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derived the exact point in the orbit which the planet occupied at the epoch we have chosen, 1st of January, 1854. The fuller consideration of these constants must be reserved for future Numbers.

The distances of MERCURY from the Earth on the 1st of February and 1st of March, are one hundred and thirty-four and one hundred and two millions of miles, respectively; and from the Sun, forty-two and twenty-nine millions. Though, as was remarked in the last Number, he attained his greatest distance from the Earth toward the end of January, he will not be in superior conjunction with the Sun until the 8th instant. Were the orbits of the Earth and planet eraet cireles with the Sun in the centre, these two phenomena would be synchronous. On the 7th, the planet will have reached that part of his orbit most remote from the plane of the Earth's orbit, on the southern side. On the 20th, he will be in conjunction with Venus, his apparent diameter eleven times less than hers. The apparent magnitude of Mercury will be that of a globe three-sevenths of an inch in diameter, at a distance of two hundred yards; Venus, two inches diameter, at the same distance. At six o'clock on the afternoon of the 26th, he will be in ascending node; that is, he will then pass from the southern to the northern side of the plane of the Earth's orbit. At six o'clock on the morning of the 28th, he will be near the Moon---the planet 6° north. The table shows that near the end of the month he sets an hour and a half later than the Sun.

Vexts increases her right ascension till the 5th, after which she retrogrades. On this day she will be in the plane of the equator, going northward, will have attained her greatest northern declination, 1° 25' on the 17th, and on the 28th will be again in the plane of the equator, going south ward. At 9h. on the evening of the 9th she will be in perihelion-distance from the Sun, 68,514,000 miles; at 7h, on the evening of the 27th, in perigee — distance from the Earth, 26,380,000 miles. Her apparent diameter will, on the latter occasion, be very nearly one minute of space; the Earth's diameter, to an inhabitant of Venus, would be only two seconds more. The time of inferior conjunction will be nineteen hours later than that of the nearest approach to the Earth.

Mars is distant from the Earth on 1st of February, seventy-two, and on 1st of March, sixty-four, millions of miles. He will be in aphelion at 9h. on the morning of the 16th, distance from the Sun 158,860,000 miles. On that day his apparent diameter will be 13" ; that of Mercury, 51; of Venus, 56"; of the Earth, seen from Mars, 25". On the 14th, at lh, afternoon, he will be very close to the Moon, geculted in nearly every part of the northern hemisphere, where these bodies will at that time be above the horizon. He is now visible nearly the whole night. Position, Leo, 15° east of Regulus.

JUPITER is now the morning star. He rises, at the end of the month, two hours before the Sun: at this time he will be twenty

eight millions of miles nearer to us than at the beginning of the month. His apparent diameter on the 16th will be 31". Seen from him, the Earth subtends an angle of only 311. On the 1st instant, at lh. morning, he will be in the plane of the ecliptic, going southward; that is, in descending node. On the 23d he will be near the Moon.

SATURN. Distance from the Earth, on the 1st of February, eight hundred and forty, and on the 1st of March, eight hundred and eighty-four, millions of miles. Last month we directed attention to the occultation on the 5th, from 4h. 13m. to 4h, 34m., afternoon. The planet will, during this interval, be covered by the northern limb of the Moon. On the 16th, the diameter of the spherical portion of the planet will be 16":6; the axes of the ring 407 and 16.7.

URANUS. Distance on the 1st of February, one thousand eight hundred and eighty-three, and on the 1st of March, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-six, millions of miles. Apparent diameter, 311.8; that of the Earth, seen from Uranus, four-fifths of a second. The greatest angle which the Earth's distance from the Sun subtends at Uranus is only three degrees.

NEPTUNE. Close to the Sun.

RISING AND SETTING OF THE SUN, FOR THE PARALLELS OF THE

BRITISH ISLANDS.

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Rises. Sets. Rises. Sets. Rises. Sets. Rises, Sets. Rises. Sets.

h, m. h. m.h.m. h.m.h.m. h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. h.m. Feb. 17 34 4 547 41 4 487 48 4 4117 56 4 33 8 5 4 24

117 18 5 117 23 5 6 7 29 5 17 35 4 557 42 4 48

217 05 297 4 5 257 8 5 217 12 5 177 17 5 12 March 36 40 5 456 42 5 436 45 5 416 47 5 386 50 5 35

SUN AND PLANETS AT GREENWICH.
MERCURY. VENUS. MARS. JUPITER. SATURN. URANUS.

Sun.

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PHASES OF THE MOON.
First Quarter . 4th day, 10h. 37m. aftern.
Full

13th day, 2h. 57m. morn.
Last Quarter 20th day, 10h. 44m, morn.
New

27th day, 4h. 39m. morn. H. T. & J. Roche, Printers, 25, Hoxton-square, London,

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THE

YOUTH'S INSTRUCTER

AND

GUARDIAN.

MARCH, 1854.

SIMON EPISCOPIUS.

(With a Portrait.) "The chief pillar of the Arminian sect,” says Bayle. That Episcopius was chief pillar, under God, of the cause of the Dutch Remonstrants, for many years, when he and they were persecuted by Calvinists, there can be no doubt ; and that the Remonstrants, contending against an erroneous dogma, concerning certain decrees of reprobation and election, vainly attributed to the God of justice, mercy, and truth, were called a sect, in Holland, is matter of history. The sentence of that learned but ribald historiographer may therefore pass for an encomium on Simon Episcopius.

This eminent man was born at Amsterdam, January 8th, 1583. His parents, Egbert Remmetzen, and Geertruyd Jans, were staunch Protestants, and persons of unsullied reputation. Their surname, Bisschop, or Bishop, was Latinised for Simon when he grew to be a scholar, according to a custom of literary men in those times ; and we therefore only know him as Episcopius.

Extremely fond of reading, little Simon was never so happy as when with book in hand; and although his parents did not mean to give him a learned education, the importunity and liberality of an elder brother of his, and a

VOL. XVIII. Second Series.

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