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النشر الإلكتروني

26

ORDER OF SUBJECT, PREDICATE, AND OBJECT

17. On leaf and twig hung the dewy diamonds.
18. As night to stars, woe luster gives to man.
19. All night long watched and moaned the

poor

miother. 1
20. Dashed high the breaking waves on rock-bound coast.
21. Sweet are the uses of adversity.
22. In those days came John the Baptist.

Exercise 2. - Change these sentences to the natural order:

1. High in the air his cap threw he.
2. Up and down all night paced he the corridor.
3. Into the night galloped he alone.
4. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred.
5. Then burst his mighty heart.
6. Upon the highest peak stood the chamois.
7. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight.
8. Of all that is dear am I bereft.
9. From crag to crag leaps the wild thunder.
10. Over me surged the sea of men.
11. So gently falls the Southern night.

Exercise 3. — Change these sentences to the transposed order:

1. Brave Horatius then spake out.
2. The hills then shook with thunder.
3. The lightning flashed lurid on land and sea.
4. They built the ship stroke on stroke.
5. The poor old man trudges sadly along.
6. He lay dead beside the river.
7. They fought fiercely through the long day.
8. He was a mighty man, the smith.
9. The day was bright and calm.
10. The Southern moon falls lingering.
11. He came out of the sea.
12. She is as red as a rose.
13. The lamp shone bright on the gay crowd.
14. The prayers we said were few and short.
15. A hermit lives in yonder wood.

Exercise 4. Write these sentences in as many ways as you can, always preserving the sense.

Which way do they seem best?

1. The plowman homeward plods his weary way.
2. The wounded lion, hard hit, sullenly crept to his lair.

3. The fierce gladiators with net, trident, and sword fought over the bloody sand.

4. Far out at sea the tireless gull dips his wing into the ocean

wave.

5. Over the mountain tops the rising sun peeps cheerfully at the awakening world.

6. Into the court the great judge walked with stately tread.

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Tell or write in your own language what you think each of these sentences means:

1. One man's meat is another man's poison.
2. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.
3. Empty vessels make the most noise.
4. • Wealth may seek us, but wisdom must be sought.
5. An honest man is the noblest work of God.
6. Every man is the architect of his own fortune.
7. It is better to wear out than to rust out.
8. Every day is the best day of the year.
9. There are no loitering places on the road to fame.
10. A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.
11. A merry heart maketh a cheerful countenance.
12. Cowards die many times before their death.
13. Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace.
14. Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice.
15. Conscience does make cowards of us all.
16. It is a bright day that brings forth the adder.
17. Noble minds keep ever with their likes.
18. I love the name of honor more than I fear death.
19. Men at some time are masters of their fate.
20. So may the outward shows be least themselves.

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Longfellow lived in a house in Cambridge. In this sentence what word is the name of a person ? What word is the name of a place? What word is the name of a thing ? How many name words have we in this sentence? What are they ?

We see that some words are names. They may be names of persons, as George, Mary, Cæsar, Victoria. They may be names of places, as Boston, New York, Chicago. They may be names of things, as love, hate, boy, girl, desk, chair.

Name three men whom you know. Name three boys. Name three girls. Name three places you have visited. . Name three things you like. Name five heroes of history. Name five books that you have read. Name five cities in the United States. Name five things in this room.

All the words you have used are nouns because they are names of persons, of places, or of things.

A noun is a word used as a name of any person, place, or thing.

Exercise 1.- Find the nouns in these sentences:

1. Victoria was queen of England.
2. New York is the largest city in America.
3. Kindness to animals is a great virtue.
4. Paris is the capital of France.
5. Mary had a little lamb.
6. Love is better than hate.
7. London is on the river Thames.
8. Shakespeare wrote many plays.
9. Every boy and girl should read good books.
10. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

LESSON 11. - PRONOUNS

As a man sows, so shall he

reap.
A good mother is blessed in her children.

Soldiers do their duty at all times.
In the first sentence what does the word he stand for?
In the second sentence what does the word her stand for?
In the third sentence what does the word their stand for?
All words that stand for or are used in place of nouns are
called pronouns.

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

The following words are pronouns:

I, my, mine, me, we, our; ours, us, thou, thy, thine, thee, you, your, yours, ye, he, his, him, she, her, hers, it, its, they, their, theirs, them, who, whose, whom, which, that, what.

Exercise 1. — Name the pronouns in these sentences, and tell what nouns they stand for:

1. John, you must bring your book to me. 2. Whither thou goest, I will go. 3. If Mary wants a new hat, let her have it. 4. The boys hunted for their hats, but could not find them. 5. I saw an old man who had lost his way and could not find it. 6. Give us this day our daily bread. 7. The bird eats its seed from her hand. 8. Keep thy shop, and it will keep thee. 9. The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want. 10. You and I are invited to his house.

Exercise 2.

2. — Write a sentence containing I, my, and me. Write one containing we, our, and us. Write one containing they, their, and them. Write one containing she, her, and it. Write one containing you and yours.

.

Exercise 3. Copy and correct these sentences by using pronouns:

1. John loves John's mother because John's mother is good to John.

2. Mary milks Mary's cow and brings the milk to Mary's mother.

3. Patrick Henry made a great speech, in which Patrick Henry said, “Give Patrick Henry liberty or give Patrick Henry death.”

4. William wrote a letter to William's father and asked William's father to send William some money.

5. When Henry Clay was told that Henry Clay must lose Henry Clay's chance to be President, Henry Clay answered, “ Henry Clay would rather be right than be president.” Exercise 4. - Fill the blanks with pronouns:

1. promised not to tell what told about 2. said that were going to see

to lend some of

books. 3. John said that heard that said that had taken

pencil. 4. first, but

soon, so

climbed a tree,

right behind but did not get

and get

saw

saw

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LESSON 12. - ADJECTIVES


The red rose is a beautiful flower.
This hat cost five dollars.

In the first sentence what does the word red describe ? What does the word beautiful describe? In the second sentence what word points out a particular hat ? What word tells how many dollars? Words used to describe nouns or to limit their meaning are called adjectives.

An adjective is a word used to describe or limit the meaning of a noun or a pronoun.

Exercise 1. — Name as many suitable adjectives as you can, that can be applied to each of the following nouns:

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