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4. I heard what he said at the City Hall.

I heard at the City Hall what he said. 5. I was told by my sister how he ran.

I was told how he ran by my sister. 6. The master discovered after recess what the boys did.

The master discovered what the boys did after recess. 7. If you see my cousin at the Fair, tell him to look me up.

If you see my cousin, tell him to look me up at the Fair. 8. Everybody was talking of his marriage on the train.

Everybody on the train was talking of his marriage. 9. The girl whom he loved was a friend of my sister.

The girl was a friend of my sister whom he loved.


An elliptical sentence is one that is correct but not complete. Some words are left out and are understood by the reader or the speaker as not being necessary to the sense. This shortening of a sentence by leaving out words is called ellipsis; it frequently adds strength to a sentence. Ellipsis means leaving out.

1. Love thy neighbor as thyself. (as thou lovest thyself.)
2. He is as proud as ever. (as he ever was.)
3. It is important if true. (if it is true.)
4. He said no one knows what (he said).
5. You may go if you wish (to go).
6. Why so sad ? (Why are you so sad ?)
7. He died while in his chair (while sitting in his chair).
8. It is now half past seven (o'clock).
9. Who spoke? I (spoke).
10. John is not so tall as James (is tall).
11. Mary has a white rose, I a red. (I have a red rose.)
12. Where is the man you saw ? (whom you saw ?)

13. And Thine is the kingdom, and (Thine is) the power, and (Thine is) the glory.

Exercise 1. - In the following sentences supply all

1 words necessary to complete the grammatical structure of the sentence:

1. Either you are a fool or a knave.
2. He is intelligent but unreliable.
3. Milton was a poet, Raphael a painter.
4. Up, Guards, and at them.
5. You are stronger than I, but not so old.
6. Of two evils choose the less.
7. The night hath a thousand eyes, the day but one.
8. A saw is a good thing, but not to shave with.
9. Come as soon as possible.
10. It rained all day Sunday, also Monday.
11. Some people are born lucky, I was not.
12. Solomon was the wisest of men, Moses the meekest.
13. The Huron leaped like a tiger.
14. They fought courageously, but not successfully.

Exercise 2. - A telegram is a good illustration of ellipsis. We leave out all the words we can. Supply the missing words in these telegrams:

1. Mother ill. Come at once. Notify others.
2. Otherwise engaged. Regrets. Have written.
3. Will give two hundred. Answer. My expense.
4. Party will leave Monday. Meet us, two twenty.
5. Suddenly ill. Postpone date. Notify papers.

Exercise 3. — Reduce the following sentences to their shortest forms, omitting all words that can be left out without destroying the sense:

1. He staid as long as it was possible to stay. 2. I cannot stay longer than a week is long. 3. My brother is older than I am old. 4. We arrived before you arrived or before any others arrived.

5. A bird in the hand is worth as much as two birds that are in the bush.

6. He has gone no one knows where he has gone.
7. Texas raises more cotton than Georgia raises cotton.
8. Everybody works but father does not work.
9. We must now go for the boats. Let us lower the sails.
10. Look on this picture, then look on that picture.
11. There were on all sides the dead men and the dying men.
12. For I am nothing if I am not critical.
13. I see a sail. I see a sail. We are saved at last.
14. There is the enemy. Get you ready with your guns.

15. First came the king, then came the court, then came the crowd.

16. I want a horse ! I want a horse! I will give my kingdom for a horse!


(To illustrate the elliptical sentence) Write a short advertisement concerning each of the following matters:

1. You have a cow for sale. Describe the cow and the price you want for her.

2. You have lost a dog. Describe the dog and name the reward.

3. You have a farm for sale. Describe the farm and price.

4. You wish to rent a house. State your wants in a few words.

5. You have lost a watch. Advertise for it, describing it carefully.

6. You need a gardener. Advertise for one, telling the work to be done.

7. You have a second-hand piano for sale. Describe it, giving price.

골 8. Advertise a pair of horses for sale. Describe the horses, giving price, etc.


Exercise. - Name all the parts of speech in these sentences:

1. Evil communications corrupt good manners. 2. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. 3. Perseverance conquers all things. 4. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. 5. A rolling stone gathers no moss. 6. A soft answer turneth away wrath. 7. Brutus was the noblest Roman of them all. 8. The vine clings to the moldering wall. 9. I slept and dreamed that life was beauty. 10. England expects every man to do his duty. 11. Tell him to come and take my sword. 12. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 13. The melancholy days have come. 14. Time and tide wait for no man. 15. Adieu! Adieu! my native land ! 16. He is rich, wise, and generous. 17. In the beginning God made the heavens and the earth. 18. Upon what meat hath this our Cæsar fed ? 19. Farewell! long farewell to all my greatness. 20. Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. 21. Hark! Hark! The dogs do bark. 22. A merry heart doeth good like a medicine. 23. The mountain and the squirrel had a quarrel. 24. Choose ye this day whom ye will serve. 25. Every man is his own best teacher. 26. A man's actions betray his character. 27. Agriculture is the most important of all industries. 28. Sugar is made from beets in France and Germany. 29. Our good deeds live after us. 30. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 31. They love to see the flaming forge. 32. Corruption wins not more than honesty. 33. Of all the wonders that I yet have heard

It seems to me most strange that men should fear.

34. I heard the roar of the winds and the beat of the surf.
35. The bell rang softly from the old church tower.
36. The flowers come with the summer.
37. The Hudson River is named for Henry Hudson.

38. De Soto marched across the States of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi in 1540.

39. New Orleans is situated at the mouth of the Mississippi River, and at the entrance of the most productive valley in the United States.


Exercise 1. — Enlarge these sentences by adding words to both subject and predicate. Separate the complete subject and the complete predicate by a vertical line. Axes. cut. The winds blow.

Snakes crawl.
Dogs bite.
Seeds scatter.

Fleas bite.
Cats scratch.
The birds sing.

Sheep graze.
Flowers bloom.
The camel travels.

Clouds threaten.
Sailors swim.

The ship rocks. The sun sets. Miners dig

Artists paint. The moon rises. The farmer plows.

The river flows.

Grass grows.

Exercise 2. — Make a list of adjectives that are derived from these nouns: beauty fierceness hope

happiness hardness goodness talents

brightness industry wisdom holiness sweetness study

laziness east bravery ugliness cheerfulness difficulty west

Exercise 3. – What nouns correspond to these adjectives?

high great able hot pretty






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