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Mr Chambers divides his History of the Rebellion in- has the art, as much as any living writer with whom we to eight Chapters, of which by far the most interesting are acquainted, of mixing the utile with the dulce, and is the fifth, in which we have an account of the battle of writing a book which is sure to be read. The conseKilliecranky. There is not a Chapter of greater merit quence is, that his price is rapidly rising with the pubin all our author's works than this. It is graphic, pic- lishers, and, we doubt not but that in a few years, turesque, and animated in the highest degree. We wish scarcely any literary man will be in the receipt of a betwe could quote the whole of it, but can only refer to it. ter literary income. The Chapter which follows, and which contains anecdotes of the battle, we suspect is more apocryphal. Its authority rests principally upon certain Highland tradi- The Life and Actions of Alexander the Great. By the tions, by which it appears that the Highlanders on this Rev. J. Williams, A.M. Vicar of Lampeter. Being day performed exploits sufficient to have made Hector, No. III. of the Family Library. London. John MurAjax, and Achilles, ashamed of their own feebleness, We have a great respect for the Highlanders; and by the
This is the work of a scholar and clever man, and is use he has made of their traditions, it is quite evident that Mr Chambers must have a still greater.
vigorously executed. Mr Williams is well known in As to the Rebellion of fifteen, we were very much Edinburgh by his successful Rectorship of the New Acapleased with the manner in which the narrative com- demy. His Life of Alexander “is chiefly intended,” he It is in these words :
tells us in his Preface, “ for youthful readers;" but we " It is related, that on the 6th of December, 1688, when are well convinced that readers of far riper years, who the Queen of James II. was in the act of flying from the take an interest in these classical subjects, will peruse it kingdom, she was obliged to wait for an hour under the with no small profit and gratification. It is strange, walls of Lambeth church, till a hackney coach could be pro- however, to think how little the great mass of the readcured from the city to convey her to the boat upon the ing public care about Alexander the Great. He is the
Thames. She stood with the Prince of Wales in her arms, very god of our boyish idolatry; but after we have been (then a child of four months,) very imperfectly sheltered well buffeted through Curtius and Plutarch, our nature from the heavy cold rain of a December night; not a single attendant, out of all that formerly constituted her court,
seems to undergo a change, and the fiery Macedonian is was there to cheer her mind or relieve the irksomeness of laid upon the shelf, probably for the rest of our lives, unher burden; and, as her eye wandered back upon the mul- less we happen casually to recur to him for the purpose titudinous lights of the far-spread city, she had ample time of pointing a moral. Were more books at our command, to compare the splendid retrospect of her fortunes, which like that now before us, this might not be the case. The that scene seemed to symbolize, with the dark future into only fault we can find with Mr Williams is, that his which she was about to plunge. It is strange to think that style is perhaps a little too dry. “ There is something the interests of a great people should have depended so much as they did, upon the fate of the miserable little infant which
more wholesome and invigorating to the mind," he ob this desolate woman bore in her arms. Had a constable serves, in the naked perception of truth, than in all the happened to come up during that hour, or had the coach glowing colours of fancy.” This is very correct; but been delayed, it is very probable that the House of Hanover the young reader, especially, looks for something attractwould have never sat upon the throne—that we should have ive, as well as wholesome and invigorating. We could been spared the three rebellions of 1689, 1715, and 1745— have wished, therefore, that the colours here and there that, indeed, a totally different turn would have been given had been a little more glowing. Yet the work is one to the fate of the British empire. It is vain, of course, to speculate upon what might have happened but for certain which cannot but reflect high credit upon its author. It little circumstances; because, in the economy of both na- is full, accurate, and learned. tions and individuals, little circumstances are perpetually affecting their fate; and what is there more in any one little circumstance than in another? Yet there is something peculiarly striking in the matter alluded to. It is allowed to The Christian Student. Designed to assist Christians in have been the grand error, or rather, perhaps, the only mis- general in acquiring Religious Knowledge. With Lists fortune, of the great men who achieved the Revolution, of Books adapted to the various Classes of Society. By that they did not secure the person of the infant heir of
the Rev. Edward Bickersteth, Minister of Sir George King James, so as to educate him for eventual sovereignty in a style of politics and religion suitable to the wishes of
Wheler's Chapel, Spital Square. London ; Seeley & the nation. By permitting his escape to France along with
Burnside. 1829. 12mo, Pp. 636. his parents, they insured his being brought up in principles which untitted him for the government of the British Mr BICKERSTETH is well known in the religious world nation; and thus inducing the necessity of adopting a Pro- as a very useful writer, by several practical works on testant' heir from a distant branch of the royal family, theological subjects, which are distinguished by their they gave unnecessary occasion to a race of pretenders, and sound reasoning, consistent piety, clearness of arrangeintroduced an uncertainty of principle into the whole theory of succession, which may even yet be productive of mis- ment, and simplicity of style. He has already given the chief. It is certainly to be lamented, that the Queen was reading public three or four treatises in the shape of mo not arrested with her precious charge during that last hour dest duodecimos, and now we have a volume, which we of her residence in Britain, which she spent under the walls cannot describe better than by saying, that it is, in apof Lambeth Church."-Pp. 157-9.
pearance, a very twin brother to Mrs Dalgairns' Cookery In this History also we have to complain that the real Book, and contains an immense deal of advice and inforcharacter of the Earl of Mar is too much sheltered for mation on a variety of subjects.
His former works are the sake of the cause he ultimately espoused.
held in such estimation, that the “ Scripture Help," his a mean, truckling, weak, and selfish politician; and yet, first production, has, we observe, reached a fourteenth after in effect allowing this, Mr Chambers sums up by edition ; his other treatises, “ On Prayer,” “ The Lord's saying, “ But it is but justice to the memory of a man Supper,” and, “ On hearing the Word,” enjoy nearly an who has been somewhat hardly dealt with by posterity, equal share of the public favour. to say that, under better circumstances, he might have Touching Mr Bickersteth's new volume,'" The Chrisshone as one of the greatest and most unimpeachable cha- tian Student," it seems to be a work intended principally racters. We confess we cannot understand this; if it for theological students and young clergymen, but may be means any thing at all it would serve as an apology for studied with advantage by all classes. We would partithe most consummate villain that ever existed.
cularly recommend to candidates for holy orders, ChapBut take it for all in all, and this volume, of which we ter X., “ Advice to a Student on entering the Universihave given so imperfect an account, will be read with ty.” The whole seven sections also of Chapter XI., much pleasure over the whole country, Mr Chambers containing, “ The Fathers,— The Schoolmen and their
16 Are ye
Contemporaries,—The Reformers and their Successors, them, with which Mr Scott was highly delighted. I had - The Divines of the Restoration and Revolution,—and sent him a copy, (not a very perfect one, as I found afterModern Writers," embrace a great deal of useful and wards, from the singing of another Laidlaw,) but I pleasantly written biographical sketches. The arrange thought Mr Scott had some dread of a part being forged, ment of the work is excellent; and the lists at the end of that had been the cause of his journey into the wilds of the volume display a comprehensive knowledge of books, Ettrick. When he heard my mother sing it he was old and new.
quite satisfied, and I remember he asked her if she thought it had ever been printed, and her answer was,
“ Oo, na, na, sir, it was never printed i' the world, Stories of Popular Voyages and Travels ; with Illustra- my brothers an’ me learned it frae auld Andrew Moor, tions. London. Effingham Wilson. 1829.
an' he learned it, an' mony mae, frae ane auld Baby
Mettlin, that was housekeeper to the first laird o' TushiThis is a very pretty and entertaining volume. It con- law." tains abridged narratives from some of the most popular
“ Then that must be a very auld story, indeed, Marrecent writers on South America, particularly Captain
garet,” said he. Basil Hall, Captain Head, Mr Wąterton, and Mr Ward.
“ Ay, it is that! It is an auld story! But mair nor It is illustrated with several excellent lithographic plates, that, except George Warton and James Steward, there and among the rest an admirable caricature by Cruick
was never ane o' my sangs prentit till ye prentit them shanks, representing Mr Waterton riding on the back of yoursell, an' ye hae spoilt them a'thegither. They war the cayman or crocodile. To those who are not able to made for singing, an' no for reading; and they're neither purchase, or who have no leisure to read, the larger ori-right spelled nor right setten down.” ginal works, this volume will be both pleasant and pro- “ Heh-heh-heh! Take ye that, Mr Scott," said fitable; and to the young it will serve the double pur- Laidlaw. pose, of both tempting them to read, and repaying them
Mr Scott answered by a hearty laugh, and the recital for reading. We shall be glad to see the ingenious edi- of a verse, but I have forgot what it was, and my mother tor produce more volumes upon a similar plan.
gave him a rap on the knee with her open hand, and said “ It was true enough, for a' that.”
We were all to dine at Ramseycleuch with the Messrs Fine Arts.—Gleanings from the Portfolio of an Amateur. | Brydon, but Mr Scott and Mr Laidlaw went away to By Sir James Stuart, Bart. Edinburgh. D. Lizars. look at something before dinner, and I was to follow. On
going into the stable-yard at Ramseycleuch I met with
Mr Scott's liveryman, a far greater original than his masSir JAMES Stuart is well known as an amateur artist ter, whom I asked if the Shirra was come ? of great boldness and freedom of pencil. These Glean- 0, ay, lad, the Shirra's come,” said he. ings from his Portfolio are worthy of the reputation he the chiel that mak the auld ballads and sing them ?" has acquired. Including the etching on the cover, they “ I said I fancied I was he that he meant, though I are six in number :-). The Studio ; 2. The Stirrup had never made ony very auld ballads." Cup; 3. Ruins of Corfe Castle ; 4. A Study from Ve- “ Ay, then, lad, gae your ways in an' speir for the kasquez ; 5. A Study from Vandyke; 6. Fishing-Boat, Shirra. They'll let ye see where he is. Torbay. Of these the Stirrup Cup, and the two designs glad to see you." after Velasquez and Vandyke, please us most. We have During the sociality of the evening, the discourse ran seen the originals of the two latter, and can answer for very much on the different breeds of sheep, that curse of the great truth and spirit of the copies. The grouping the community of Ettrick Forest. The original blackin the Stirrup Cup is exceedingly good ; and in the sketch faced Forest breed being always called the short sheep, and of Corfe Castle it is hardly inferior. Altogether these the Cheviot breed the long sheep, the disputes at that Gleanings” are well worth the attention both of the period ran very high about the practicable profits of each. artist and man of taste.
Mr Scott, who had come into that remote district to preserve what fragments remained of its legendary lore, was
rather bored with the everlasting question of the long and MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE.
the short sheep. So at length, putting on his most seri
ous calculating face, he turned to Mr Walter Brydon and REMINISCENCES OF FORMER DAYS.
said, “ I am rather at a loss regarding the merits of this MY FIRST INTERVIEW WITH SIR WALTER SCOTT.
very important question. How long must a sheep actuBy the Ettrick Shepherd.
ally measure to come under the denomination of a long One fine day in the summer of 1801, as I was busily Mr Brydon, who, in the simplicity of his heart, neither engaged working in the field at Ettrick House, Wat Shiel perceived the quiz nor the reproof, fell to answer with came over to me and said, that “ I boud gang away down great sincerity,—“ It's the woo, sir-it's the woo that to the Ramseycleuch as fast as my feet could carry me, makes the difference. The lang sheep bae the short woo, for there war some gentlemen there wha wantit to speak and the short sheep hae the lang thing; and these are
just kind o' names we gie them like.” Mr Scott could " Wha can be at the Ramseycleuch that wants me, not preserve his grave face of strict calculation ; it went
gradually away, and a hearty guffaw followed. When I I couldna say, for it wasna me that they spak to i' saw the very same words repeated near the beginning of
But I'm thinking it's the Shirra an' the Black Dwarf, bow could I be mistaken of the author ? some o' his gang."
It is true, Johnnie Ballantyne persuaded me into a nomiI was rejoiced to hear this, for I had seen the first vo- nal belief of the contrary, for several years following, but lumes of The Minstrelsy of the Border, and had copied a I could never get the better of that and several similar number of old things from my mother's recital, and sent coincidences. them to the Editor preparatory for a third volume. I ac- The next day we went off, five in number, to visit the cordingly went towards home to put on my Sunday clothes, wilds of Rankleburn, to see if on the farms of Buccleuch but before reaching it I met with The Shirra and Mr there were any relics of the Castles of Buccleuch or William Laidlaw coming to visit me. They alighted and Mount-Comyn, the ancient and original possession of the remained in our cottage for a space better than an hour, Scotts. We found no remains of either tower or fortaand my mother chanted the ballad of Old Maitlan' to lice, save an old chapel and churchyard, and a mill and
He'll be very
mill-lead, where corn never grew, but where, as old survey any with so much attention. A single serious Satchells very appropriately says,
look at a scene generally filled his mind with it, and he Had heather-bells been corn of the best,
seldom took another ; but here he took the names of all The Buccleuch mill would have had a noble grist. the hills, their altitudes, and relative situations with reIt must have been used for grinding the chief's black- gard to one another, and made me repeat them several mails, which, it is known, were all paid to him in kind. times. It may occur in some of his works which I have Many of these still continue to be paid in the same way; not seen, and I think it will, for he has rarely ever been and if report say true, he would be the better of a mill known to interest himself, either in a scene or a characand kiln on some part of his land at this day, as well as ter, which did not appear afterwards in all its most a sterling conscientious miller to receive and render. striking peculiarities.
Besides having been mentioned by Satchells, there was There are not above five people in the world who, I a remaining tradition in the country, that there was a think, know Sir Walter better, or understand his chafont stone of blue marble, in which the ancient heirs of racter better, than I do ; and if I outlive him, which is Buccleuch were baptized, covered up among the ruins of ; likely, as I am five months and ten days younger, I will the old church. Mr Scott was curious to see if we could draw a mental portrait of him, the likeness of which to discover it; but on going among the ruins we found the the original shall not be disputed. In the meantime, rubbish at the spot, where the altar was known to have this is only a reminiscence, in my own line, of an illusbeen, digged out to the foundation---we knew not by whom, trious friend among the mountains. but no font had been found. As there appeared to have The enthusiasm with which he recited, and spoke of been a kind of recess in the eastern gable, we fell a turn- our ancient ballads, during that first tour of his through ing over some loose stones, to see if the font was not the Forest, inspired me with a determination immediately concealed there, when we came upon one half of a small to begin and imitate them, which I did, and soon grew pot, encrusted thick with rust. Mr Scott's eyes brighten- tolerably good at it. Of course I dedicated The Mouned, and he swore it was an ancient consecrated helmet. tain Bard to him ;Laidlaw, however, scratching it minutely out, found it
Blest be his generous heart for aye; covered with a layer of pitch inside, and then said, “ Ay,
He told me where the relic lay, the truth is, sir, it is neither mair nor less than a piece
Pointed my way with ready will,
Afar on Ettrick's wildest hill, of a tar pat that some o' the farmers hae been buisting
Watch'd my first notes with curious eye, their sheep out o', i' the auld kirk langsyne." Sir Wal
And wonder'd at my minstrelsy :
He little weend a parent's tongue ter's shaggy eyebrows dipped deep over his eyes, and
Such strains had o'er my cradle sung. suppressing a smile, he turned and strode away as fast as he could, saying, that “ We had just rode all the way to
ST FILLAN'S SPRING. see that there was nothing to be seen."
I remember his riding upon a terribly high-spirited Harp of the North, that mouldering long hast hung horse, who had the perilous fancy of leaping every drain,
On the witch-elm that shades St Fillan's Spring.
Lady of the Lake. rivulet, and ditch that came in our way; the consequence was, that he was everlastingly hogging himself, while The genius of romantic poesy could not have chosen a sometimes his rider kept his seat despite of his plunging, fitter retreat than the borders of St Fillan's Spring. It and at other times he was obliged to extricate himself the is a wild, luxuriant, unbroken solitude-a perfect cento best way he could. In coming through a place called of Swiss or Highland scenery. To be viewed aright, a the Milsey Bog, I said to him, “ Mr Scott, that's the | Highland landscape should be seen in the pride of summaddest deil of a beast I ever saw. Can ye no gar him mer. Then, the most barren rocks are touched with vertak a wee mair time? He's just out o' ae lair intil an- dure; alpine plants and trailing shrubs—the glossy arother wi' ye.”
butus, saxifrage, &c.—climb the steepest precipices, and “ Ay,” said he, “ we have been very oft, these two every patch of sheltered greepsward has its knot of wild days past, like the Pechs; we could stand straight up and flowers. Even the water, oozing through rents and fistie our shoes.” I did not understand the joke, nor do I sures, and trickling down ledges of herbless granite, has, yet, but I think these were his words.
in its delicious coolness, something of summer beauty; We visited the old Castles of Thirlestane and Tushilaw, and it is ten to one but we find a small shaded well, or and dined and spent the afternoon, and the night, with bunch of primroses, at its base. In the old pastoral disMr Brydon of Crosslee. Sir Walter was all the while tricts, the cattle of many hills may be seen grazing on the in the highest good-humour, and seemed to enjoy the silvan plain by the side of the lake—the native woods, range of mountain solitude, which we traversed, exceed- oak, larch, and birch, are full of leaf and fragrance-the ingly. Indeed I never saw him otherwise. In the streams, as they glance and fall in the sun, are rife with fields on the rugged mountains or even toiling in trout or salmon — and the blossomed heath and furze Tweed to the waist, I have seen his glee not only sur- (emblems though they be of our churlish soil) are redopass himself, but that of all other men. I remember of lent of bees and birds. If it be the Sabbath morningleaving Altrive Lake once with him, accompanied by the
Blest day, so calm, so bright, same Mr Laidlaw, and Sir Adam Fergusson, to visit the
The bridal of the earth and sky! tremendous solitudes of The Grey Mare's Tail, and the wanderer is touched by the spectacle of the whole Loch Skene. I conducted them through that wild region population of the glen journeying to the house of prayerby a path, which, if not rode by Clavers, was, I daresay, the old men with their plaids and bonnets, the youngsters never rode by another gentleman. Sir Adam rode in- in their kilts, and the girls bareheaded—for you will not advertently into a gulf, and got a sad fright, but Sir Wal- see a dozen female bonnets in a Highland church-but ter, in the very worst paths, never dismounted, save at with their hair finely curled and plaited, and their garish Loch Skene to take some dinner. We went to Moffat red or chequered shawls hung over their arm. These, that night, where we met with some of his family, and as they issue in separate groups from the rocky passes, such a day and night of glee I never witnessed. Our or descend the braes and woods, give an interest and picvery perils were matter to him of infinite merriment; and turesqueness to the mountain landscape that is never forthen there was a short-tempered boot-boy at the inn, who gotten by the spectator. wanted to pick a quarrel with him, at which he laughed Such are some of the elements of a Highland strath till the water ran over his cheeks.
or glen, arrayed in the glory of summer. Painters, I was disappointed in never seeing some incident in who love contrast, prefer the commencement of autumn, his subsequent works laid in a scene resembling the when the “ sere and yellow leaf” is superadded to the rugged solitude around Loch Skene, for I never saw him staple green of the woods ; but there is more of mirth
and joyousness in the full luxuriance of summer. Old stone in the water near the rock. Thence he was pushed thoughts and feelings come back to the mind with great- into the pool, and submerged three times in its healing er vividness and freshness, and new fancies stream waters. A friend of mine lately saw this operation per
more freely into the imagination. Dr Johnson seems formed upon a poor maniac, and not without difficulty, : to have partaken of this feeling, when, in the course for the patient contrived to slip his cable and swim to the
of bis tour, he sat down on a bank in Glen Morrison. opposite shore. Having made the round of the cairns,
He had no trees to whisper over him, but a clear rivu- after submersion, the unhappy individual is conducted · let streamed at his feet: “ the day was calm, the air about half a mile to the ruined Cathedral, where there is
was soft, and all was rudeness, silence, and solitude.” a large hollow stone, called “St Fillan's pillow.” Into We have here concentrated the essence of a thousand de- this his head is laid, and the body fastened with ropes to seriptions of wild mountain scenery. The“ melancholy” huge logs of wood, placed adjacent for the purpose. In Jacques, with his intellectual revellers in the forest of this position he remains all night, unless relieved by the Arden, has nothing finer.
interposition of supernatural agency, in which case the The river Fillan derives its source from the pure patient recovers his lost senses, and returns cheerfully springs of the lofty Benlaoidh, in the western extremity with his friends. Should he happen, however, not to be of Breadalbane, Perthshire. It waters the beautiful vale so fortunate—and this is the more frequent result of the of Strathfillan, to which it gives name, and falls into ordeal—the dipping is repeated next morning, and the Loch Dochart at Benmore. Issuing from this lake with party resort to the fuaran derg, or red well, a mineral the floating isle, it winds its way through another glen, spring on the south side of the river, opposite the ruins, and is finally merged in the waters of one of our finest and drink of its waters. There are certain insects or lakes, Loch Tay. About six or seven miles from its animalculæ in the well, from the appearance of which source, at the edge of a plain on which Robert Bruce auguries of good and evil are drawn.
An old woman, fought with the Cumings, and near the ruins of St who lived lately in a hut near the spring, was specially Fillan's Cathedral, is St Fillan's Spring, or the Holy versant in this strange species of augury, and would freely Pool. The river is here as pure and pellucid as crystal, communicate the result of her divinations for a small reand the pool about fourteen feet in depth. A ridge of ward, proportioned to the circumstances of her visitors. rocks runs midway into the stream, forming an effectual | On the face of the rock, there is also a small crevice called screen to the bathers on either side.
Clach na'mbonnach—the Bannock stone-where the friends The waters of the Holy Pool are believed to possess of the patient used to bake oaten cakes for the sickly. If, annumbered medicinal virtues, and are still resorted to after all these trials had been thrice repeated, the party did by pilgrims in the summer months. Fletcher, in his not recover, he was justly deemed incurable, and his Faithful Shepherdess, has beautifully described one of friends resigned themselves to the will of Providence. these sainted wells, which was scarcely more efficacious These old traditions are fast fading from among the in working cures than St Fillan's Spring :
bulk of the people, and only exist in remote districts the In the thick grove bordering upon yon hill,
dying embers in the crucible of superstition. R. C.
SOME REMARKS ON ARCHITECTURE,
The works of Architecture must be measured by other There's not a grass on which was ever seen
standards than even the purest conceptions of general The falling autumn or cold winter's hand, So full of heat and virtue is the land
good taste and refinement. In Sculpture and Painting, About this fountain, which doth slowly break
the prototypes by which their copies are to be judged, Below yon mountain's foot, into a creek
will ever remain to us, and any accurate observer of naThat waters all the valley, giving fish of many sorts to fill the shepherd's dish.
ture will be enabled to draw conclusions, at least with reThis holy well (mny grandame that is dead,
gard to their accuracy.
But for the models which guided Right wise in charms, hath often lo me said,) Hath power to change the form of any creature,
man in his architectural creations, where are we to look ? Being thrice dipp'd o'er the head.
--certainly not in the modifications of natural forms. The manner in which the pool obtained its healing powers Architecture had its origin in usefulness or fitness; and, is thus described by the natives. Fillan, the patron saint, through all its multiplicity of combination, that gran.. paisessed a certain stone or talisman, by whose virtue he principle will be found omnipresent. It is true that was able to cure every disease incident to mankind, and there are many accessories which are absolutely indispenalso the irrational creation. When on his death-bed, the sable to the production of either beauty or sublimity, such holy man foresaw that, after his decease, disputes would as delicacy of workmanship, appropriate richness of dearise among his kindred as to who should possess the gifted tail, and magnitude of parts ; but unless they are founded, stone ; and, in order to avoid all such unseemly brawls, or have the appearance of being founded, on the aptitude be one day rose from his couch, and, calling his friends of the means employed to the end desired to be produced, tagether, proceeded with them to the edge of the pool. instead of giving pleasurable sensations, they will only reHe then told them, that he was resolved not to bestow main to attest the ignorance of their unprofitable creators. the talisman upon any single individual, but to render it Now, this being the case, it is plain, that without a pracuseful to all mankind. So saying, he dropped the stone tical knowledge of the difficulty of uniting and blending into the pool, and no man has since dared to take it up. the jarring elements which are often so opposite, yet so After the death of Fillan, the people flocked from all dependent upon one another, criticism is deprived of its quarters at the appointed times—Whitsun and Lammas value. To this knowledge, when viewing a splendid exeve—to bathe in the holy pool before sunset. They were ample of ancient architecture, are almost all our emotions ordered to go three times over the head, and to take the of entire satisfaction assignable. sane number of pebbles from the bottom of the well. Though Dr Memes in his recent “ History of SculpAfter dressing, they went three times round each of three ture, Painting, and Architecture," seems to have some cairns on the top of the rock, leaving a pebble at each doubts on the subject, Architecture must have appeared at tairs, and some small portion of their raiment. The an earlier date in the history of mankind than Sculptureane process was observed on the following morning, be- nay, more, must have ventured on rough attempts at ornafore sunrise. In cases of insanity, the formula was more mental detail, ere any approximation to the rudest species trying and severe. The poor patient was tied round the of imitative carving
was made. This position, from the namiddle with a rope, and either carried or wiled on to a ture of the wants which man, in his primitive state, finds
himself first, and most peremptorily, called on to relieve, were required, the temple of Apollo at Delos might be may, with all safety, be assumed ; and to these early at- mentioned. Though all following the same grand laws tempts at architectural decoration, Vitruvius, with perhaps of proportion and arrangement to an architectural eye, more justice than is generally allowed him, assigns the dis- a volume of most amusing description is laid open when tinctive features of the different orders. However this may viewing the various examples of the Doric, scattered over be, it is confessed on all hands, that, to view the art in a Greece and Magna Græcia-no two specimens being exvigorous infancy, we must turn our eyes to Egypt. It is actly similar, but each possessing some peculiarity entirely true, the Egyptians invented no order,—the Doric, Io- its own. If we may venture to give an opinion on the nic, and Corinthian, being indisputably the delightful very few examples of the Ionic or Corinthian which recreations of Grecian intellect ; but in their temples we main to us, we should presume that the same system of first discover the leading principles, which, having modi- varying enrichments and proportions was observed through fied and refined them, the Greeks so entirely adopted. these orders,—as witness the temple on the Ilyssus, how This is particularly evident by the use made in Grecian chastely plain, when compared with that of Minerva Architecture of the long, unbroken, horizontal line, sup- Polias; while the temple of the winds, when placed by ported, at proper distances, by the conic frustrum. That the side of the Choragic monument of Lysicrates, seems the Egyptians, however, were only hovering upon the hardly to belong to the same order. A beautiful and cerverge of right, scarce aware of the limits between it and tainly pure example of the Corinthian order was discowrong, their fondness for many forms, inelegant in ap- vered by Wilkins, in the island of Milo.
This example pearance, and useless in reality, sufficiently evince. The is by no means so well known as it ought to be ; we pyramid and obelisk are Egyptian ; in the former, where have seen it executed on a small scale, to which it is magnitude, and real, as well as apparent, durability are the best adapted, with the happiest effect. leading attributes, there is a sort of recompense for the Ever since the discovery of the Grecian remains, the sacrifice of form ; but the latter can be rendered agreeable works of the Romans have sunk wonderfully in estimaunder no circumstances whatever.
tion. Gorgeous, certainly, and magnificent, from the Turning from Egypt to Greece, we at once find the magnitude and richness of detail, and the bold impressive art at the zenith of its perfection ; from Greece, like an way in which the arch has been employed, they neverthealoe, which flourishes but once, it has sent forth its deli- less appear of smaller value the more they are thoroughly cious odour over the earth, and faded away, never again scrutinized and examined by refined and correct laws of to delight mankind with such unearthly blossoms. The taste. The Italian architects, who followed in the footGreeks, in their Architecture, as in every thing else, were steps of the Romans, are still more degenerate ; and, were wonderful only as a nation—as individuals, they were their productions to be judged by mere outline, apart from unostentatious, simple, and almost rude. It is to their extraneous ornament, they would be found to be writhing public edifices we must look for any thing great ; and, in the greatest agony of linear contortion. Broken elle though time and political convulsions have destroyed many tablatures, urns, and statues, ad infinitum, fillets as large of them, still the list is not small of their temples which as tenias, circular niches, monstrous representations of survive even to the present age. Well might they have ideal forms, broken pediments and circular pediments, and said, with the poet,
pediments at an angle of sixty degrees, and pediments “We have a nobler monument than Egypt
within pediments,—these, and a hundred other barbarHath piled in her brick mountains o'er dead Kings,
isms, are the characteristic marks of what may be properly Or Kine,-for none know whether those proud piles Be for the monarch, or their Ox God Apis.
termed the Gothic style, from which charge even such So much for monuments that have forgotten
names as Scamozzi, Vignola, Alberti, De Lorme, &c. &c., Their very record."
and even that of Palladio himself, will scarcely save it. Of the three orders invented by them, the Greeks seem There are, we venture to assert, only two styles, which, to have most fondly attached themselves to the Doric; in as pure a manner as possible, ought to be aimed at in and there assuredly does exist an unbending freedom and the practice of a modern architect :--one is, of course, the moral dignity of demeanour about that order, which pecu- Grecian, in all its ample variety of order and solemn efliarly coincides with the historical features of the Greek fect of unbroken outline ; the other is what is generally character. Situated, as they generally are, in the lonely termed the Gothic, though more accurately, the English and romantic wildernesses of nature, surrounded by wood, style of Architecture. In these two systems, ample scope sea, and mountain, these Doric temples rise out of the is given for the imagination, without calling upon tho earth like the very habitations of the classic deities to judgment to adopt any thing for effect which it must conwhom they were dedicated. Madame de Stael, when demn in principle. Concerning the propriety of giving speaking of a fine example of classic Architecture, observes, the term English to this latter species of Architecture, “that it is the only work of art which produces in the we may remark, that we use the term, not because we beholder an effect similar to the wonders of nature.” And believe that Gothic was of English birth; being, on the it is probably upon this principle, that we are to account contrary, satisfied that the Gothic first arose in Italy, as for the feelings of veneration and awe with which the re- a corruption from the Roman, and gradually spread over mains of Greek art must ever be viewed by those who are most of the European countries, where it assumed wise enough to remain its humble imitators and admirers. various forms, according to the civilisation and taste There are some, in these latter days, who, like Prome of the different nations. The expediency of its forms, theus, boast of having discovered the fire which belonged for the purposes of Christian worship, was no doubt to the architectural creators. Such men talk of restoring the original cause of its extended adoption ; but it is the Parthenon, and—as if it were a thing which required worthy of remark, that the nearer we get to Italy, or them to put forth but half their energies--of uniting the to places where Roman Architecture was known and beauties of the three temples, Minerva Polias, Pandrolus, practised, the more those forms are lost sight of. Britain, and Erectheus, in one building; and, in short, of recrea- on the other hand, long after the Roman conquest, was ting an Acropolis worthy a Modern Athens.
comparatively in a barbarous state. It had as yet esta"Oh! knowledge of presuming man,
blished no fixed laws in matters of even greater importOf thought fallacious, and of judgment vain !"
ance than those of taste ; and, though the Romans had If a selection were to be made of the finest specimens left some specimens of their magnificent conceptions beof Grecian Doric, the temple of Minerva at Sunium, of hind, they had never impressed the minds of the islanders Minerva at Athens, and of Theseus at Athens, might pro- so effectually as to instigate them to imitation. When the bably be named, as possessing all the real grandeur, with- Normans entered England, they no doubt brought with out the inert bulkiness and rude asperity of some of the them those lessons in taste and workmanship which they earlier examples; and if still more elegant proportions had learned in their native country. The period was but