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had sung

Exercise 4. — Use the following verbs in sentences: have ordered

should do furled

could have seen can be playing dived

was defeated can shoot might have had

will be given may have been

was punished should have been studying

has grown

Exercise 5. What adverbs can be added to these sentences ? 1. The soldiers fought

7. The guns roared 2. The smoke curled

8. The snow fell 3. The clouds gathered

9. The storms beat 4. The men cheered

10. The army marched 5. The waves beat

11. The leaves stirred 6. The whistles blew

12. The flag waves

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Exercise 6. — Write sentences, using prepositions to

6 show the relation between the words: A book, a table.

A child, a bed.

A boy, a seat. A hat, a rack.

A girl, a horse.

A queen, a throne. A monkey, a tree. Hair, the head.

Bears, the cage. A man, a boat.

A teacher, a desk. Fish, a hook.

A sailor, a mast. A tent, rain.

A car, a rail.

LESSON 28. — GENERAL EXERCISES (continued) Exercise 1. Connect some of these sentences by means of conjunctions to make a better paragraph:

The horse was led out. He was without saddle. He was without bridle. I looked at him. I was not afraid. I took the bridle in my hands. I caught him by the mane. I forced the bit in his mouth. He plunged. He kicked. IIe tried to bite. I held him fast. Two men put the saddle on him. They strapped it tight. I leapt into place. The horse gave a leap. He turned. He reared. He plunged. I drove the spurs into his side. He began to run. After a while he was tired. He became quiet. I had conquered him.

Exercise 2. - In the following sentences name the adjectives used as nouns :

1. None but the brave deserves the fair.
2. The feeble and the sick were cared for first.
3. Be polite to the old and the infirm.

4. Only the strong and well should climb high mountains. In the following sentences name the nouns used as adjectives :

1. He has a gold tooth.
2. I like brass andirons and marble mantels.
3. All around were orange trees and flower beds.
4. On the walls were ink spots and finger prints.

In the following sentences name the nouns used as adverbs :

1. The sun set ruby red in the west.
2. The elephant's tusks were brass tipped.
3. The moss covered bucket hung in the well.

4. Her eyes were violet blue. Exercise 3. — Use the following phrases as adjective phrases in sentences : of bravery in the air of

many
minds

of the day on the horse of much learning of all time in town

of by and by in the mountains in the country of eloquence

of abundance

among the trees.

of courage

in the grass

Exercise 4. — Use the following phrases as adverbial phrases in sentences : in haste at noon

at school at leisure

by hard work on the corner with great force

for your sake

with great energy on the street

at the proper time of a fever among the clouds

in haste

in the summer at daylight

in torrents

at night by sunrise

at the window

across the meadow

the following phrases as noun

Exercise 5. Use phrases in sentences : hunting the tiger shooting rabbits firing a cannon ascending in a balloon riding in an automobile

sailing a boat
digging bait
reading poetry
catching a tarpon
to eat candy

to take a bath
to work with flowers
to raise vegetables
to save money
to occupy the time

Exercise 6. — Use the following clauses as adjective clauses in sentences : where I was born

that do harm where Columbus landed

where Lee surrendered who live extravagantly

that Poe wrote who live in the open air

whom you saw which fell abundantly

where coal is found which grows profusely

that Jack built

Exercise 7. — Use the following clauses as adverbial clauses in sentences : as the sun arose

as I came into the gate when it grew dark

when I grew older when I was a child

as the sun went down when I became a man

when the floods came as the storm began

as the dam broke because I knew no better

when the cows come home because the ground was so wet

when the river freezes over when he was turned loose

where berries grow

Exercise 8. Use the following clauses as noun clauses in sentences: the day we went hunting

the songs the negroes sing because you forgot

the
way

the ocean looks the time you have lost

how red the sun was the hour when we separated

how he got away the place you lost

the day I started to school the songs your sister sang

the last piece of chicken I ate the pies that mother used to make the words he spoke

your watch

LESSON 29. — REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What is language? What is grammar? What is English grammar? What is a sentence ? With what do all sentences begin ? What is a declarative sentence? With what does it end? What is an interrogative sentence? With what does it end? What is an imperative sentence? With what does it end? What is an exclamatory sentence? With what does it end? What is the subject of a sentence? What is the predicate of a sentence? What is a simple sentence? What is the simple subject? What is the simple predicate? What is the complete subject? What is the complete predicate? What is the object of a sentence?

2. What is a noun? Name some words that are nouns. What is a pronoun ? Name some words that are pronouns.

What is an adjective ? Name some words that are adjectives. What is an adverb? Name some words that are adverbs. What is a preposition ? Name some words that are prepositions. What is a conjunction ? Name some words that are conjunctions. What is an interjection ? Name some words that are interjections. How many parts of speech are there? Name them. What is a phrase? What is an adverbial phrase ? What is an adjective phrase? What is a noun phrase? What is a clause? What is the principal clause? What is the subordinate clause ? What is the difference between a phrase and a clause? What is an adverbial clause? What is an adjective clause? What is a noun clause? What is a complex sentence? What is an elliptical sentence? What does ellipsis mean?

LESSON 30.- LETTER WRITING— BUSINESS LETTERS

We use written language in the form of letter writing more than in any other

way.

Therefore, it is necessary to understand the correct form of beginning and signing a letter, as well as to practice the composition of the various kinds of letters that one sends.

The first part of a letter is the heading, which is written at the top and toward the right, and contains the address of the person sending the letter, and the date.

a

The second part, written at the left, contains the address of the person to whom the letter is sent.

The third part contains the message or the body of the letter.

The fourth part contains the signature of the person sending the letter.

All these parts vary according to the kind of letter one writes. In business letters all the parts should be formal and exact, but in letters to relatives or friends some liberty is allowed.

Here is the form of a business letter:

a

1728 Wheat St., Austin, Texas. American Book Company,

Jan. 1, 1908. 100 Washington Square,

New York. Dear fira:

dam much interested in your school publieations and should be glad to have you send me a catalogue, for whieh please find otamp>Cuelosed. .

Yours truly,

John E. Parsons.

Note. In the above letter study the position of each part and the punctuation. Note that the letter is short and states only the business in hand, that the full address of the person writing it is given to avoid mistakes, and that it is carefully written and politely worded for the sake of good business form and courtesy. The letter should be neatly folded, and placed in an envelope, which should be addressed in the same way as the letter itself.

Exercise. In the same form as the one given, and using your own street and home address, and your own name, write some of the following letters:

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