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The purpose of this book is to teach the pupils of the upper grammar grades to speak and write correctly by having them do much correct speaking and writing.

This is accomplished by means of many exercises which may be used orally and in writing. You will find that writing will make your pupils exact, and that speaking will make them fluent. It is best to use both methods, even with the same exercises, as far as possible.

Each chapter topic is unfolded according to the following scheme:

1. An Explanation. — This is at the beginning of the lesson, and is designed for home study as well as class explanation. The sentence or sentences at the head of the lesson should be written on the board, and the subject to be taught should be made clear to the class. Pupils should not be expected to learn correct language entirely by themselves, but they should be taught it at the recitation as well.

2. An Amplification. — Following the explanation there is an enlargement of the idea as the subject naturally falls into divisions. These also need to be explained and taught to the pupils, even though they may be required to learn them afterwards at home.

3. An Illustration. — After the subject to be taught has been understood by the pupils it is necessary to illus

trate it by proper sentences. These are given in examples and exercises, and serve to show the class the use of good language forms. These exercises should be used carefully, and, whether by oral or written method, the pupils should be made to understand clearly the point involved. In addition to the illustrations given in the text, the teacher and pupil should add others at their pleasure. It is a great point gained when the pupils are able to provide sentences of their own to illustrate any subject under discussion. Do not be content with the illustrations given in the text, but stimulate the class to suggest as many more as possible.

4. An Application. — This is by far the most important part of the language teaching, and the part upon which the teacher should spend the most time and care. Doing the work is always the best method of teaching. Therefore, place great emphasis on the exercises. It is not expected that all the exercises in any one lesson shall be assigned for a single task. One or two exercises may be sufficient for a day's work, but whatever is assigned should be executed neatly, accurately, and thoroughly. A little well done is better than much done indifferently.

It is suggested that the pupils be required to do as much writing as possible. To this end an especial exercise book will be useful, in which the pupils can keep a correct copy of all the exercises they write. This will result in greater neatness and accuracy.

Frequent reviews are indispensable to language teaching, and the teacher will find it especially serviceable to spend time in going over those portions of the text devoted to the correction of errors. It is by unceasing watchfulness of the language of pupils, their pronunciation enunciation, and use of correct grammatical forms, that

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