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47th Congress applied arch arch-ring assume axes beam bending body breaking-strength cast-iron centre of gravity co-ordinates columns components compression compressive strength cross-section deduced deflection determine diagonal diameter direction distance elastic limit ends equation equilibrium experiments external forces extrados factor of safety feet fibre force acting formula fracture girder given gives greatest bending-moment greatest stress header Hence imparted inertia intensity iron joint left-hand length line of resistance load magnitude modulus of elasticity modulus of rupture moment of inertia motion neutral axis normal obtain parallel forces perpendicular piece plane plate point of application polygon radius represent resultant right angles rivet shaft shearing shearing-force slope span specimens square inch steel strain supporting force tail-beams tensile strength tension tests tion truss unit velocity vertical voussoirs Watertown Arsenal weight working-strength wrought-iron yellow pine zero
الصفحة 23 - If any number of forces acting at a point can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a POLYGON taken in order, they are in equilibrium.
الصفحة 356 - Heated steel by being plunged into oil instead of water is not only considerably hardened but toughened by the treatment. 39. Steel plates hardened in oil and joined together with rivets are fully equal in strength to an unjointed soft plate, or the loss of strength by riveting is more than counterbalanced by the increase in strength by hardening in oil. 40. Steel rivets fully larger in diameter than those used in riveting iron plates of the same thickness being found to be greatly too small for...
الصفحة 357 - ... 43. Iron highly heated and suddenly cooled in water is hardened, and the breaking strain, when gradually applied, increased, but at the same time it is rendered more liable to snap. 44. Iron, like steel, is softened, and the breaking strain reduced, by being heated and allowed to cool slowly. 45. Iron subjected to the cold-rolling process has its breaking strain greatly increased by being made extremely hard, and not by being " consolidated,
الصفحة 357 - In screwed bolts the breaking strain is found to be greater when old dies are used in their formation than when the dies are new, owing to the iron becoming harder by the greater pressure required in forming the screw thread when the dies are old and blunt, than when new and sharp.
الصفحة 220 - ... solid thus generated is equal to the product of the revolving area and the path described by the center of gravity of the plane area during the revolution.
الصفحة 357 - Iron bolts, case-hardened, bore a less breaking strain than when wholly iron, owing to the superior tenacity of the small proportion of steel being more than counterbalanced by the greater ductility of the remaining portion of iron.
الصفحة 484 - Professor Lanza is strongly in favor of using sticks of merchantable sizes for testing material as against small pieces. In regard to te^'ts on small pieces he says: While a great deal of interesting information may be derived from such tests as to some of the properties of the timber tested, nevertheless such specimens do not furnish us with results which it is safe to use in practical cases where fullsize pieces are used. Inasmuch as these small pieces are necessarily much more perfect (otherwise...
الصفحة 356 - The little additional time required in testing those specimens whose rate of elongation was noted had no injurious effect in lessening the amount of breaking strain, as imagined by some. 31. The rate of elongation varies not only extremely in different qualities, but also to a considerable extent in specimens of the same brand. 32. The specimens were generally found to stretch equally throughout their length until close upon rupture, when they more or less suddenly drew out, usually at one part only,...
الصفحة 338 - Euleijs theory of the strength of pillars, if it should appear capable of being rendered practically useful, and if not, to endeavor to adapt the experiments so as to lead to useful results.