« السابقةمتابعة »
we yet have.
Is then my Rosa dead !
But, in directing his attention to the False fiend ! I curse thy futile power !
United States and the British Colonies of North AmeriO'er her form will lightnings flash,
ca, Captain Hall was taking higher and more dangerous O'er her form will thunders crash,
ground. It is easy for almost any one to write about But harmless from my head
places so far off and so rarely visited by Europeans as Will the fierce tempest's fury fly,
Dei-hai-oi, the Amherst Isles, and Loo Choo; for the Rebounding to its native sky.
simple fact of having been there—at the other extremity Who is the God of Mercy ?-- where
of the globe—is enough to entitle even a very commonEnthroned the power to save ?
place man to publish a book when he comes home, that Reigns he above the viewless air ?
his friends may know what he has seen and heard, If Lives he beneath the grave ?
it is strange and new, it is interesting; and on this To him would I lift my suppliant moan,
account alone, the book may run through a dozen That power should hear my harrowing groan ; editions, without possessing one spark of literary meIs it then Christ's terrific Sire?
rit. In the same way, as the number is comparatively Ah! I have felt his burning ire,
small, and was still smaller a few years ago, who have I feel, I feel it now,—
seen with their own eyes the great revolutions, or His flaming mark is fix'd on my head,
watched the progress of society and manners, in the vast And must there remain in traces dread;
empires springing up in the southern divisions of the Wild anguish glooms my brow;
New World, any thing that threw light upon the subject Oh! Griefs like mine that fiercely burn,
was likely to be favourably received, and was not subWhere is the balm can heal !
jected to the erperimentum crucis, by being compared with Where is the monumental urn
numerous similar works on the same subject. But North Can bid to dust this frame return,
America is far more trodden ground. The first flush of Or quench the pangs I feel !!
curiosity concerning it has died away. A trip across the As thus he spoke grew dark the sky,
Atlantic to New York and through the United States, Hoarse thunders murmured awfully,
or to Quebec and through Canada, is merely the work of • O Demon ! I am thine !' he cried.
a summer month or two, and consequently all the readA hollow fiendish voice replied,
ing public, either by report or actual observation, know • Come! for thy doom is misery.'”
pretty accurately what is to be seen, and how things are We have thus presented our readers with a good num- going on both on the Hudson and the St Lawrence, and ber of the most striking passages in this poem; and we
even on the Ohio, the Missouri, and the Mississippi. The are satisfied that none who take delight in such matters traveller, therefore, who undertakes to publish an account can have perused them without a very high degree of in- of his travels in this quarter, must be able to do someterest and satisfaction. That so elaborate and valuable a thing more than merely state accurately and truly what work, by one of the first poets of our times, should have he observes. He must be able to give to these observaexisted entirely unknown to his nearest surviving friends tions a graphic force and interest; to draw correct inand relatives, cannot fail to be of itself regarded as a cir- ferences from them; to reason from what has been to cumstance well worthy of commemoration. That it should what may or will be; to group old things anew; and to have fallen to our lot to be the first to intimate the exist- find in the freshness of his own mind a fruitful source ence of this important literary curiosity, and to present to for original and striking trains of thought. A book of the public, through the pages of the LiteraRY JOURNAL, travels in the interior of Africa is judged of by very difvarious selected portions of its contents, must always re- ferent rules, from a book of travels in France or Germain with us a subject of pleasant retrospection and self-many. In the one case we think of the traveller more congratulation. It is not impossible that the whole poem than his book; and if he prove to us that he encountered may be afterwards published in a separate shape, but of many dangers, and overcame many difficulties, we conthis we are not yet aware. In conclusion, we have only sider ourselves bound to refrain from any severe criticism to hope, though we can scarcely promise, that in the pro- on his literary effort. But, in the other case, as the narsecution of our labours, we shall occasionally be enabled rator has had nothing marvellous either to do or to suffer, to offer to our readers literary matter of as novel and in- and as he voluntarily pushes into our hand a new book about teresting a nature as that to which we have now directed scenes and places with which we are all perfectly well their attention.
acquainted, we feel entitled to ask what intrinsic merit or novelty do its contents possess, to authorize this addi
tional demand upon our time and purse ? Travels in North America, in the years 1827 and 1828. It is by this higher standard that we propose judging
By Captain Basil Hall, Royal Navy. In three vo- of Captain Hall's Travels in North America ; and we are lumes. Edinburgh. Cadell & Co. 1829.
happy to say that, taking the work for all in all, we
think it bears the test exceedingly well. The Captain is This is not a work of small dimensions, nor will it be pos- a lively, intelligent, active-minded man, who is not consible, in any review whatever, to consider and discuss the tented with common-places, and who likes to probe things numerous topics, connected with North America, upon to the root. He does not, apparently, possess a very vivid which the author has entered at length in the course of fancy, nor, probably, a very acute sensibility, nor, so far three closely-printed octavo volumes, averaging about 430 as we can discover, is his stock of book-learning very vapages each. All that we shall at present attempt is, to ried or extensive; but then, he has just a sufficient supstate our general impression of the book, and to give our ply of both fancy and sensibility for a traveller,—that is readers such a view of its contents as may make them ac- to say, he has enough to prevent him from being dull and quainted with its leading features.
mechanical, and not so much as to make him poetical, Captain Basil Hall is already well known to the pub- apocryphal, or mawkish; and as to his book-learning, the lic as a successful and indefatigable traveller in several want of it (if it be a-wanting) is well supplied by a different quarters of the globe. He is familiar, indeed, knowledge of life, an acquaintance with men and manwith almost every latitude from Cape Ho to Green-ners under almost every different phasis, a personal exland, and every longitude from Loo Choo to London. perience of a very complete and comprehensive kind. If His “ Voyage to the Eastern Seas in 1816” is replete with a man has naturally fair average parts, nothing will so interest ; and his “ Journal written on the Coasts of speedily mature the judgment and render its decisions Chili, Peru, and Mexico, in 1820-1 and 2," is probably, valuable as foreign travel. Few men have done more in on the whole, the best book about South America which this way than Captain Hall; and whilst we have consi
derable confidence in his judgment, we are also satisfied tion, the influence of females in society, their political inthat it is his sincere and anxious desire never to allow stitutions, and other matters of importance. Having reit to be influenced by preconceived prejudices of any turned from Boston to New York, he once more left that kind. In one or two instances his scrupulousness upon city for Philadelphia, and from Philadelphia went on this point has carried him a little too far.
to Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, Columbia, and ample, he tells us in the present work, that in order Charleston, journeying of course through Maryland, Virto enable him to form his opinions entirely for himself, ginia, and North and South Carolina. From Charleshe has carefully abstained from looking over the pages ton he went down the coast to Savannah ; and then, again of a single preceding traveller in North America. This turning to the west, made a very extensive tour through may have been conscientious—but, at the same time, it Georgia, along the Alabama, and down upon the Missisargues a want of confidence in himself, which, we think, sippi at New Orleans. Proceeding thence up the Missisan author ought to be slow to confess. No doubt there sippi to its confluence, first with the Ohio, and then with would be a freshness and novelty about every thing he the Missouri, it is difficult to say where the expedition saw, which would probably strengthen the impression might have ended, had not a severe illness which overmade by any individual object, and render it more easy took the child made it necessary to get away from these to commit to paper a vivid description of it; but might it great rivers as fast as possible, and into a more northern not be an object which had been described a thousand latitude. Captain Hall accordingly crossed the Alletimes before by men of perhaps superior powers, or might ghany mountains, and, going through Pennsylvania, arthere not be doubts and difficulties to clear up, or a new rived a third time at New York, from which he soon mode of treating the subject, which could never be dis- afterwards took his final departure for England, and in covered unless by consulting previous authorities ? We July 1828, landed at Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, after regret, both for our own sake and his, that Captain Hall an absence of fifteen months and five days. During this laid down the resolution of reading nothing about North busy interval, independently of the double voyage across America till his own work concerning it issued from the the Atlantic, he had travelled in America eight thousand press. Had it not been for this rule, we should have eight hundred miles, as a married man, and without found his remarks a good deal more condensed in several meeting with the slightest accident. places, whilst in others we should probably have had the In our quotations from this work, it is impossible for benefit of his opinion on several interesting questions us to enter upon any of the graver subjects it discusses. broached by his predecessors, but not yet satisfactorily We must content ourselves with seriously recommending kettled. In short, we think it clear that Captain Hall's these to the best attention of our readers; and, in the plan of proceeding, or rather, of not proceeding, before meantime, present a few miscellaneous extracts, which visiting a foreign country, ought to have no imitators. may be taken as fair specimens of the general tone of the
Another question naturally suggests itself at the out- book, and which cannot fail to be considered both amuset. With what sort of feelings towards the Americans sing and interesting. Without farther preface we subdid our traveller enter America ? Did he go as an aris- join these passages :tocrat or a democrat? Was he anxious for a puff from the Quarterly, or was he more ambitious of the praises of “ Thus it ever was, in great things as well as in small, on the Westminster Review? In the very first chapter, grave or ludicrous occasions. They were eternally on the deCaptain Hall alludes to this subject at some length; and, fensive, and gave us to understand that they suspected us of a with becoming earnestness, labours to convince his reader design to find fault, at times when nothing on earth was turthat he went into the country determined to judge de- happened, by chance or otherwise, to be stated with respect
ther from our thoughts. Whenever any thing favourable liberately and candidly, and to be guided by no rule but to England, there was straightway a fidget till the said cir. that of setting down his own sincere impressions, what- cumstance was counterbalanced by something equally good ever these might be. We feel convinced that Captain Hall or much better in America. To such an extent was this has conscientiously adhered throughout to this determina- jealous fever carried, that I hardly recollect above half a tion; only we suspect that, without being aware of it, he dozen occasions during the whole journey, when England has what we may term a British mode of thinking, which, kind was manifested on the part of the audience; or that a
was mentioned, that the slightest interest of an agreeable in several instances, is scarcely calculated to do complete brisk cross tire was not instantly opened on all hands to dejustice to the national peculiarities of the Americans. preciate what had been said ; or, which was still more freAs a whole, however, his work is a fair and honourable quent, to build up something finer, or taller, or larger, in one, and as such ought to be appreciated on both sides of America to overmatch it. It always occurred to me, that the Atlantic. As we have already hinted, we think it a they paid themselves and their institutions the very poorest little too long ; but this we easily forgive, in considera- description of compliment by this course of proceeding; and tion of the great mass of amusing and valuable matter it it would be quite easy to show why."-Vol. I. pp. 110.11. contains. Upon many political, agricultural, and com
NAMES OF PLACES IN AMERICA. mercial qnestions of moment, Captain Hall speaks to the told—for I have read no travels in that country to ridicule
“ It has been the fashion of travellers in America, I am point, and with great good sense ; while, as a mere tra
the practice of giving to unknown and inconsiderable vilveller, or lively and picturesque narrator, it is impossible lages, the names of places long hallowed by classical recolnot to follow him, both with pleasure and profit.
lections. I was disposed, however, at one time to think, Captain Hall, along with his wife and infant daughter, that there was nothing absurd in the matter. I did not (both of whom accompanied him in all his subsequent deny that, on first looking at the map, and more particuperegrinations, encountering every inconvenience with an larly, on hearing stage-drivers and stage-passengers talking indonitable spirit worthy of their name,) sailed for New of Troy, Ithaca, and Rome, and still more, when I heard York in April 1827. He proceeded up the Hudson, them speaking of the towns of Cicero, Homer, or Manlius, made a short trip to Massachusetts, and then turning often by a good hearty laugh. The oddity and incongruity
an involuntary smile found its way to the lips, followed westward, travelled along the Grand Erie Canal to Nia- of the thing were much heightened by the admixture of such fara. Thence he visited Lake Erie, and then proceeded modern appellations as Truxton, Sullivan, and Tompkins, through Canada, along Lake Ontario, and down the St jumbled up with the Indian names of Onondaga, Oneida, Lawrence, to Montreal and Quebec. In September, he and Chitteningo. fecrossed the Canadian frontier, and proceeded by Lake
“ A little longer personal acquaintance with the subject, Champlain, Saratoga, and Albany, to Boston. Here he however, led me to a different conclusion. All these un remained some time, visiting all the public institutions in courteous, and at first irrepressible, feelings of ridicule
, and about the town, and devoting his attention exclusive- there was something very interesting, almost amiable, in
were, I hoped, quite eradicated; and I tried to fancy that ly to American affairs
such as their religion, their ma- any circumstances, no matter how trivial, which contribunufactories, their naval resources, their system of educated to show, even indirectly, that these descendants of ow's
were still willing to keep up the old and generous recol- which pleases them best ; but, on the other hand, I hope it lections of their youth; and although they had broken the will be granted, that both the one and the other, contracords of national union, that they were still disposed to bind distinguished as they are so much from what is seen elsethemselves to us, by the ties of classical sentiment at least. where, are perfectly fair points of remark for a foreigner." For these reasons, then, I was inclined to approve, in - Vol. I. pp. 156-7. theory, of the taste which had appropriated the ancient names alluded to. I had also a sort of hope, that the mere
PECULIARITIES OF AN AMERICAN VILLAGE. use of the words would insensibly blend with their present lage of Rochester, under the guidance of a most obliging,
“On the 26th of June 1827, we strolled through the ril occupations, and so keep alive soine traces of the old spirit, and intelligent friend, a native of this part of the country described to me as fast melting away.
“ By the same train of friendly reasoning, I was led to Every thing in this bustling place appeared to be in motion. imagine it possible, that the adoption of such names as Au- | The very streets seemed to be starting up of their own acburn,— loveliest viilage of the plain, — Port Byron, and cord, ready-made, and looking as fresh and new as if they the innumerable Londons, Dublins, Edinburghs, and so
bad been turned out of the workmen's hands but an hour on, were indicative of a latent or lingering kindliness to before or that a great boxful of new houses had been sent wards the old country. The notion, that it was degrading by steam from New York, and tumbled out on the halfto the venerable Roman names, to fix them upon these clear land. The canal banks were, in some places, still mushroom towns in the wilderness, I combated, I flattered unturfed; the lime seemed hardly dry in the masonry of myself, somewhat adroitly, on the principle that, so far the aqueduct
, in the bridges, and in the numberless great from the memory of Ithaca or Syracuse, or any such place, saw-mills and manufactories. In many of these buildings being degraded by the appropriation, the honour rather lay the people were at work below stairs, while at top the car. with the ancients, who, it is the fashion to take for grant penters were busy nailing on the planks of the roof. ed, enjoyed a less amount of freedom and intelligence than
“Some dwellings were balf painted, while the foundations their modern namesakes.
of others, within tive yards' distance, were only beginning. “ • Let us,' I said one day to a friend who was impugn- I cannot say how many churches, court-houses, jails, and ing these doctrines, let us take Syracuse for example,
hotels I counted all in motion, ereeping upwards. Several which, in the year 1820, consisted of one house. one mill, streets were nearly finished, but had not, as yet, received and one tavern: now, in 1827, it holds fifteen hundred in their names; and many others were in the reverse predicahabitants, has two large churches, innumerable wealthy ment, being named but not commenced, their local habishops filled with goods, brought there by water-carriage tation being merely signified by lines of stakes. Here anp from every corner of the globe; two large and splendid there we saw great warehouses, without window sashes, hotels; many dozens of grocery-stores, or whisky 'shops ; but half filled with goods, and furnished with hoisting. several busy printing-presses, from one of which issues a cranes, ready to fish up the huge pyramids of flour barrels, weekly newspaper ; a daily post from the east, the south, bales, and boxes, lying in the streets. In the centre of the and the west; has a broad canal running through its bo- town, the spire of a Presbyterian church rose to a great som ;-in short, it is a great and free city. Where is this height; and on each side of the supporting tower was to be to be matched,' I exclaimed, in ancient Italy or Greece ?' seen the dial-plate of a clock, of which the machinery, in the
" It grieves me much, however, to have the ungracious hurry-skurry, had been left at New York. I need not say task forced upon me of entirely demolishing my own plau- that these half-tinished, whole-tinished, and embryo streets, sible handiwork. But truth renders it necessary to declare,
were crowded with people, carts, stages, cattle, pigs, far bethat, after a long acquaintance with all these matters, I dis
yond the reach of numbers; and, as all these were lifting covered that I was all in the wrong, and that there was up their voices together, in keeping with the clatter of hamnot a word of sense in what I had uttered with so much stu- mers, the ringing of axes, and the creaking of machinery, died candour. What is the most provoking proof that this
tbere was a fine concert, I assure you ! fine doctrine of profitable associations was practically ab
“ But it struck us that the interest of the town, for it surd, is the fact, that even I myself, though comparatively seems idle to call it a village, was subordinate to that of the so little acquainted with the classical-sounding places in suburbs. A few years ago the whole of that part of the question, have, alas ! seen and heard enough of them to country was covered with a dark, silent forest ; aud even as have nearly all my classical recollections swept away by the it was, we could not proceed a mile in any direction, except contact. Now, therefore, whenever I meet with the name that of the bigh-road, without coming full butt against the of a Roman city, or an author, or a general, instead of ha- woods of time immemorial. When land is cleared for the ving my thoughts carried back, as heretofore, to the regions purposes of cultivation, the stumps are left standing for of antiquity, I am transported forth with, in imagination, many years, from its being easier, as well as more profitato the post-road on my way to Lake Erie; and my joints ble in other respects, to plough round them, than to waste and bones turn sore at the bare recollection of joltings, and time and labour in rooting them out or burning them, or other nameless vulgar annoyances, by day and by night,
blowing them up with gunpowder. But when a forest is which, I much fear, will outlive all the little classical know- levelled, with a view to building a town in its place, a difledge of my juvenile days."-Vol. I. pp. 131-4.
ferent system must of course be adopted. The trees must then be removed, sooner or later, according to the means of
the proprietor, or the necessities of the case. Thus, one “ The ladies in America obtain their fashions direct from man possessed of capital, will clear his lot of the wood, and Paris. I speak now of the great cities on the sea-coast, erect houses, or even streets, across it; while, on his neighwhere the communication with Europe is easy and fre- bour's land, the trees may be still growing. And it actually quent. In the back settlements, people are obliged to catch occurred to us several times within the immediate limits of what opportunities come in their way; and, accordingly, the inhabited town itself—in streets, too, where shops were many applications were made to us for a sight of our ward- opened, and all sorts of business actually going on, that we robe, which, it may be supposed, was none of the largest. had to driv first on one side, and then on the other, to The child's clothes excited most interest, however, and pat- avoid the stumps of an oak, or a hemlock, or a pine-tree, terns were asked for on many occasions.
staring us full in the face. “ While touching on this subject, I hope I may be per- “ On driving a little beyond the streets, toward the mitted to say a few words, without giving offence-cer- woods, we came to a space about an acre in size, roughly tainly without meaning to give any-respecting the attire enclosed, on the summit of a gentle swell in the ground. of the male part of the population, who, I have reason to « • What can this place be for?'. think, do not, generally speaking, consider dress an object “« Oh,' said my companion, that is the grave yard.' deserving of nearly so much attention as it undoubtedly Grave-yard-what is that ?' said I; for I was quite ought to receive. It seems to me that dress is a branch, and adrift. not an unimportant branch, of manners-a science they all “• Why, surely,' said he,' you know what a grave-yard profess themselves anxious to study. The men, probably is? It is a burying-ground.' All the inhabitants of the without their being aware of it, have, somehow or other, place are buried there, whatever be their persuasion. We acquired a habit of negligence, in this respect, quite obvious don't use churchyards in America.' to the eye of a stranger. From the hat, which is never “ After we had gone about a mile from town, the forest brushed, to the shoe, which is seldom polished, all parts of thickened, we lost sight of every trace of a human dwelltheir dress are often left pretty much to take care of them ing, or of human interference with
nature in any shape. selves. Nothing seems to fit, or to be made with any pre- We stood considering what we should do next, when the cision. It is very true, they are quite at liberty to adopt loud crash of a falling tree met our ears. Our friendly that form of dress, as well as that form of government, guide was showing off the curiosities of the place, and was
DRESS OF THE AMERICANS.
THE FALLS OF NIAGARA.
quite glad, he said, to have this opportunity of exhibiting | from which we could cull more entertainment for our the very first step in the process of town-making. After a readers, we shall, in all probability, return to it next zig-zag scramble amongst trees, which had been allowed to
week. grow up and decay century after century, we came to a spot where three or four men were employed in clearing out a street, as they declared, though any thing more unlike a Trials and other Proceedings in matters Criminal, before street could not well be conceived. Nevertheless, the ground
the High Court of Justiciary in Scotland ; selected from in question certainly formed part of the plan of the town. It had been chalked out by the surveyor's stakes, and some
the Records of that Court, and from Original Manuspeculators having taken up the lots for immediate build
scripts preserved in the General Register-House, Edining, of course found it necessary to open a street through
burgh. By Robert Pitcairn, W.S., &c. &c. Part II. the woods, to afford a line of communication with the rest Edinburgh. William Tait. 1829. of the village. As fast as the trees were cut down, they were stripped of their branches and drawn off by oxen, sawn We reviewed the First Part of this work, which apinto planks, or otherwise fashioned to the purposes of build-peared about a month ago, in a very decent, dull, and buing, without one moment's delay. There was little or no
siness-like manner. We shall probably review the Parts exaggeration, therefore, in supposing with our friend, that the same tir which might be waving about in full lite and which are to follow, after a similar fashion. But, with rigour in the morning, should be cut down, dragged into regard to the Part now before us, we mean to allow ourdaylight, squared, framed, and, before night, be hoisted up selves a little liberty. To this resolution we are moved to make a beam or rafter to some tavern, or factory, or by a twofold reason. In the first place, though the porstore, at the corner of a street, which, twenty-four hours tion of the records of our criminal court, at which Mr before, had existed only on paper, and yet which might be Pitcairn is now arrived, are more full and more regularcompleted from end to end within a week afterwards."
ly kept than at an earlier period, they are still too meagre Vol. I. pp. 160-4.
to allow of our speaking with certainty of the forms and the Falls of Niagara, which infinitely exceeded our antici- this Second Part is allotted to a laborious and unexpectwas on the 29th of June, 1827, we went from Lockport to principles of law recognised at the time of which they
are a monument ; and, besides, no inconsiderable
in pations. I think it right to begin with this explicit statement
, because I do not remember in any instance in Ame edly successful attempt to fill up, aliunde, a gap of four rica, or in England, when the subject was broached, that years in the Books of Adjournal. Although full, therefore, the first question has not been, ' Did the Falls answer your of valuable hints, it does not throw any broad or decidedexpectations ? The best answer on this subject I remem- ly new light upon our legal antiquities; and we conseber to have heard of, was made by a gentleman who had quently decline launching at present on so wide an ocean. just been at Niagara, and on his return was appealed to by Add to this, that the contents of the present number of a party he met on the way going to the Falls, who natu- this publication are such as irresistibly incline us to pick * Why, no,' said he: Not unless you expect to witness the out and lay before our readers, in the pure spirit of gosSen coming down from the moon !
sip, some of the marvellous tales with which it abounds.
With all deference, therefore, we offer our friends the " The first glimpse we got of the great Fall was at the most full and authentic narrative of the state of the inferdistance of about three miles below it, from the right, or nal kingdom during the reign of James VI. that has yet eastern bank of the river. Without attempting to describe been given to the public. it , I may say, that I felt quite sure no subsequent examina
It is generally understood that the belief in witchcraft tion, whether near or remote, could ever remove, or even increased with the progress of the reformed doctrines. materially weaken, the impression left by this first view. We are inclined to think this a mistake. The belief was From the time we discovered the stream, and especially after coming within hearing of the cataract, our expectations as prevalent before, but the laxness and remissness of the were, of course, wound up to the highest pitch. Most wealthy and indolent Catholic priesthood was the cause people
, I suppose, in the course of their lives, must, on some that less was said of it. The reformed clergy merely reoccasion or other, have found themselves on the eve of a tained on this point the superstition of their predecessors, momentous occurrence; and, by recalling what they expe- but they set themselves with more noise and more enerrienced at that time, will, perhaps, understand better what was felt, than I can venture to describe it. I remember sy to overthrow what they conceived to be the kingdom myself experiencing something akin to it at St Helena, James, more regular and systematic tactics were adopt
The warfare was carried on sharply; under Kiousness that the tread which I heard was from the foot ed, and by his vigorous generalship the hellish host was of the man, who, a short while before, had roved at will driven to great straits. It is well known, that in his over so great a portion of the world; but whose range was riper years, he penned, with his own royal hand, a now confined to a few chambers; and that I was separated most masterly treatise against the practice of witchcraft. from this astonishing person only by a door which was But it is, perhaps, not so well known, that this treajust about to open-so it was with Niagara. I knew that, tise contains merely the matured experience of his youthat the next turn of the road, I should behold the most splendid sight on earth,—the outlet to those mighty reser
ful campaigns. The matter stands thus. In 1589, voirs, which contain, it is said, one-half of the fresh water
Anne of Denmark was intercepted in her way to this en the surface of our planet."-Vol. I. p. 177-81.
country by a tempest, which obliged her to put back. In
a fit of impatient gallantry James took shipping for Den1: Iustrations, it is well known, generally mystify the mark, where he was married to the Princess. Returnsubject instead of clearing it up; so I shall not compare ing with his bride to Scotland in May 1590, he too expethis evening's drive to trotting up or down a pair of stairs, rienced some buffeting from severe gales. Now, these for
, in that case, there would be some kind of regularity in gales happening during the winter, and early in spring, the developement of the bumps; but with us there was no a time at which such phenomena are of rare occurrence Warning-no pause; and when we least expected a jolt, in our latitudes, it was evident to the dullest apprehendi hal-se, right into a hole half-a-yard deep. At other sion, that they must be caused by some infernal agency tines , when an ominous break in the road seemed to indi
at work to thwart the will of the growing Solomon. death, to the railing at the
sides of the waygon, expecting a de the coming mischief, and we clung, grinning like grim James, whose disposition, by nature and education, had
more of the pedagogue than the king, and who was withal cmncussion, which, in the next instant, was to dislocate half a little timid, where his own person was concerned, was the joints in our bodies, down we sank into a bed of mud, easily induced to take strong measures against those dais softly as if the bottom and sides had been padded with ring enchanters who had waged war with majesty itself. corun for our express accommodation."-Vol. I. p. 268.
Early in 1591, many suspected persons were appreWe have no room for more quotations to-day, but as hendit and put to divers sortes of trialls." In June, of We do not think any work has been recently published the same year, his majesty gave a proof of his determina
ROADS IN CANADA.
tion that no witch should escape through ill-judged lenity the most severe death the court could adjudge, being burnt in the assize, by causing the majority of a jury who had without having been previously strangled. She appears thoughtlessly acquitted one, to be “ dilatit of errour" in to have believed in her own supernatural powers, and to his own royal presence. On the twenty-sixth of Octo- have gloried in them to the last. ber, he granted a commission to several of his counsellors Johnne Feane is another remarkable individual. He for the more effectual enquiry after, and discovery of, is reported to have been schoolmaster at Tranent, and witchcraft. Owing to these energetic measures many was a person of no small consequence, being “ Register hidden crimes were brought to light, and many delin- and Secretar to the Devil.” It was his office to lead the quents punished.
ring in the preparatory incantation of dancing“ widderIt cannot be denied that, owing to the means of dis- schinnes about.” Also, on entering the church where covering witches not having been at that time brought to their meetings were held, he “blew up the duris, and the last degree of precision and certainty, there is great blew in the lychtis, quhilkis were lyke mekle blak canreason to fear that many innocent suffered along with the dillis, stiking round about the pulpett." He sat next to guilty. Thus, in the case of Alesoun Balfour, condemned the Devil, on his left hand. He had the power, while in virtue of her own confession, the unfortunate woman lying in his bed, to be “tane in the spreit, and to be declared, when led to the stake,—“That the tyme of hir careit and transportit to many montanes, as thocht threw first depositioun sche wes tortoured diverse and severall | all the warld.” He could go in the body “souch and tymes in the Caschielawis, and sindrie tymis takin out athairt the eird," and skim over the sea in a riddle. He of thame deid, and out of all remembrance eithir of guid could open “ane lok be his sorcerie, be blawing in ane woor ewill; as likewyis hir guidman being in the stokis, hir man's hand, himselff sittand at the fireside." “Being cumsone tortourit in the Buitis, and hir dochtir put in the and furth of Patrik Umphrais sonis house in the mylne, Pilliewinkis, quhairwith sche and thay wer swa vexit and under nycht, fra his supper, and passand to Tranent on tormentit, that pairtlie to eschew ane gretar torment and horsbak and ane man with him, he, be bis devilisch craft, pwnieschement, and upoun promeis of hir lyffe and guid rasit up foure candillis upoune the horssis luggis, and ane deid, falslie and aganis hir saul and conscience, sche maid uther candill upoune the staff which the man had in his yat confessioun, and na utherwyis.” The unhappy woman hand; and gaif sic lycht as gif itt had bene day lycht; suffered, adhering to this declaration to the last. The lyk as the saidis candillis returnit with the said man quhill production of a copy of it, notorially attested, was af- his hamecuming ; and causit him fall deid at his entre terwards held by an assize sufficient for clearing the Mas- within the hous.” ter of Orkney of an accusation that he had consulted Agnes Sampsoune is said by Spotswood to have been with witches. We have met with nothing in history |“ not of the base and ignorant sort of witches, but mamore affecting than this death declaration of poor Aleson; tron-like, grave and settled in her answers, which were it is the wailing of outraged nature suffering from the all to some purpose.” She seems to have been a professabsurdity and brutality of man.
ed curer of sickness, by means of spells and incantations. But to return to our subject. The victims of the ages Her prayer for her patients, which is entered on the ditof superstition were not always so innocent as this poor tay, is a doggrel version of the creed. The conjuration
The guilt of some of them is of a nature that used by her for the recovery of the sick is in the name of renders sympathy with their sufferings, dreadful as they God and Jesus. The “ Ave Maria” was likewise used were, almost impossible. This is the most painful thing by her for similar purposes. The following is rather a in the history of witchcraft, that, while we acknowledge curious way of curing a sick person :-“ Item, the said the absurdity of the sentence, we can rarely feel for the Agnes is fylit and convict of cureing umquhile Robert sufferer. Both the judge and the accused believed in the Kerse in Dalkeyth, wha wes havelie tormented with power of spells, and, not unfrequently, the condemned witchcraft and diseis, laid on him be ane Westland warperson met with little worse treatment than his unnatu- lack when he wes in Dumfreis ; quhilk seiknes sche tuik ral indulgence of pride, malice, covetousness, and licen- upoun hir selff, and kepit the samyn with grit groining tious pleasure deserved.
and torment quhill the morne, on quhilk tyme thair wes The crime of witchcraft was not confined to the lower ane grit dyn hard in the hous ; quhilk seiknes she caist orders. We find, in Mr Pitcairn's pages, no less than off hir selff in the cloise, to the effect ane catt or dog three instances in which the parties accused are of high mycht haif gottin the samyn.” A similar cantrip was rank. Catherine Lady Fowlis, (p. 191,) to whose case played by Agnes in behalf of Eufame Makcalzane, who we alluded on a former occasion, seems to have been a is accused of " consulting and seiking help at Anny woman not only of high birth, but strong mind. Ambi- Sampsoune, ane notorious witch, for relief of hir payne tious views, and a natural tinge of the age's superstition, in the tyme of the birth of hir twa sonnes ; led her at first to seek supernatural aid. But she seems quhilk being praktesit be hir, as she had ressavit the soon to have penetrated the hollow mummery of the samin frae the said Annie, and informatioun of the use crones to whom she applied, and to have moved onward thairof; hir seiknes wes cassin off bir unnaturallie, in the to her purpose with a clear eye and reckless heart. She birth of hir first sone upoun ane dog ; quhilk ranne allowed them to proceed with their incantations, but re-away, and wes never sene agane : and in the birth of hir lied solely on their skill in preparing poisons. Her step- last sone the same prakteis foirsaid wes usit, and hir nason, Mr Hector Monro, (p. 201,) was of a different char- turall and kindlie payne unnaturallie cassin off hir upoun
His mind appears to have been as sickly as his the wantoune catt in the hous; quhilk lykwyis wes never body. He was accused of trafficking with witches to sene thaireftir.” She was one of the party which con
The extent of his guilt was selfisbly vened at the “ Brume-hoillis ; quhair, with Robert taking steps, which his foster-mother had persuaded him Greirson, their admeralt and maister-man, thay past oure would save his life, at the expense of his brothers. Both the sea in riddillis to ane schip, quhair thay enterit with of these precious kinsfolk were acquitted. Eufame Mak- the Deivill thair maister thairin ; quhan aftir thay had calzane, (p. 247,) their equal in rank, was a character eittin and drukkin, thay caist owir ane blaek dog, that differing from both. She was the daughter of Lord Clifton- skippit under the schip, thay having thair maister the hall, a senator of the College of Justice, eminent in litera- Deivill thairin, quha drownit the schip be tumbling." ture, and distinguished both as a lawyer and a statesman. These are the most prominent characters among the With the exception of her alleged share in the treasonable respectable adherents of the enemy, It is not worth conspiracy against the king and queen, she seems to have while taking up the reader's time with the subalterns; dabbled in the black art solely for the purpose of facili- but it may be as well to take a glimpse at their master, tating her enjoyment of licentious pleasures, and ensuring and the nature of his sway over them. her vengeance on such as stood in her way. She suffered He is described on one occasion as “ane mekill blak