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attendance as in the morning, at the Italian; but the church was full, and many were obliged to stand.

At seven o'clock in the evening of the same day, it was thought well to crown the work by a fraternal meeting for edification, in the old chapel.

The Minister Desanctis presided over this meeting. After singing a hymn, the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles was read, and the President addressed those present with some reflections on the necessity of forming a church of living stones, and on the obligation of Christians to receive the word willingly, to persevere in the doctrine of the Apostles, in fellowship, and breaking of bread, and prayers, and exhorted his brethren to give the assembly words of edification. Several brethren spoke, and the meeting was greatly edified by their exhortations, and addresses. But when some of the brethren read letters expressive of the fraternal sympathy of Italian and foreign churches, who declare that they are in communion of doctrine and prayer with our Evangelical church, tears were drawn from many eyes.

The Spirit of God rested on this meeting, and was manifest in the earnest exhortations of the brethren. It was continued for about two hours, and not one word, not even an allusion to any question of controversy, was heard; but all tended to edification. With a fervent prayer Professor Tron closed the meeting; and at nine o'clock the company dispersed, instructed and impressed.

Some brethren would have strongly wished to close this day of blessings around the Lord's table; but grave reasons forbade the fulfilment of the pious wish. But yesterday has left a profound impression on all evangelical Christians who took part in the sacred services, an impression that will never be erased.

[We could almost establish the fact of a spiritual descent of Wesleyan Methodism from the ancient Waldenses, who were, for ages, the only living body of Christians known in the world, and whose last Bishop, bearing that title, consecrated the first Moravian Bishops. The erection of the

first Waldensian church in Turin is therefore an event of historical importance; and a profound interest in its prosperity, with hope for its doctrinal purity and influence in Italy, has induced us to translate the above account from the Buona Novella.-EDITORS. ]

HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY. The advantages resulting from this branch of study are numerous and important. It traces the origin and growth of human knowledge. It marks causes of the perversion of the human understanding. It indicates the injury which thereby has been done to science, learning, and religion. It points out the folly of embracing any system, however high the authority may be by which it is supported, until it has undergone an accurate examination. It faithfully registers every successive discovery in the world of science, the names and characters of authors and inventors, and the subjects of their works. In law, theology, and ecclesiastical history, it is of incalculable value. It helps to show the folly and uselessness of mere speculation, to point out the true limits of inquiry, and to place science on the broad and immovable basis of fact, experiment, and truth.

The history of the progress of the human mind is usually divided into four great parts : first, as it relates to Egypt, and the other nations of the East; secondly, to the flourishing days of Greece and Rome; thirdly, to the middle or dark ages; and, lastly, to the period which has began with the revival of literature.

With regard to the progress of the human mind in Egypt and the nations of the East, the writer of this brief article must be content with a single glance at the earliest ages of the world. For a knowledge of the antediluvians we are chiefly indebted to Moses. Sanchoniathon, a Phænician, wrote at a very early period, and speaks of the antediluvian giants and god-kings, and of the first discoverers of fire and iron. Still he is supposed to have derived his information from the books of Moses; and the writings of Moses are to be viewed as the only authenticated

history of those early times. It does not appear, however, from any source, that the antediluvians made great progress in science. They were certainly acquainted, to a limited extent, with music, and some of the more simple arts, as, for example, the smelting of metals. We read, in the fourth chapter of the book of Genesis, of Jabal, the father of such as have cattle; of Jubal, the father of all such as handle the harp and organ; of Tubal-Cain, an instructer of every artificer in brass or iron. Still, there is no evidence that the knowledge of the antediluvians was ever reduced to principles, or attained a scientific form.

Nor does it appear that the Patriarchs, who flourished immediately after the deluge, made much greater advancement. Some, it is true, have ascribed to them the learning which was subsequently diffused over Greece and other countries. But this opinion cannot be supported. The situation of the Patriarchs did not admit of great progress in science. They led, for the most part, a pastoral life, obtaining by their domestic virtues great authority over the people among whom they lived, and having no other object of ambition in this world than the prosperity and safety of their families and flocks. The knowledge which they possessed was purely practical. There were amongst them wise Legislators and able Generals; but it does not appear that the principles of the arts which they practised were ever collected into a scientific form. Their inventions were simply such as experience would suggest to men of ordinary understanding. In practical and moral wisdom they were rich; but this wisdom came by Divine revelation, and must not be confounded with philosophy or science.

The state of things among the Phænicians was much more advanced. In the time of Abraham they were a considerable people. It is not exactly known to what extent philosophy was carried on amongst them; but it is thought that, from their frequent intercourse with other nations, they must have acquired and diffused much knowledge. They invented letters and glass, and laid the basis of the commerce of the west. The Tyrians excelled as dyers of purple at a very early period of the world. To Cadmus, a Phænician, the Greeks were indebted for the letters of their alphabet, which were introduced on the settlement of a Phænician colony at Thebes. Still, it is not improbable that the Phænicians studied the sciences only so far as they found them necessary or convenient in the transaction of commerce, and in the ordinary business of life. So far as a knowledge of the heavenly bodies was useful to navigation, they were astronomers; and so far as a knowledge of numbers was useful in mercantile affairs, they were mathematicians.

For any knowledge which we possess with reference to the Indian philosophy, we were indebted, in the first instance, to the Greeks and Latins; though it has been found necessary to receive any statement from those quarters, with reference to this subject, with much caution, and with certain limitations, as the information was derived in great part from unknown persons, and as the Greeks were strongly disposed to judge of the Oriental philosophy by comparison with their own. We are also indebted to the geography of Strabo, and the works of Plutarch, Arrian, and other historians; and, in later times, among others, to Sir William Jones, Mr. Colebrooke, M.Anquetil du Perron, Hardy, and Schlegel, a German philosopher. The Brahmins were the ancient philosophers of India; and such was the reputation which they acquired for wisdom, that Pythagoras, and other eminent Greek sages, actually visited India for the purpose of acquiring knowledge. The Brahmins were of one tribe, lived a very aseetie life, and placed the highest value on the virtue of fortitude. They performed all the ceremonies of their religion; and this obtained for them the highest veneration from the people. They were the lawyers and physicians of India ; and hence the Greeks were accustomed to term them the caste of philosophers. They were consulted on matters of divination by the rich, by whom also they were chiefly supported. The Indian traditions acknowledge the sucCession of the early Patriarchs or sages of hoary antiquity, and assign them to the race of Brahmins. Still, India scarcely possesses anything deserving the name of regular history, their history being interwoven, and almost confounded, with their mythology. The two great epic poems of India, the “Rámáyana " and the “Mahabharat," belong to the early and more fabulous ages of the world. Still they are said to be distinguished by beauty of language, a captivating interest in the narrative, and a most recondite philosophy. The learned Sir William Jones made some valuable discoveries with reference to the ancient philosophers of Hindostan; and states, among other things, that the systems of materialism and idealism which exist in the western world are to be found in the corresponding philosophical systems of the East.

THE MARTYR OF LEBANON, Born of a respectable family in the vicinity of Beyrout, he had been led by the accidental falling of a Bible into his hand, to compare the doctrines of the Gospel with the creed and belief in which he had been brought up. He prayed, he reflected, he judged for himself. Patience and investigation brought conviction. With a pardonable though not discreet zeal, he would fain impart his convictions to others. In every circle or meeting, on all occasions, he loudly denounced the errors and superstitions of his sect; inviting his hearers to draw from the same source as himself. Such a phenomenon was a rarity in the Maronite world. His own brothers entreated, cajoled, threatened : Priests were sent to warn and reclaim : all to no purpose. The new proselyte still felt it his duty to proselytise others. At length his conduct was brought to the notice of the Patriarch, by whom he was sent for to be argued with. Unreluctant, nay, rejoicing on the occasion, Assaad proceeded to the convent of Kanobin. Meeting at first with a courteous reception, due, indeed, to the respectability of his family, he and the Patriarch had several controversial meetings; without, however, being attended with such results as the latter would have wished. In vain the Patriarch quoted tradition. Assaad Shidiak took his stand on the Bible. This was his impregnable position. Cha

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