صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

THE

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XV

ITALY to KYSHTYM

NEW YORK

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1911

[ocr errors][merged small]

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XV. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,' WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

[ocr errors]

Astiiuk Anthony Macdonell, M.A., Ph.d.

Boden Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford. Keeper of the Indian
Institute. Fellow of Balliol College; Fellow of the British Academy. Author of 1
A Vedic Grammar; A History of Sanskrit Literature; Vedic Mythology; &c. I

Rev. Andrew B. Davidson, D.D.

Sec the biographical article: Davidson, A. B.

Algernon Charles Swinburne.

Sec the biographical article: Swinburne, A. C.

Henry Austin Dobson. LL.D.

Sec the biographical article: Dobson, H. Austin.

Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc. f
Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University, ■<
Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. ^ I

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.r.hist.soc.

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls'
College. Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-
1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman, 1898. Author of
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.

Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 190S).

H.M. Inspector of Prisons. 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate;
Secrets of the Prison House: &c.

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G.. M.A., Litt.d., F.R.S.(Canada), F.r.hist.s.
Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada.
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to
the Constitutional History of Canada.

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, Litt.d., LL.D.
Sec the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.

Sir A. Houtum-schindler, CLE.

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

Arthur Hamilton Smito, M.A., F.S.A.

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum.
Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue
of Creek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c.

Acnes Mary Clerke.

See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.

Alfred Ogle Maskell, F.S.A.

Superintendent of the Picture Galleries, Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 1887.
Cantor Lecturer, 1906. Founder and first editor of the Downside Review. Author
of Ivories; &c.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

Alexander Taylor Innes, M.A., LL.D. 1

Scotch advocate. Author of John Knox; Law of Creeds in Scotland; Studies in-\ Knox, John.
Scottish History; &C.

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

V

[ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland. f

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn,^ Jacobites
1900. {

A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward, IX.D., D.litt. f ta„„„

See the biographical article; Ward, A. W. \ Jonson» wn

B. F. S. B.-P. Major Baden F. S. Baden-powell, F.R.A.S., F.r.met.s. f

Inventor of man-lifting kites. Formerly President of Aeronautical Society. Author -I Kite-flying (in part).
of Ballooning as a Sport; War in Practice; &c l

B. W. B. Rev. Benjamin Wisner Bacon, A.M., D.D., Litt.d., LL.D. f

Professor of New Testament Criticism and Exegesis in Yale University. Formerly J James« Bptttie Of;

Director of American School of Archaeology, Jerusalem. Author of The Fourth ] Jude, The General Epistle of.

Gospel in Research and Debate; The Founding of the Church; &c. *•

C. D. G. Rev. Christian David Cinsburc, LL.D. /-_..... .

See the biographical article: Ginsburg, C. D. \ Kabbalah (in part).

C. EL Sir Charles Norton Edccumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r

Vicc-Chanceilor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Kashgar (in Part);
Oxford. H.M.'a Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the Bntish East -j Khazars {in Part);
Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for Khiva dm ^.a
German East Africa, 1900-1904. IIUUfl K%n part)'

C. E. D. B. C. E. D. Black. f_ . ,

Formerly Clerk for Geographical Records, India Office, London. \ Kasngar (tn part).

C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Haves. A.M., Ph.d. f

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member \ John XXL; Julius LL of the American Historical Association. I

C. H. T.* Crawford Howell Toy. /. h , . . *

See the biographical article: Toy, Crawford Howell. \ K Parl>

C. J. J. Charles Jasper Joly, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. (1864-1006). [

Royal Astronomer of Ireland, and Andrews Professor of Astronomy in the Uni- J
vcrsity of Dublin, 1897-1906. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Secretary of the ]
Royal Irish Academy. I

C. J. L. Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., CLE., LL.D. (Edin.). f

Secretary, Judicial and Public Department. India Office. Fellow of King's College,
London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889-1894."
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of Translations
of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c. I

C. L. K. Charles Lethbridce Kincsford, M.A., F.r.hist.soc., F.S.A. f

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor ■]
of Chronicles of London, and Stow's Survey of London. [

C. Ml. Chedomille Mijatovich. r

Senator of the Kingdom of Scrvia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister PIcni- J Karageorge;
potcntiary of the King of Servia to the Court of. St James's, 1895-1900, and 1902- I Karajich.
1903. I

C. M. W. Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B. r

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Dcputy-Inspcctor-General of Fortifications, 1896-1902. } Jerusalem (in Pari).
Served under General Gordon in the Sudan, 1874-1875. [

C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.litt., F.r.g.sj, F.r.hist.s.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow .
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. ^ Jordanus.
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography, &c

C. S. C. Caspar Stanley Clark.

Assistant in Indian Section, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. ^ 1

C. We. Cecil Weatherly. f _ , ... . .

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. \ Knighthood: Orders of.

C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary i--,1Mi*m /•„ A^-rt.
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- j , TM , V V
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey. 1886-1894. Director-General \ Jordan (in pari);
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Kurdistan (in part).
Lord Clive; &c.

D. G. H. David Georce Hocarth, M A. f ,„_■.„

Keeper of the Ashmolcan Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College. Oxford. Jora»n l«« Pa"),

Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899^ Kara mania;
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Kharput; Konia.
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. I

D. H. David Hannay. f Jnnlm; Kanarls;

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal < Keith, Viscount;
Navy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilw CasUlar; &c. I Keppel, Viscount.

B. B. Edward Breck, M A , Ph.d. f

Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Timet. J Kite-Dying (mi part).
Author of Fenctng; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c. ^

[ocr errors]

Ernest Barker, M.A. \

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly -j Jordanes (in part).
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. I

Edward Fairbrother Strange. f Japan: Art (in tori)

Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Korin' nrat»-
Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects; Joint-editor' „ . -p*11*'
of Bell's " Cathedral Series. L Kyosal, Sho-Fu.

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. f Jacobsen, Jens Peter;

See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund. I Kalewala; Kyd,

Eenest Axthur Gardner, M.A. J jtjw.

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. \

Edward Heawood, M.A.

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical
Society, London.

Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bast., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1805).

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography;

ate

Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A. f jvrcae.

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian \'
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. I

Eduard Meyer, Ph.d., Dxitt. (Oxon.), LL.D. f
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Cesckichte des <
Attertkums; Gesckickte des alien Aegyptens; Die IsraeliUn und ihre Nackbarstdmme. I

Kenya;
Kilimanjaro.

Italy: Geography (in part).

Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. r

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital,. Joints: Diseases and Injuries; Great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery in the Universities of Cambridge, Kidney Diseases (in part). Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. I

Rev. Ethelred Luke Taunton (d. 1007). f . „,. ,. .

Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England. \ Jesulu <■"> P"")

Captajn Frank Brinkley, R.A. f
Foreign Adviser to Nippon Yusen Kauma, Tokyo. Correspondent of The Times J
in Japan. Editor of the Japan Mail. Formerly Professor of Mathematics at 1
Imperial Engineering College, Tokyo. Author of Japan: &c. I

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.th. (Giessen). f

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 1 Jacobite Church,
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. [

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. f

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. S Kent, Kingdom 01.

Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.r.antbrop.inst. f

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on J Jqiw*-. AnaiomM
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, j •0U"5" anatomy.
Formerly Humeri in Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. I

Lady Lugard. fKano;
See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D. \ Katagum.

Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.d. (Leipzig), F.S.A.

Reader' in Egyptology. Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial
German Archaeological Institute.

Frank R. Cana. f
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to Ike Union. \

Friedrich Schwally. C

Professor of Semitic Philology in the University of Giessen. \ Koran (in part).

Francis Samuel Prtlbrick, A.M., Ph.d
Formerly Teaching Fellow ol
of Harvard University. Mer

Baron Friedrich Von Hcgel.

Formerly Teaching Fellow of Nebraska State University, and Scholar and Fellow -j Jefferson, of Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association.

On Friedrich Von Hcgel. r n. Ai..*i..

Member of Cambridge Philological Society; Member of Hellenic Society. Author I i * f°sU':

of The Mystical Element of Religion; &c. \ J0'". Gospel of SL

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. r, d jarronn

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1903. j J"'>0TM'
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. | '"c"°"

George Abraham Grierson, CLE., Ph.d., D.litt.

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of the Linguistic Survey 1 of India, 1898-1903. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1009. Vice-President 1 of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c. I

Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.r.hist.s. f

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. J Jacobs.
Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- |
tion of Literature. I

Rev. George Foot Moore. / Jehovah.

See the biographical article: Moore, George Foot. \

« السابقةمتابعة »