صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

a habit of good tones and good forms can be established. Remember always that we are not trying especially to teach our pupils to admire the language of others, but rather to make admirable language of their own.

While the primary purpose of grammar is to teach a pupil to make a good sentence, still the subject of connected sentences or compositions is a legitimate part of language teaching, and a portion of this book is devoted to that subject. Composition writing should be practical in its nature, varied in its kind, interesting to the pupil, and not too difficult. The work should be done neatly, accurately, and with a conscious effort for improvement. The compositions should be frequent; sometimes to be written at a moment's notice, sometimes after investigation, and sometimes at home, when a more elaborate result may be expected. The Study of Literature. — Although the main purpose

of grammar is to teach the pupils to make correct sentences of their own, yet, a wise teacher will not neglect the value to be derived from the study of literature by the pupils.

Great benefit can be found in memorizing poems for the pure inspiration they contain. This book contains a few choice selections, which, when reached, should be committed to memory by the entire class. By this means, the poems will have their ennobling effect upon the thought and the language of the pupils, especially if the teacher will call attention to certain words or expressions of notable beauty and strength.

In addition to the selections given in the text, the teacher may find elsewhere an abundance of beautiful poetry that the children will seize upon with eagerness, not with especial reference to grammatical construction, but because fit is good poetry and they like it.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

The same is true of prose selections. In the reading of fine prose literature, the teacher may illustrate by observation the lessons taught in the grammar, can call attention to the felicitous construction of sentences, the choice of adjectives, the placing of adverbs, the beauty of the figures of speech, so that the literature may become fixed in the child's mind by a study of its form as well as by a study of its content.

The author does not believe in tearing to pieces a beautiful paragraph or stanza in order to parse it, or to name every part of speech in it, but he does insist that the pupils should be given a clear idea of construction of great sentences or paragraphs, that they may understand what makes great literature, and be able to appreciate it and use it as a standard in their own productions.

With the conscientious assistance of an intelligent and studious body of teachers, it is earnestly hoped that this book will prepare our pupils for the world of speech and letters.

USE OF GOOD LANGUAGE

TO THE PUPILS:

The purpose in studying grammar is to teach you to speak and write correctly. If when you have learned all the definitions and rules and can parse any sentence you still speak and write badly, your study has been of no practical value. Therefore, remember the following rules:

1. Make a special study of the errors you commit; find the correct forms and practice them until you have changed

your habit.

2. Learn to pronounce correctly. Listen to the conversation of cultured people, and consult the dictionary when in doubt.

3. Enunciate distinctly. To do so you should speak slowly and carefully, without mouthing or smothering the words. Practice difficult words and sentences as well as the ordinary words.

4. Do not talk in a high, noisy voice, and avoid talking through your nose.

Use a moderate tone, talking slowly but clearly. A high, shrill tone, especially in public places, is often the sign of the uncultured person.

5. Avoid the use of slang. Occasionally, we may find the ordinary current slang to be expressive and apposite, but its use in good society, in platform speaking, and in writing, is not to be tolerated.

6. Do not use profane language. A gentleman never 15 wears, because he does not need to. One who knows

how to use language can find strong words without resorting to profanity. 7. Avoid extravagant statements.

Do not use every adjective in the superlative degree, nor be immoderate in your descriptions, opinions, or comments. Be careful and accurate in all you say.

8. Be polite in all your speech, learning the correct forms of good society. Be kind in your comments of others, and considerate in your address to ofder persons.

9. Read and study the best books, observing how language is used, memorizing choice passages of expression, and imitating the best authors in your own speech and writing.

10. You will learn to speak correctly by training yourself to use only correct language. You will learn to write by hard and constant practice. No amount of knowledge will give you facility in good speaking and good writing. This comes by practice, constant and severe.

Grammar will teach you how to avoid error, but the ability to compose fluently, clearly, and logically can be attained only by abundant exercise.

[blocks in formation]

rrect ts of

ons.

lanEsion,

THERE are several ways of expressing the ideas or thoughts we have in our minds. We can make signs, we can carve images, we can paint forms, we can utter cries, we can speak words, and we can write words. The use of words to express our thought is called language.

Language is the expression of thought in words.

and

[ocr errors]

ourvrite edge ting

amar comonly

When we speak our thoughts in words, we use oral language. When we write our thoughts in words, we use written language. Since we desire to express our thoughts correctly and according to the usage of the best speakers and of the best writers, we have made a science of correct language. It is called Grammar.

Grammar is the science that teaches the correct forms of oral and written language.

English Grammar is the science that teaches the correct forms of the English language.

[ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]

Morse invented the telegraph.
By studying the arrangement of these words, we see
that we have expressed a thought about a man who in-
vented something. If we should say Morse invented, our
minds would not be satisfied, for we should not know
what he invented; but when we add the words the tele-

« السابقةمتابعة »