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4. Above all else, I love thee best.
5. Young men are best for action, old men for counsel.
6. Under the trees and by the river we strolled.
7. Let there be no strife between you and me.
8. After breakfast, we rode about town.
9. We went over the hill and through the lane.
10. He stood bravely before the king.

11. We will cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees.

Exercise 2. — Use prepositions to illustrate these relations :

1. A book is the table.
2. The dog lies the mat.
3. We live Broad Street.
4. They walked

the bridge. 5. The boys ran

the hill. 6. The boys went the river. 7. We stood the trees. 8. The horses ran the fields. 9. The balloon sailed the clouds.

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Exercise 3. -Write short compositions on the following outlines. Underscore all prepositions :

1. A dog, a mat, a boy, a stick, the dog, the street, the boy's father, a switch, upstairs, the closet.

2. A balloon, ropes, a man, the car, the air, the clouds, the winds, all night, the fields.

3. Two boys, a boat, a river, swift water, boat capsizes, swimming, the shore.

4. A hawk, the air, a fish, the water, a swoop, the hawk's nest. 5. A wolf, the woods, a sheep, the fold, a leap, the wolf's den.

6. A railroad train, a child, the track, the brave engineer, the mother.

7. A lion, a cage, a man, a whip, an angry beast, a roar, a leap, a pistol shot, man saved.

8. A building, a fire, a child, a window, a fireman, a ladder, water, the rescue, the parents.

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In the first sentence what words does and connect? In the second sentence what parts of the sentence does the word because connect? In the third sentence what words does or connect? Words that are used to connect words, parts of sentences, or sentences are called conjunctions.

A conjunction is a word used to connect words, parts of sentences,

or sentences.

The following are some words used as conjunctions : and for

that

whether although but if while unless

because yet hence except

consequently since when

however notwithstanding

or

as

Exercise 1. – Name the conjunctions in these sentences and tell what they connect:

1. We know the truth and yet we heed it not.
2. The rain fell, and the waters rose.
3. Men do wrong because they wish to.
4. He refused to go or to stay.
5. He has been sickly since he was a child.
6. Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
7. He plays the piano, although he is blind.
8. I do not know, hence I cannot say.
9. He exposed himself, consequently he was killed.

Exercise 2.–Fill the following blanks with conjunctions :

1. I cannot deny he was honest. 2. I wonder he will come. 3. Sheep are white black.

4. You cannot leave you have not finished.
5. The boys went hunting killed nothing
6. Holiday came school was dismissed.
7. He stood well in his class

very young
8. Did he get a new book an old one ?
9. We will come tomorrow we have time.
10. His father was ill he staid at home.

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Exercise 3. — Copy these sentences and connect them by conjunctions to make better paragraphs :

1. A tramp came to the door. He was tired. He was hungry. He was sick. He had no money. He asked for food. We gave him some bread. We gave him some meat. He wanted a place to sleep. We showed him the barn. He crawled into the hay. He was soon asleep. We looked for him in the morning. He was gone.

2. The rain descended. The floods came. The winds blew. They beat

upon that house. It fell not. It was founded upon a rock.

LESSON 17. — INTERJECTIONS

In the sentence Alas! I am undone the word Alas! is used to express a sudden emotion or feeling. Such words are thrown into a sentence without any special connection with or relation to the rest of it. Hence they are called interjections. Interjection means throwing in or between.

An interjection is a word used to express a sudden emotion or deep feeling.

The following are some of the words used as interjections :

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Exercise 1. — Name the interjections in these exclamations :

1. Pshaw! You are foolish. 7. Avaunt! And quit my sight. 2. Oh, the weary day!

8. Good! Now for another! 3. Halloo! Who is there? 9. Hush! Let silence reign. 4. Lo, the poor

Indian! 10. Heavens! How it rains.
5. Alas! Woe is me! 11. Away! You weary me.
6. How long, O Catiline ! 12. O, wise young judge !

13. Hark! Did ye not hear it?
14. Hurrah! We have won the day.
15. Pshaw! You speak nonsense.
16. My! Do you hear that?
17. Farewell! A prosperous journey!
18. Ha! My rival! See, he comes.

Exercise 2. — Fill the blanks with interjections : :

1. -! I am undone.
2. ! What a weary race.
3. -! You will disturb the speaker.
4. -! A fig for your opinion.
5. .! Listen to the organ.
6. ! Where are you?
7. .! We have won the race.
8. .! I have no hope.
9. ! What a noise.
10. .! You should be ashamed of yourself.

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We have now seen that there are eight parts of speech; namely, noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection.

These divisions are called parts of speech because all words as they are used in sentences can be classified under one of them.

Note. It was at one time the custom of grammarians to classify the words a, an, and the as articles, making of them a separate part of speech. The better practice now is to regard them as adjectives.

Definitions : 1. A noun is a word used as a name of any person, place, or thing. 2. A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

3. An adjective is a word used to describe or limit the meaning of a noun or a pronoun.

4. A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being.

5. An adverb is a word used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

6. A preposition is a word used to show the relation between a noun or a pronoun and some other word or words in a sentence.

7. A conjunction is a word used to connect words, parts of sentences, or sentences.

8. An interjection is a word used to express a sudden emotion, or deep feeling.

Words are to be classified as parts of speech according to their use in sentences. Any word

may

be used as a name and become a noun. A is a letter. The good die young. Enough is enough. Now is the time.

a

Any word

may

describe a noun or a pronoun and become an adjective.

I have a silver spoon. It is a girl baby.
What is the weather signal? Lend me a steel pen.

Any word may express action and become a verb.
If me no ifs.

I shall
paper

the walls.
His face was inked. Black my shoes.

Any word may modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb and become an adverb.

The moon is silver bright. The sun set red.
He spoke loud and long. Grass grows green.

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