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revenge on poor Priscian, as to change fadoms plur. for far dom fing. at the infant he is telling you, Shakespeare meant many fadoms : unless perhaps he did it for the sake of uniformity of style. Then indeed, to say-two, three, twenty fadom, instead of fadoms, is just such a piece of vulgarity m speech ; as to say--a many for a great many.
One may fay, that Mr. W. has written certain observations and emendations on Shakespeare: but nobody, that ever read them, except Ont, would imagine ; that it was, oi could be intended hereby to predicate, that the observations were precife and determinate; or the emendations certain.
I suppose, Shakespeare intended by this expreffion to figo nify; that there was a certain precise determinate number of fülcins, which Prospero by his art knew of; at which depth if he buried his faff, it would never more be discovered, fo as to be ased in enchantments.
CAN. OF CRIT. * L. 20. Igr'rant fumes.] Ignorant, for hurtful to reafon.
Wart. P. 72. 1. 4. Thou’rt pinch'd for't now, Sebaftiane Fleiß and blood,] I by no means think, this was out Anthor's point. ing; or that it gives us his meaning. He would say, that Sebastian now was pinch'd thro' and thro' for his treipafs; fele ihe punishment of it all over his body; a like manner of expreffion we meet with in King Lear ;
wipe thine eve;
E’er they shall make us weep..
that he and all his kinne at ones Were worthy to be brent, both felt and bones. THIOT. P. 72. I. 18. Where the bec fucks, there fuck 1;] I have ventur'd to vary from the printed copies here. Could Ariel, a spirit of refin'd ætherial effence, be irtended to want food ? Besides the sequent fines rather counterlance burk.
THEOD. Ibid.] Mr. Theobald tells us, he has here ventured today from obe printed copies, and read lurk 1: Becaufe a Spirit carnot be intended, as he expresies it, to want food. How shakespeare, or any other good metaphysician would have intended
to support these spirits, had they been of their own making, I do not know, but the people who gave them birth brought them up to good eating and drinking.
WARB. L. 22. After summer merrily] Why, after summer? Unless we must suppose, our Author alluded to that mistaken notion of bars, swallozus, &c. crossing the seas in pursuit of hot weather. I conjectured, in my SHAKESPEARE restor’d, that sunset was our Author's word : And this conjecture Mr. Pope, in his last edition, thinks probably should be espoused. My reasons for the change were from the known nature of the bat. The boup Neeps during the winter, say the Naturalists; and so does the bat too. (Upupa dormit byeme, ficut & vespertilio. Albert. Magn.) Again, flies and gnats are the favourite food of the bat, which he procures by flying about in the night. (Cibus ejus funt muscæ & culices : quem xo&te volans inquirit. Idem, e Plinio.) But this is a diet, which, I presúme, he can only come at in the summer seas fon. Another observation has been made, that when bats fly either earlier, or in greater number than usual, it is a fign the next day will be bot and serene. (Vespertiliones, s vesperi citius & plures solito volarint, fignum eft calorem & ferenitatem poftridie fore. Gratarolus apud Gesner de avibus.). This prognostick likewise only suits with summer. Again, the bat was call'd vef; ertilio by the Latins, as it was vuxlegis by the Greeks, because this bird is not visible by day
appears first about the twilight of the evening, and so continues to fly during the dark hours. And the Poets, whenever they mention this bird, do it without any allusion to the season of the year ; but constantly have an eye to the accustom'd hour of its flight. In the second act of this play, where Gonzalo tells Antbonio and Sebastian, that they would lift the moon out of her sphere, Sebastian replies; We would so, and then go a bat-fowling.
THEOBALD.* Ibid. Summer merrily. ] This is the reading of all the editions. Yet Mr. Theobald has substituted fun-fet, because Ariel talks of riding on the bat in this expedition. An idle fancy. That circumstance is given only to de. fign the time of night in which fairies travel. One would think the consideration of the circumstances should have
set him right. Ariel was a spirit of delicacy, bound by the charms of Prospero, to a constant attendance on his occafions. So that he was confined to the island winter and summer. But the roughness of winter is represented by Shakespeare as disagreeable to fairies, and such like delicate fpirits, who on this account constantly follow. fum
Was not this then the most agreeable circumstance of Ariel's new recovered liberty, that he could now avoid winter, and follow summer quite round the globe. But to put the matter out of question, let us consider the meaning of this line,
There I couch, when Owls do cry. Where? in the Cowslip's bell, and where the Bee fucks, he tells us: this must needs be in summer. When? when Owls de cry, and this is in Winter.
When blood is nipt, and ways be foul
The song of Winter in Love's Labour Loft. The consequence is, that Ariel flies. After-Summer. Yet the Oxford Editor has adopted this judicious emendation of Mr. Theobald.
Ibid.] I would read lurk with Mr, Theobald, as more elegant, and for this reason, that though Ariel should even be supposed to have occasion for more fubftantial food than the cameleon; yet he cannot mean to compare himself to a bee or suckling of any kind. -After summer merrily. Dr. Warburton's arguments against
Mr. Theobald's proposed * reading, after sun-set, are egregiously wrong. Though it be admitted that Ariel here speaks of himself as a kind of fairy, Shakespeare hath no where represented winter as fo exceffively disagreeable to fairies, as to oblige them, like swallows, to expatriate on its arrival. Nor do the lines from Love's · Labour Loft put the matter out of question, that owls cry only in winter; for the queen of the fairies in the Midsummer night's Dream, says to her attendants,
The clamorous owl, ibat nightly boots
It is affo remarkable that in the Song of Winter, the owl is represented as finging a merry note; whereas, in the other pallages, ņe is faid to cry, to be clamorous; which, with great propriety, may be said of her in summer, when her hooting is contrafted with the notes of other birds. That the bat is only introduced to design the time of night in which fairies travel is not to the purpose here, for Ariel is one of those kind of fairies who execute the commands of Prospero by day light.
KENRICK. P. 73. 1. 4.] To drink the air is an expreffion of swiftness of the same kind as to devour the way in Henry IV: John's.
P. 74. 1. 26. As great to me, as late.] My tofs is as great as yours, and has as lately happened to me. JOHNS,
P. 76. 1. 1. Yes, for a score of kingdoms.] i, è. If the subject or bet were kingdoms : fcure here not fignifying the number twenty, but account.
WAR 1.* Ibid.] I take the sense to be only this: Ferdinand would not, he says, play her false for the world. Yes, answers she, I would allow you to do it for something less than the world, for twenty kingdoms; and I wish you well enough to allow you, after a little wrangle, that your play was fair. So likewise Dr. Gray.
JORNS. P.77.1. 18.] For when fhould perhaps be read wokere.
JOHN 5. P.78. 1. 32:
-- Single I'll refolve you.] Because the conspiracy against him, of his brother Sebastian and his own brother Anthonio, would make part of the relation, WAR B.*
P. 79, 1. 1. Which to you shall seem probable.] These words feem, at first view, to have no use; some lines are perhaps loft with which they were connected. Or we may explain them thus : I wilt refolve you by yourself ; which method, when you hear the ftory, [of Antonio's and Sebastian's plot) fball seem probable, that is, fhall deserve your approbation,
JOHNS. L. 22. true,] That is, boneft. A true man is, in the language of that time, oppofed to a thief. The sense is, Mark what these men wear, and see if they are bonefi. Johns, P.80, 1. 8. And Trinculo is reeling ripe; tubere should they
Find this grand liquor that beck gilded 'em 2 ]
Shakespeare, to be fure, wrote-grand 'lixir, alluding to the grand elixir of the alchymists, which they pretend would restore youth, and confer immortality. This, as they said, being a preparation of gold, they called aurum potabile ; which Shakespeare alluded to in the word gilded; as he does again in Anthony and Cleopatra.
How much art thou unlike Mark Anthony?
from him, that great med'cine hath, With his tinct, gilded thee. But the joke here is to insinuate that, notwithstanding all the boasts of the chymists, fack was the only restorer of youth, and bestower of immortality. So Ben Jonson, in his Every Man out of his Humour.-" Canarie the very elixir and spirit of wine.” -This seems to have been the cant name for fack, of which the English were at that time immoderately fond. Randolf, in his Jealous Lovers, speaking of it, says, 16. A pottle of elixir at the Pegasus bravely caroused. So again in Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas, act III.
-Old reverend fack, which, for aught that I can read yet,
Did all his wonders by The phrase too of being gilded was a trite one on this occafon. Flet her in his Chances
DUKE. Is she not drunk too?
WARR. & CAP.* P. 80.). 14. O, touch me not : I am not Stephano, but a ramp.] In reading this play, I all along fufpected that Shakespeare had taken it from fome Italian writer; the unities being all fo regularly obferved, and the persons of the drama being all Italians. I was much confirmed in my fufpicion when I came to this place. It is plain a joke was intended; but where it lies is hard to fay. I fufpect there was a quibble in the original that would not bear to be translated, which ran thus, “ I am not Stephano, but Staffilato," Staffilato fignifying, in Italian, a man well lashed or Aayed, which was the real case of these varlets.