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William Drury, against the Governor of Dumbreton Castle, and challenged the latter to fight, “when, where, or how he dared,” concluding with these bombastic words: “Otherwise I will baffle your good name, sound with the trumpet your dishonour, and paint your picture with the heels upward, and bear it in despite of yourself. In the mean time, I attend your answer. From Glasgow, 22d Maie, 1570."
In the extinction of the male line, it passed to Lady Mary Carey, who married William Heveningham, Esq., one of King Charles's Judges. It was ultimately sold in 1737 to the Duke of Leeds, in whose family it still remains.
The chief object of attraction now presented amid the débris of departed glory, is the majestic keep, approached by a flight of thirty steps, the door of which opens into an apartment whose walls are fifteen feet in thickness, and into which no ray of light could penetrate. In the centre of this room is the mouth of a dreadful dungeon, partially closed by an hemispherical arch. To what depth this terrific shaft descended, we have not been able to learn. It is now nearly filled up by the accumulating fragments of ages. What deeds of darkness and iniquity have not been perpetrated there! Richard De Heydon, the seneschal of the baronial proprietor, is introduced in the Winchester Rolls as having imprisoned Beatrice, the wife of William Scissor, of Rotherham, at Wakefield, for a year, because she had impleaded the Earl for a tenement at Greaséborough, and how she was set at liberty, the jury knew not. The inquest charges generally this Richard De Heydon with “ oppressiones diabolicas et innumerabiles.” Such was the justice of the feudal ages; and many a wrong endured as best they could awaits another audit at the grand assize. The fire-places, now decorated with ivy, the buttresses presented in the accompanying sketch, the lavatories, and the chapel or oratory formed in the thickness of the wall, each present their respective claims of interest. The view from the summit is extensive and picturesque, comprising Wentworth House, and Wentworth Castle, with the woodland scenery of that romantic district; while other viows,
equally suggestive, engage the attention of the thoughtful visiter. Should he indulge too greatly in recollections of the past, or prove oblivious to the flight of time, the shriek of the "express" of the South Yorkshire railway, as it emerges from the Cadeley tunnel, and, in defiance of the age of chivalry and poetry, skirts its base, and quickly bids adieu, may disturb his reverie, and once more restore the realities of ordinary life, and the busy scenes of the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Could William de Warren have revisited his feudal residence on July 12th, 1855, we might conceive of his amazement on finding its picturesque and ample area occupied by about two thousand persons, who were attending & Wesleyan-Methodist Missionary Meeting, presided over by John Otter, Esq. The Revs. B. Gregory, W. M. Punshon, J. Sugden, P. Samuel, J. Moorhouse, J. P. Lockwood, with Cooper Howard, Esq., and Mr. J. Marsden, took part in its proceedings. Addresses distinguished by great power and beauty were delivered, in which historical and poetical allusions to the marked contrasts between the days of “ venerable eld" and the present stirring age were introduced. About one thousand persons took tea in a spacious marquee; and after an appropriate sermon by the Rev. J. Sugden, the vast assembly dispersed, after leaving an honourable and substantial toke of their attachment to the cause of Wesleyan-Methodist Missions, in contributions amounting to £65.
How transient are the dreams of worldly glory! The proud and haughty De Warrens are gathered home to their fathers, and their family honours exist only in the records of the past. Incomparably happier are they whose record is on high, and whose reward is with their God.
J. P. L.
YOUNG PROFESSOR MELANCTHON.* ARRIVED at Wittenberg, he conciliated the favour and admiration of all the University, whither an unexampled
From a forthcoming Life of Philip Melancthon by Dr. Rule.
multitude of students crowded in from all parts of Germany. For his part he was ready to discharge every duty vith exactness, and, at the same time, with skill and genius. A good Grecian, Richard Crocus, formerly of Leipsic, had brought the study of Greek into considerable favour ; but Melancthon had an exquisitely accurate method of teaching grammar: his lessons were clear beyond comparison, and his readings enriched with such opulence of learned illustration, that students and listeners thronged his lecture-room, and Wittenberg wondered at the fascination thus exerted by a young man of twentyone.
The secret of all this lay in his genuine love of knowledge and of labour, a thirsting after excellence, and an incredible fixedness of purpose. It was not hope of higher dignity, nor craving after wealth, nor passion for praise ; but calm and unwavering perseverance in the career he had chosen to pursue. So strong was this quality, and so high his native talent, that he outshone all the accredited scholars whom the Elector had collected in the University, poured a new light upon the scant rudiments of learning, and, by his own lovely wisdom, charmed away the dread of study. His disciples were all cheerful, all willing. No one feared him, none distrusted his impartiality. To his elders and superiors he showed studious respect; to his equals he rendered offices of unconstrained and sweetly familiar kindness; to others he delighted in doing service. Poor students he taught, and assisted in every possible way. Every one he made his friend, and enjoyed the singular happiness of exemption from the annoyances of enmity, dislike, or envy. Already he won the love, and was honoured with the reverenoe, of all persons of every rank.
Before the innovations of Melancthon, Aristotle was the supreme authority at Wittenberg. In his books of dialectic, known as the Organon, the Stagirite treated a multitude of subjects, but left them in obscurity and confusion. Yet the sages who professed to guide the studies of youth, held the writings of Aristotle in greater veneration than the
word of God; and both the teachers and the taught laboured in vain to strike a gleam of light out of the darkness. Ignorant of any true method of learning languages or arts, their powers dwindled away in the stint of perpetual infancy. Neither for literary composition, nor for oral eloquence, could they acquire any considerable ability. To throw light on Aristotle, or to escape from their own darkness by the light of a pure philosophy, was equally impossible. Hence it came to pass that, if the fountain of Aristotle was not clear, the academic streams were black.
Many masters arose to proffer their skill for the explication of Aristotle, and obtained followers for a time. The favourite scholastic at Wittenberg just now was one Tartareus : his wisdom commanded the homage of the whole school, and on his book some wit wrote this epigram :
“ Tartara quod vincis et cæcæ nubila mentis,
Nomen conveniens ergo, libelle, tenes.” And, indeed, the obscurity of the book seemed to vie with that of Tartarus. Yet this was the manual with which students of philosophy at Wittenberg were doomed to be ever learning, never to attain to the knowledge of the truth.
A young man, just in his twenty-second year, came from Tubingen, to disentangle these intricacies. At his first appearance, the Doctors were not entirely persuaded of his ability to sustain the dignity of his office,-much less to raise it beyond every other professorial chair in Europe, —and could not promise any great results to the University. He was, as Luther said, a slender person, of almost contemptible appearance."
Four days after his arrival, he delivered a Latin oration to the University on the Improvement of Studies of Youth, (" De Corrigendis Adolescentie Studiis,') in a style altogether new to them. Simple, chaste, unassuming, yet bold, as became one whose duty was to dispel delusion, as well as remove ignorance, he astonished and charmed the audience. After paying honour to illustrious names of
higher antiquity, he traced the declension of letters, arts, and philosophy, until they fell into the state of barbarism that was then to be deplored,
Thence he proceeded to land the munificence of the Elector Duke of Saxony, founder of the Academy, and to point out the course of study which he should advise the youth of Wittenberg to follow. Greek and Latin classics and history, with a more correct method of philosophizing, were to engage their labours, yet not exclusively. At this point Melancthon could not stop, nor did he heed the prohibitions of biblical teaching which his Church had multiplied, and which the Academies respected. He knew that, in Paris, for example, no master presumed to open the sacred volume, and had seen abhorrence of scriptural teaching carried so far by the Bishops of Misnia, in a statute printed at Leipsic a few years before, as to forbid “the Rectors of schools and their associates to explain the books of holy Scripture, either publicly or privately." But the time was past for suppressing the truth of God.
He, therefore, closed his oration by earnestly exhorting them to give their mind to sacred studies. Above all others, these pursuits demand a careful mind and unwearied application. They are as a Divine perfume shed on human learning; and for gaining proficiency in them, the Holy Spirit must be guide, and assiduous culture the companion. Thus wrote Synesius to Herculianus, that he should make use of a fruitful philosophy to advance to the knowledge of that which is Divine, even as the Tyrians brought their precious metals to adorn the house of God. “The fountains of theology,” he says, “are partly Hebrew and partly Greek, whereas the Latins could only drink humbly of their own streams.” In these originals, he affirms, the beauty and propriety of the text are to be unfolded, and its true meaning shawn clear as in the light of day. Yet he would not have them to linger over the letter only, but, casting away frigid glosses, concordances, discordances, and other clogs of genius, follow the evidence of things revealed.
“And when," said he, "we can bring up our minds to