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graph, we have completed the expression of the thought.
By using words to express thought completely we form
sentences.

A sentence is an arrangement of words completely expressing
thought.

A sentence begins with a capital letter.

Exercise 1. — In these words tell which are sentences
and which are not. Finish all incomplete sentences :
1. John has cut.

10. Cæsar crossed the Rubicon.
2. Mary loves flowers. 11. Shakespeare wrote many plays.
3. The cow gives.

12. As I was going home.
4. The rose is.

13. Seeing he was angry. 5. The man has.

14. Eli Whitney invented. 6. Napoleon crossed.

15. The diamond cuts glass. 7. Birds build.

16. Paper is made of wood. 8. Hunting is fine.

17. Tennyson wrote. 9. Texas is.

18. Iron is found.

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Exercise 2. Write a sentence about each of the fol-
lowing words:
1. New York.

4. An automobile. 7. A steamboat.
2. Andrew Jackson. 5. The Amazon River. 8. Robinson Crusoe.
3. The cotton gin. 6. Baseball.

9. The Spanish war.

LESSON 3. — KINDS OF SENTENCES

1. God made the heavens and the earth.
2. What is sweeter than honey?
3. Honor thy father and mother.
4. What a piece of work is man !
Here are four kinds of sentences, each expressing a
thought in a different way. The first sentence simply
states a fact, and is called a declarative sentence.

A declarative sentence is one that states or declares a fact.

The second sentence asks a stion, and is called an interrogative sentence

An interrogative senten une that asks a question.

The third sentence expresses a command, and is called an imperative sentence.

An imperative sentence is one that gives a command or makes an entreaty.

The fourth sentence expresses a deep feeling or a sudden emotion, and is called an exclamatory sentence.

An exclamatory sentence is one that expresses a deep feeling or a sudden emotion.

A declarative, interrogative, or imperative sentence may at the same time be exclamatory, if uttered with deep feeling Declarative: Pan is dead! Great Pan is dead ! Interrogative: Where, oh where, are the visions of morning! Imperative: Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky!

A declarative sentence usually ends with a period. (.)

An interrogative sentence usually ends with an interrogation mark. (?)

An imperative sentence usually ends with a period. (.)

An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark. (!)

These sentences are declarative because they state facts :

Regimen is better than physic. Every one should be his own physician. We ought to assist and not to force nature. Nothing is good for the body but what we can digest.”

These sentences are interrogative because they ask questions:

“ But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house ? Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction?”

EVANS'S ELE. ENG. GRAM. – 2

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These sentences are exclamatory because they express emotion and deep feeling :

“What a charm there is connected with the great mountains ! How the mind is filled with their vast solitude! How the inward eye is fixed on their silent, their sublime, their everlasting peaks ! How our hearts bound to the music of their solitary cries, to the tinkling of their gushing rills, to the sound of their cataracts! How inspiring are the odors that breathe from the upland turfs, from the rock-hung flower, from the hoary and solemn pine!”

These sentences are imperative because they express command.

“ Abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good. Bless them which persecute you; bless, and curse not. Rejoice with them that rejoice, and weep with them that weep. Recompense no man evil for evil. Provide things honest in the sight of all men. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.”

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Exercise 1. – Name the kind of sentence:

1. How the wind blows!
2. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
3. How glad I am to see you !
4. Haste makes waste.
5. Be a hero in the strife.
6. All men are created equal.
7. Who is the King of Glory?
8. Blow, blow, thou winter wind!
9. Who discovered the Mississippi River?
10. Perseverance conquers all things.
11. Woodman, spare that tree.
12. How weary I am of all this strife!
13. Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean!

Exercise 2. — Change each of these sentences into three other kinds: 1. The winter wind blows cold. 3. Sleep on, tired little fellow. 2. How loud the church bell rings! 4. Do the little stars twinkle ?

LESSON 4.- KINDS OF SENTENCES (continued) Exercise 1. — Change these declarative sentences to interrogative sentences:

1. The Mammoth Cave is in Kentucky.
2. Nashville is the capital of Tennessee.
3. Poe wrote The Raven.
4. Rice is grown in South Carolina.
5. The St. Lawrence River drains the Great Lakes.
6. Daniel Webster was a great orator.
7. The moon revolves around the earth.
8. There are two tides every twenty-four hours.
9. Electricity is a form of motion.
10. Perseverance conquers all things.

Exercise 2. — Answer these interrogative sentences by

declarative sentences:

1. Who discovered America ?
2. Who is the President of the United States?
3. Where is the city of Memphis ?
4. Who wrote the Paradise Lost?
5. Who killed Cock Robin?
6. How old are you?
7. Where are you going, my pretty maid ?
8. When may I go out ?
9. How are you this morning ?
10. Lovest thou me ?

Exercise 3. -— Change these declarative sentences to exclamatory sentences:

1. The night is beautiful.
2. The stars shine brightly.
3. The foot of time falls softly.
4. These flowers have a delightful perfume.
5. These bees make sweet honey.
6. The scenes of my childhood are dear to my heart.

7. I am glad to see you.
8. The falling snow is beautiful.
9. Robinson Crusoe had a strange experience.
10. It was a brave act.

Exercise 4. — Answer these interrogative sentences by imperative sentences:

1. Shall I give you a knife or a top?
2. Shall we let you stay here?
3. Will you take tea or coffee?
4. Shall I open the door or the window?
5. Sir, will you have the horses?
6. What did you advise me to do?
7. Where shall I go now?
8. What did Patrick Henry say?
9. What is the fifth commandment?
10. Shall we hang him or let him go?

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Exercise 5. — Make an interrogative sentence about each

5 of the following subjects: fish a baseball game

Charleston the circus Christmas

General Oglethorpe Atlanta

the Fourth of July cotton a steamboat the Indians

Lookout Mountain

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Exercise 6. — Make an exclamatory sentence about each of the following subjects: the stars

a storm

a great speech the snow

a brass band

uncertainty of life a tall mountain

a church

a terrible accident

Exercise 7. — Make an imperative sentence, using each of the following words: give bring

hurry jump

eat shut take sing go

play stop do

come

run

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