offer as favour- With doubts and vain aspirings; solitude, able specimens of her abilities. We begin, as in duty

When the imagination is dethroned,

Is turu'd to weariness. What can he do bound, with something on the subject of love : “ Love, wbat a mystery thou art !-how strange

But hang his lute on some lone tree, and die!"-P. 105.6. Thy constancy, yet still more so thy change!

Of the minor poems, the most spirited and vigorous is How the same love, born in the self-same hour,

one with rather an obscure title; we subjoin the greater Holds over different hearts such different power ;

part of it: How the same feeling, lighted in the breast, Makes one so wretched, and makes one so blest;

LINES OF LIFE. How one will keep the dream of passion, born

“Well, read my cheek and watch my eyeIn youth, with all the freshness of its morn;

Too strictly school'd are they, How from another will their image fade!

One secret of my soul to show, Far deeper records on the sand are made.

One hidden thought betray. -Why hast thou separate being ? why not die

I never knew the time my heart At once in both, and not leave one to sigh,

Look'd freely from my brow; To weep, to rave, to struggle with the chains

It once was check'd by timidness, Pride would fling off, but memory retains ?

'Tis taught by caution now. There are remembrances that will not vanish,

I live among the cold, the false, Thoughts of the past we would, but cannot, banish :

And I must seem like them ; As if to show how impotent mere will,

And such I am, for I am false We loathe the pang, and yet must suffer still;

As those I most condemn. For who is there will say he can forget ?

I teach my lip its sweetest smile, It is a power no science teaches yet.

My tongue its softest tone : Oh, love! how sacred thy least words should be,

I borrow others' likeness, till When on them bangs such abject misery !"-Pp. 36-8.

Almost I lose my own.

I pass through flattery's gilded sieve,

stand what is meant by the practice which prevails in the Whatever I would say ;

sister-church, of one clergyman addressing others on points In social life, all, like the blind,

of doctrine and professional obligation. Must learn to feel their way.

The author of the short discourse now before us has I check my thoughts, like curbed steeds That struggle with the rein;

been long known to the literary world, as a person of I bid my feelings sleep, like wrecks

no ordinary acquirements, both as a divine and as a In the unfathom'd main.

philosopher. The able articles which he contributed to I hear them speak of love, the deep,

the Encyclopædia Britannica, of which work he was The true, and mock the name,

some time the Editor, extended his reputation to all parts Mock at all high and early truth;

of Europe, and will preserve the remembrance of his And I too do the same. I hear them tell some touching tale,

name to many future generations. Metaphysics, TheoI swallow down the tear;

logy, and some other treatises not less learned, and perI hear them name some generous deed,

haps still more ingenious in the structure of their arguAnd I have learnt to sneer.

ment, established the character of Dr Gleig as a writer of I hear the spiritual, the kind,

the first class, and prepared the world for the several voThe pure, but named in mirth;

lumes which he has since published on Biblical criticism, Till all of good, ay, even hope

Scriptural antiquities, and on the professional education Seems exiled from our earth.

of a divine. And one fear, withering ridicule Is all that I can dread;

This tract, addressed to the Episcopal clergy in the A sword hung by a single hair

district of Brechin, sets forth, in language remarkable for Forever o'er the head.

perspicuity and vigour, the constitution of a church acWe bow to a most servile faith,

cording to the prelatical model ; the principles of which, In a most servile fear,

we regret to hear, on an authority so unquestionable, seem While none among us dares so say

not so well understood at present among the EpiscopaWhat none will choose to hear.

lians of Scotland as they were twenty years ago. What And if we dream of loftier thoughts, In weakness they are gone;

may be the cause of this falling-off in point of intellect And indolence and vanity

or docility, we are not told, and it would not become us Rivet our fetters on.

to conjecture; but we can take upon us to assert, that Surely I was not born for this !

those who read this “ Charge” with the proper disposiI feel a loftier mood

tion to be instructed, will no longer be ranked among the Of generous impulse, high resolve,

ignorant members of a communion, which, considering Steal o'er my solitude !

its pretensions to principle, ought, above all others, to I gaze upon the thousand stars That fill the midnight sky,

eschew the hazard of perishing for lack of knowledge. And wish, so passionately wish,

For example, the Bishop tells us that,
A light like theirs on high.

To every attentive reader of the New Testament, it must I have such eagerness of hope

be obvious, that the earliest preachers of the gospel, whe To benefit my kind;

ther denominated Apostles or Evangelists, as soon as they And feel as if immortal power

had converted to the faith a company of believers, who Were given to my mind.

might at one time, and in one place, associate together for Oh! not myself—for what am I?

the participation of all the institutions and ordinances of The worthless and the weak,

the Christian Church, ordained Presbyters, called by our Where every thought of self should raise

translators Elders, by whom these ordinances might be adA blush to burn my cheek;

ministered. The Apostle, however, or Evangelist, who But song has touch'd my lips with fire,

laid the foundation of any particular church, retained in And made my heart a shrine

his own hands the government of that church, till he found For what, although alloy'd, debased,

a man, such as St Paul found in Timothy and in Titus, Is in itself divine."-É. 265-72.

who might be intrusted with authority to free him from

the burden of taking care of all the churches of which he We once more beg to assure Miss Landon that we had laid the foundation; and such a man, when advanced have the most friendly feelings towards her, and that to the highest order of the ministers of Christ, and placed though it would have been easy for us to have dwelt at

over a company of Presbyters and believing Christians, as greater length upon the beauties of her productions, we

the Pastor and Overseer of them all, constituted that comhave preferred enlarging rather upon their defects, in the pany a regular church, or branch of the Catholic Church

of Christ. The first churches were generally planted in hope that, by correcting these, she will enable us, ere long, the cities of the Roman empire; and the office of their Pas to bestow upon her less qualified commendation than our tor and Overseer was to instruct them more fully than they conscience would permit of at present. We pluck a plume had hitherto been in the doctrines of the gospelto admior two from her, only that she may the sooner obtain nister all the ordinances of Christ and to enforce obedience new and stronger feathers to her wings.

to bis laws, by the excommunication of all such as should be obstinately impious or immoral. The Pastor and Over

seer appears to have been styled, indifferently, the Apostle, The Constitution of the Scotch Episcopal Church, con (which our translators bave

, on one occasion, improperly cisely stated, in a Charge, delivered in August, 1829, to rendered the Messenger), the Angel, or the Bishop of the the Clergy of the Episcopal Communion of Breckin. By with other ministers interior to himself, they were all den

church over which he presided; or, when he was classed the Right Reverend George Gleig, LL.D., F.R.S.E., nominated Priests or Presbyters, as bad been the practice and F.S.S. A., their Bishop. Stirling : Printed for likewise with respect to the Jewish priests of different orders C. J. G. and F. Rivington, London; and Bell and under the Mosaic dispensation.”. Bradfute, Edinburgh.

“ To the Apostle, Angel, or Bishop of the city, was assign

ed the office of converting to the faith the inhabitants of all In this Presbyterian country, it may be necessary to in the adjacent country, including often several villages, over form our readers, that by the word " Charge,” is meant which the authority of a civil magistrate extended; and as an address delivered by a Bishop to the clergy under his soon as the Bishop found persons qualified for the office, he superintendence ; explaining to them the grounds of their adınitted them to the order of Deacons or of Priests, and sent duty as ministers of the gospel, and pressing upon their them

out from time to time, as occasion required, to preach consciences the numerous motives which ought to induce who lived at a distance too great to permit them to attend

the gospel, and administer the sacraments of Christ to those them to perform it. Were the moderator of one of our regularly his own ministrations. He continued, however, presbyteries a permanent office-bearer, and invested with to be himself the Pastor of the whole district; and the certain powers which such an appointment would almost Presbyters and Deacons, who, at that early period, lived necessarily create or attract to it, we should better under- with him in the city, as in a kind of college, were nothing

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