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19. Write a letter to your teacher, telling her what you did during the vacation, and what pleasures you enjoyed.

20. You have had a birthday party. Write a letter to your father who was away at the time, telling him what presents you received, and how your guests enjoyed themselves.

21. A friend of yours has been ill. Write a letter expressing your regrets and wishes for her quick recovery.

22. You have returned from a visit to a friend in the country. Write a letter thanking him for the pleasure

you had.

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23. A neighbor has sent you a basket of flowers. Write a note thanking her for it.

24. A friend has invited you to a party. Write a note accepting the invitation. 25. A boy has asked the loan of your gun.

Write him agreeing to lend the gun, and telling him how to take care of it.

SUGGESTIONS ABOUT FRIENDLY LETTERS

1. All the pupils should write letters to the pupils of another school in a distant city.

2. The pupils should write letters to each other, telling about the way they spent a holiday.

3. The pupils should write letters to the teacher, telling of a circus, a picnic, a foundry, a park, or anything else they have seen or visited.

4. The pupils should write letters to their parents, describing their school and studies. The letters should be delivered, and answers requested.

NOTE. A postoffice may be established in the schoolroom for pupils to write letters to each other. The teacher should read each letter before delivery.

A poem to study and memorize:

(This poem should be studied for its literary beauty and value.)

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They sailed. They sailed. Then spake the mate :

“ This mad sea shows its teeth to-night.
He curls his lip, he lies in wait,

With lifted teeth, as if to bite !
Brave Admiral, say but one good word;

What shall we do when hope is gone?”
The words leapt like a leaping sword,

“ Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!”

Then, pale and worn, he kept his deck,

Aud peered through darkness. Ah, that night
Of all dark nights! And then a speck —

A light! A light! A light! A light!
It grew a starlit flag unfurled !

It grew to be Time's burst of dawn.
He gained a world; he

gave

that world Its grandest lesson : “ On! sail on!”

- JOAQUIN MILLER.1

LESSON 33. — KINDS OF NOUNS

George Washington, man, Boston, town.
America, country, Sarah, girl, Bible, book.

Name the word in the above list that refers to some particular man ; the word that refers to some particular place; the word that refers to some particular country; the word that refers to some particular, girl ; the word that refers to some particular book. Thus. we see that some nouns are the names of particular persons or places or things and apply to but one individual. These nouns are called proper nouns.

A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing.

Proper nouns begin with capital letters.

Name the words in the list that refer to a general class of objects without naming any particular individual. These nouns are called common nouns.

A common noun is the name of a general class of objects.

Common nouns do not begin with capital letters, unless they begin sentences.

1 From Complete Poetical Works of Joaquin Miller. Copyright, 1902, by The Whitaker and Ray Co.

Exercise 1. — Name the proper and common nouns among these words and give the reason: Charleston meadow America hat

Adams river

boat
corn

Harvard boat New York wheat houses Denver Jefferson cotton

Napoleon lions Niagara railroad Paris school Johnston coal

sugar cane milk

Jackson Sheridan Ivanhoe Louisiana Chicago

cities

Duluth Baltimore Oregon Montgomery Maine tigers mountains steamboats

Exercise 2. – Write the names of five boys you know; of five girls; of five cities; of five rivers. You should

; begin each name with a capital letter because it is the name of one particular person and is a proper noun.

Exercise 3. Write the names of five trees; of five minerals; of five kinds of food; of five kinds of animals; of five kinds of birds. You should begin each name with a small letter because it is not the name of a particular thing, but of a class of things, and is a common noun.

Exercise 4. — In the following sentences name the proper and the common nouns:

1. Cuba is an island in the West Indies. 2. James Russell Lowell, the poet, lived in the city of Boston. 3. San Francisco was destroyed by earthquake and fire. 4. Rice is raised in South Carolina. 5. Elias Howe invented the sewing machine. 6. Vesuvius, an active volcano, is in Italy, near the city of Naples. 7. The climate of Alaska is severe in winter. 8. The Czar of Russia is named Nicholas. 9. Columbus was buried first in Valladolid, a city of Spain. 10. The Pacific Ocean is the largest body of water. 11. The Puritans settled in Massachusetts.

12. Lookout Mountain is near the city of Chattanooga, in the State of Tennessee.

LESSON 34. — GENDER

John, Mary, friend, rocks, man, woman, sheep, rivers.

Name two words in the above list that refer to objects of the male sex ; two words that refer to objects of the female sex; two words that refer to objects that may be of either sex; two words that refer to objects of no sex.

Some words refer to objects of the male sex, some to objects of the female sex, some to objects that may be of either sex, and some to objects that cannot have sex. When we classify nouns according to the sex they denote, we say they have gender. Gender means kind.

Gender is a classification of words according to sex. There are four genders. 1. The masculine gender belongs to words that denote the male

sex.

boy, Charles, brother, coachman, uncle, husband.

2.

The feminine gender belongs to words that denote the female

sex.

girl, Susan, sister, aunt, wife, lady, duchess.

3. The common gender belongs to words that may denote either

sex.

cook, dog, cat, swine, fish, deer, animals.

4. The neuter gender belongs to words that denote objects without

sex.

book, table, house, school, desk.

Exercise 1. — Of what gender is each of the following words? William companion brother flowers lioness daughter Alice

child niece duke witch infant Sarah

youth doctor Indian ship John

beast
reaper
storm

queen heroine master

beauty hope bells Sir

moon

sea

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