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To memorize:

A noun's the name of anything;
As school or garden, hoop or swing.
And for the noun the pronouns stand;
My head; his feet, your arm, her hand.
Adjectives tell the kind of noun;
As great, small, pretty, white, or brown.
Verbs tell of something being done;
As read, write, spell, hop, jump, or run.

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LESSON 19. — EXERCISES IN FINDING THE PARTS OF SPEECH

Exercise 1.— To what part of speech does each word in italics belong?

1. Enough is as good as a feast. I have eaten enough bread. You have acted badly enough.

2. A little bird sat on a tree. He gave me a little. I cared little for what he said.

3. Now is a good time. You should do your work now.

4. The well is deep. Act well your part. The mayor is quite well now.

5. All men shall die sometime. The gambler bet his all on the cards.

6. The sky glowed red. Red is a warm color. I love the red rose.

7. I saw a black horse. Boy, black my shoes.

8. Steel is made of iron. Steel pens are used for writing. Steel not your hearts against Charity.

9. How fast he flies. He is certainly a fast bird. Some will fast, while others feast. We broke our fast in the morning.

10. The day was long and dreary. How I did long to get out! I gazed out of the window long and earnestly.

11. Silver is a valuable metal. He was buying a silver dish when I saw him. When the moon did silver the sea.

12. How long did it last? We saw our mother last night. The shoemaker used a new last.

13. We should love one another. Love is the greatest force on earth. He believes in love potions.

14. You are a good man. The good are not always. wise. 15. How much salt do you want? You talk too much.

Exercise 2. — As how many parts of speech can you use each of these words? Illustrate by sentences. bite girl

bark

better walk water till thread

light like leave summer book

blind ink

winter
wrong

fish

use

left

LESSON 20. — PHRASES

In the sentence We live in peace, the words in peace are used like an adverb to tell how we live.

In the sentence A man of good taste dresses simply, the words of good taste are used like an adjective to describe the word man.

In the sentence To do one's duty is not always easy, the words To do one's duty are used like a noun as the subject of the verb is.

Words used in this way are called phrases.

A phrase is a group of words, without subject and predicate, used in a sentence as a single part of speech.

A phrase that performs the office of an adverb is an adverbial phrase.

I stood on the bridge at midnight.
The wind blew with great force.

A phrase that performs the office of an adjective is an adjective phrase.

The house of many gables was visited.
There are books of the hour and books of all time.

A phrase that performs the office of noun is a noun phrase.

Skating on thin ice is dangerous.
I love to steal awhile away.

Exercise 1. - In the following sentences name the phrases and tell what kind they are :

1. A church of many towers stood on the corner. 2. The street of By and By leads to the house of Never. 3. He who marries in haste will repent at leisure. 4. Reading by a dim light will hurt the eyes. 5. The voice of the people is the voice of God. 6. It was a debt of many years' standing. 7. He stood in long silence and gazed with eagle's eye. 8. The rain fell in torrents, the water stood three feet deep. 9. We endured with great patience the trials of heat and dust. 10. The war in the far East was one of the fiercest in history. 11. The bat hides during the day and flies about at night.

Exercise 2. — Fill the blanks with adjective phrases:
1. A thing

- is a joy forever.
2. Demosthenes was an orator
3. A soldier should be a man
4. Elegance is a sign
5. The fear is the beginning

6. Richmond was the capital of
7. A snake was killed.
8. The lions

are fierce.
9. The tea is brought to America.
10. The President must be native born.
11. Edward VII. is king –

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Exercise 3. — Fill the blanks with adverbial phrases : 1. Blessed are the pure

6. Air is composed 2. We arose and went

7. Water is composed 3. Farmers should rise

8. We rode 4. The balloon sailed

9. The horses ran 5. Lincoln was born

10. Come

Exercise 4. — Fill the blanks with noun phrases :
1. is useful knowledge. 6. It is sweet
2. is good exercise. 7. It is noble
3.
is easy to do.

8. is human. 4. is dangerous.

9. was a remarkable deed. 5. We should love

10. is divine.

Exercise 5. - Write two sentences containing an adjective phrase.

Write two sentences containing an adverbial phrase.
Write two sentences containing a noun phrase.

LESSON 21. - CLAUSES

In the sentence The tree lies where it falls, we have two distinct parts, the principal part being The tree lies, the secondary part it falls, the two parts being connected by where. Each of these parts contains a subject and a predicate, and each is called a clause.

A clause is a combination of words containing a subject and a predicate, used as a part of a sentence.

The clause in the sentence that expresses the leading or independent idea, is called the principal or independent clause.

The owl sleeps when it is day. The clause that expresses the secondary or dependent idea is called the subordinate or dependent clause.

They began to march as the sun rose.
Some sentences contain two independent clauses.

Art is long and time is fleeting. NOTE. It is well to keep in mind the distinction between a phrase and a clause. A phrase does not contain a subject and a predicate; a clause does contain a subject and a predicate.

Exercise 1. — In the following sentences name the principal and the subordinate clauses :

1. The shadows fly away when daylight comes.
2. Because he was so sorry, I forgave him.
3. Since he had fever his hair has fallen out.
4. I have had to work hard since I left school.
5. When the war began, all men turned soldiers.
6. I had already been told that you were in town.
7. The burglar escaped, for it was too dark to follow him.
8. It was growing very late, so I came home.

9. Only those who have proved faithful should be trusted. Exercise 2. — Fill the blanks in the following sentences

and clauses :

1. The sun rose when
2. when we started home.
3. The bells rang as —
4. as the soldiers marched by.
5. The waves dashed high when
6. How will you pay when - ?
7. because he was sick.
8. since
9. because

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