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The greater number in M. de Wal's collection allude in reality, as we have already stated, to Celtic deities, and many most interesting points will be established by them. Caesar" mentions one of the petty kings of the Senones, Moritargus; in the inscription, n. 173, we find exactly the same name belonging to a god, so that probably the human hero was deified as was done among the Greeks and the Romans. Caesar" also states, that the Gallic Mercury was the protector of commerce and travelling; the great number of dedications inscribed to him with the most different surnames, and discovered in all Roman provinces of the West, are the best proof of it. Caesar adds, “Jorem imperium coelestium tenere.” Our inscriptions mention different Joves optimos maximos; but a principal place of this worship the Romans must have found upon the summit of Mount St. Bernard, which, during the greater part of the middle ages,” still passed under the name of Mons Jovis; and it was, as the inscriptions n. 211-230 certify, principally this Jupiter Poeninus, to whom travellers, who crossed this dangerous pass to or from Italy, made their vows. Mars, the god of war, occurs in Spain, Gaul, and Britain, with many indigenous and local surnames, which frequently have been treated by Celtic antiquarians. It is the same with Apollo, of whom Caesar asserts that he was believed to cure diseases. All the monuments of Apollo Belenus, especially in Gallia Cisalpina, and to Apollo Grannus from the Helvetian frontiers as far as Scotland, mention vows taken by the dedicating parties. Perhaps the god Mogon or Mounus Cadenorum, (n. 168–172,) restitutor vitae, (n. 171,) is only another Apollo. The goddess Epona (n. 106-315, 310–213,) whose name so frequently is read upon stones in Styria, on the Rhine and in Scotland, is generally considered to be a Gallic deity, and we think correctly, although our learned editor supports her Italian origin, and promises to prove his opinion on a future occasion, (cf. p. 77.)

We think these few observations will suffice to give an idea of this copious collection. To the scholar of British antiquity, it opens a wide field. He will find all the inscriptions of the mysterious Mars Belatucader, and of many other Celtic deities, especially worshipped by the ancient Britons as Cocideus, Duicus, Hercules Magusanus, Hercules Segontiacorum, Numeria, Nimpa, Sulisma, and many more. May his book therefore meet with that attention which it deserves; and may its learned author very soon find the leisure necessary to prepare a second volume of these important and interesting mythological documents for middle and northern Europe.

R. P.

* De Bello Gall. v. 45. * De Bello Gall. vi. 17. ” The mountain received its present name only in the eleventh century after a monk of Wallis.

2. THE ANABAsis of XENOPHON; based upon the Text of Bornemann. With Notes, original and selected; and Three Maps, illustrative of the Expedition. By the Rev. J. F. Macmichael, B. A. London: G. Bell. 1847. 12mo.

The want of editions of the Greek and Latin classics, accompanied with notes really useful to a young student, which should help him in mastering difficulties and initiating him into the peculiar structure of the ancient languages, has long been seriously felt. Boys either had nothing but the texts, and those very often not of the best quality, or the few who could afford it, purchased bulky volumes with critical and philological notes, which they were unable to understand, and which only now and then afforded them any assistance where a passage happened to be translated in a note. Under these circumstances, it can hardly be matter of surprise that such editions as those of Dr. Anthon have met with general favour in this country, although they are notoriously bad, and calculated only to thwart all the objects which an educator can and ought to have in view, in as much as, by an indiscriminate and careless translation, all mental activity on the part of the student is rendered superfluous. Every teacher who has the good of his pupils at heart, ought to banish such editions from his class-room. Signs are appearing in various quarters, which show that we are resolved no longer to be behind hand in this branch of our school literature. The announcement of the Messrs. Chambers to publish a series of classics, with commentaries for the use of schools, has been followed by similar advertisements of other publishers; and we trust that ere long there will be no excuse for reprinting in this country the productions of one who is daily doing grievous injury to the cause of classical education, and whose literary character is more than equivocal.

The present edition of the Anabasis by Mr. Macmichael, is apparently the first of a series of Grammar School Classics, and a fine specimen of what can be done, if those who undertake a task set themselves resolutely about it. The Anabasis has undoubtedly been sent forth as a specimen, and we sincerely hope that the other volumes which are to follow, may be executed as ably as the present. The text, as the title-page indicates, is based upon that of Bornemann, though Mr. Macmichael has not neglected to exercise his own judgment, and occasionally differs from his predecessors. An account of the differences between his text and that of Bornemann and others, is given in an appendix. The notes are mostly of an explanatory nature, as might be expected in an edition avowedly prepared for the use of schools. They are neither too numerous nor too few, neither too long nor too brief, and give to the student just as much information as is desirable to help him over difficulties, and urge him on to exercise his own faculties. Great use has also been made of Mr. Ainsworth's researches in the track of the Ten Thousand; and maps are added to illustrate that memorable expedition. In short, no source has been neglected or overlooked, from which light can be obtained; and the book will be found equally instructive to young teachers as to students. We have examined the notes in various parts of the book, and have throughout found them precise and accurate. The only thing which we would suggest as somewhat out of the way is, that the editor has not throughout given his notes in English; but has, now and then, quoted the explanations of others in Latin. This is indeed a small matter; but there does not appear any sufficient reason for introducing Latin notes in a commentary of this kind. We can confidently recommend Mr. Macmichael's edition of the Anabasis as the best school edition that exists in the English language; and we feel certain that it will satisfy every reasonable demand that can be made.

3. NoTEs on HERodotus, Original, and Selected from the best Commentators. By Dawson W. Turner, M.A., late Demy of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Head Master of the Royal Institution School, Liverpool.

THIS volume is one of the very poorest attempts at compilation that have ever come under our notice. It is nothing but a feeble dilution and abridgment of the notes of Bähr, Wesseling, and Schweighâuser, with a few passages quoted from Heeren, Thirlwall, and one or two other equally accessible authorities. One of Mr. Turner's principal sources of information appears to be Barker's edition of Anthon's Lempriere. We do not pretend to have examined the whole volume, but have gone over a large part of the notes on the second book of Herodotus, thinking that this would furnish a fair sample of Mr. Turner's merits as an annotator. The notes are all of an extremely meagre and unsatisfactory kind, indicating nothing but the most superficial reading. Even so accessible an author as Wilkinson is never once referred to. Of Bunsen's researches, Mr. Turner does not seem even to have heard.

The value of his chronological notices under such circumstances may be imagined. The reader will look in vain for a single remark which will throw any light upon the numerous difficult and interesting questions connected with the 2d book of Herodotus, or even place him in any tolerable degree in possession of the results of the most recent and valuable researches on the subject. As a specimen of the blunders of which Mr. Turner is capable, we may notice that, in his remarks on c. 99, though he actually quotes Rennell's description of the ancient course of the Nile, he imagines it identical with the Bahrhelama, and quotes in illustration, Savary's fictitious or at least highly exaggerated account of the masts and wrecks of vessels still to be found there !

4. Q. HoRATII FLAcci OPERA OMNIA. Recognovit et commentariis in usum Scholarum instruxit Guil. Dillenburger. Editio altera. Bonna, 1848. 8vo.

The first edition of this work appeared in 1843, and was intended as a school edition of Horace, which should make the student acquainted with the results of the exegetical, asthetical, and critical labours of Peerlkamp, Obbarius, Orelli, Düntzer, Kirchner, Lübker, Franke, and others. The notes in that, as well as in the present edition, are written in Latin, and intended for students of the highest form of a Prussian Gymnasium; they contain no historical, geographical, mythological, or grammatical explanations of subjects with which the student at that stage may reasonably be supposed to be acquainted. The edition was found very acceptable, and introduced in many public schools. The second edition is greatly improved, for not only has the text been corrected in many parts, but the notes have been extended so as to make them more generally useful, though the original object has been steadily kept in view. The book is very cheap, and has all the qualities to recommend it to be put into the hands of students. There is only one point which, perhaps, may be considered as an obstacle, and that is the circumstance that the notes are written in Latin, which, to boys in our higher forms, is not as familiar as it is to those of the corresponding forms of a German Gymnasium. We therefore hope that some English publisher will soon undertake to furnish an edition with an English translation of the notes. The book is accompanied by an excellent life of Horace, chronological tables of the time at which the several poems of Horace were composed, and of the historical events which occurred during the life-time of the poet, from B. c. 65, to B. c. 8; and lastly, by an account of the Horatian metres. The work is also provided with two useful indexes, one, of all the proper names that occur in Horace, and the other, of words and other matters that occur either in the poems, or are explained in the notes.

5. PROCEEDINGs of The PHILoLogical Society of LoNDoN,
Wol. iii., Nos. 51 to 62.

This Society continues with great vigour its investigations into the affinities of languages, the laws regulating the formation of words, the various organic modifications which words undergo in the process of time, and in their transference from one country to another; and, in short, into every question that can be of interest to the philologer. The first two volumes are replete with instructive papers on philological topics; and the parts which we have received of the third, are in no way inferior to their predecessors. In regard to the ancient languages, the papers of Professors Key and Malden are, as usual, of the highest interest; and it is only to be lamented that the results of their learned labours are confined to the members of the Philological Society. We, in our place, can do no more than give a list of the papers read at the Society's meetings:– 1. On Orthographical Expedients, by Edwin Guest. 2. On the Formation of Words by the further modification of inflected cases, by the Rev. R. Garnett. 3. On the Construction of orws um, with a past indicative. 4. On the Elements of Language, their arrangement and their accidents, by E. Guest. 5. On the Misuse of the terms Epenthesis and Euphony, by Th. Hewitt Key. 6. On the Origin of the demonstrative pronouns, the definite article, the pronouns of the third person, the relative and the interrogative, by Th. Hewitt Key. . 7. Attempts to suggest the Derivations and Affinities of some Greek and Latin Words, by the Rev. Dr. Davies. 8. On Greek and English Versification, by Professor Malden. 9. On certain Initial-letter-changes in the Indo-European Languages, by Rev. R. Garnett. 10. On the Names of the Parts of the Human Body as common to the several families of the Indo-European Languages, by Th. Hewitt Key.

6. THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. By R. G. Latham, M.D.
Ed. II. London. 1848. 8vo.

THE first edition of this valuable work has met with the greatest approbation of those scholars who are most able to pronounce judgment upon it. It is now republished, revised, and greatly enlarged. Few words will suffice again to recommend it most urgently to the study of every lover of his mother tongue.

Dr. Latham's work is the result of uninterrupted studies of many years; and an ingenious combination of two prominent departments

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