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parts, and the exercise of their professions, they attain, what books cannot communicate to them, nor they themselves convey to others; an intuitive dexterity of availing themselves of every experienced occurrence.
These observations are not intended to depreciate the worth of Mr. Combrune's labours now before us ; far from it; on the contrary, he greatly deserves the thanks of the public for the attention he has bestowed on the improvement of so important an article : but seeing his calculations and rules fa philosophically, fo critically, nice, it is to be apprehended, that the current discharge of business will not permit an equally minute attention to them; that the expert artist may conclude himself to have already attained a mechanically Thorter method of regulating his proportions, perhaps as far as are reducible to practice ; and, that the ignorant operator will not attain the knowlege nor application of them at all, by reading a book beyond his comprehension.
Yet the fundamental propositions in this curious work may prove a valuable acquisition to that brewer, whom the calculations of the proportions do not deter from a perusal of them, through a distrust of their practicability,
The contents of the first part of this treatise were enumerated in our former article, on its first appearance ; there fore need not here be repeated : the general properties of the various subjects considered in it are severally laid down, and the speculative brewer may derive from it both entertainment and profit. '
Respecting the second and practical part of this work, the objects of its consideration are thus epitomifed by the Author.
“ Before I enter upon the practical, and indeed most important, part of this work, it will, I think, not be improper to give a distinct, though general, view of the different parts it is to consist of. Thus is a general map prefixed before any book of geography, to point out the countries described in it, and their connexions one with another.
“To extract from malt a liquor, which, by the help of fermentation, may acquire the properties of wines, is the general object of the brewer, and the rules of that art are the subject of these sheets.
« An art truly very fimple, if, according to vulgar opinion, it consisted in nothing else than applying warm-water
to malt, mashing these together, multiplying the taps at ditcretion, boiling the extracts with a few hops, suffering the liquor to cool, adding yest to make it ferment, and trusting to time, cellars, and noftrums, for its taste, brightness and preservation. . .
. . . . « This might be sufficient, were the place and conftitation of the air always the same, the materials and vessels employed intirely fimilar, and lastly the malt drinks intended for the fame use and time ; but, as every one of these particulars is liable to variations, the rules, by which the artist is to govern himself, would only serve to deceive him, if he applied thein indiscriminately, or trusted to indefinite signs, and insufficient maxims, in his deviation from them.
« A more certain foundation has been laid down in our first part, and the principles there established will, it is hoped, in all cases, answer our ends, provided we make use of the proper means to settle their application. In order to effect this, nothing feems more proper than to follow, as much as pola fible, that plan, which the rational brewer would, in every particular circumstance, sketch to himself, before he proceeded tɔ business. His first attention ought to be directed not only to the actual heat of the weather, but also to that which may be expected in the season of the year he is in. The grinding of his malt must be his next object, and as the difference of the drinks greatly depends upon that of the extracts, he can but chuse to have distinct ideas of what may be expected from each of them. Hops, which are added as a preservative to the extracts, become too important a part of them, to be employed without a sufficient knowlege of their power. The strength of our malt fiquors depending principally on their quantity or lengths, it is necessary to ascertain the heights in the copper, which answer to these lengths. The differences in the boiling, with regard to different drinks or seasons, the loss of water by evaporation, the proper division of it according to the different degrees of heat to be given, the means to ascertain these degrees by determining what quantity of cold water is to be added to that, which is at the point of ebulition, as well as to a certain volume of grist, come afterwards under the consideration of the artist. He will next employ himrolf in afcertaining the manner and time of malhing, and as many unexpected incidents may have produced some small variations between the actual and the calculated heat of his extracts, it will be incumbent upon him to make a proper estimation and allowance for
i internal by the additilt and
them. To dispose these worts in such forms and depths, as may render the influence of the ambient air the easiest and most efficacious upon them, and then, by the addition or yeast, to supply the part of that internal and most powerful agent, which was lost in boiling, are the next requisites. The ferınentation which follows, and which the brewer retards or forwards according to his intentions, compleats the whole of his process, and it must be an additional satisfaction to him, if, upon comparing his operations with those of the most approved practitioners in his art, he finds himself able to account for those signs and established customs, which before were loosely described, authoratively dictated, and never sufficiently determined or explained. An object of still greater importance to him, is to know the proper stock of beer he ought to keep, in order to have at all times a sufficient quantity fit for use. As precipitation is requisite in certain cases, the common methods for effecting it thould be known, and likewise the means practised among coopers to correct the real or imagined errors of the brewer, and to render his drinks agreeable to the palate of the consumers. This will naturally, and lastly, lead him to consider what true taste is, and by employing the means, by which it may safely be obtained and improved, he will have done all that was in his power, to answer his customer's expectation, and to secure his sucs cess."... * In treating of these points, the Writer has manifestly enployed great application ; though, not being critical brewers ourselves, we can but credit him with that accuracy he apparently deserves. All the incidental circumstances of the operation of extraction are carefully noted, with calculations and tables adapted to them. Experience only can establish the propriety of them: and the importance of a manufacture hitherto conducted upon principles too vague for reliance, will surely dictate the expediency of fair trial to the most judicious of the profession. This, for the emolument of themselves, the public, and as an acknowlegement due to the laudable endeavours of Mr. Combrune for their service, we sincerely hope he will obtain.
As a specimen of our Author's critical exactness, we will give our readers his summary view of a Brewery for Porter, or Brown Beer, viz.
“ A Brewing for Porter, or Brown Strong Beer, com
puted for 40 degrees of heat in the air.
Il quarters of malt dried to 138 degrees; 132 pounds of hops
3 degrees for hard
degrees equal to 3 e 14 effervescing degree inches lefs cool
·ing in for the first volume of grist 6,11 7332'
malh. mah 10,00 1833 . 21,11]25662[11 degrees of heat gained in the first malk
2211: by effervescence.
water for first 316,00 1833
1552 Malhes .. . i ' 2 ' 3 4 5 Degrees of heat 144 -- 152 -- 156 -- 159 --- 162 whole quantity of water used, barrels 16---8--12--9---9 Quantity to be cooled in; barrels 24-11--3---2--1 Coppers to be charged with; barrels 13-- 6 ----9-- 7----7 Allowances for incidents ;
G. C. L. C. L. C. L. C. L. Ć. inches.
less 3. more 2. more 3. more 2. more 2.
† † † † • Deduction from the i mah for heat created by effervescence and hard corns.
+ Additions to the next malhes, on account of the refrigeration accafioned by mashing and standing.
I G. C. lands for great copper, L. C. stands for little copper."
This curious, philosophical treatise on the brewery; is dedicated to the learned Doctor Peter Shaw ; by whofe advice and « council it was undertaken and finished :' and the ingenious Author modestly hints, that his work may be considered as a distant endeavour to imitate the laudable example set by this excellent chemist, whose labours are so universally and deservedly esteemed.
Observations on the present State of the Widows and Orphans og
the Protestant Clergy, of all Denominations, 'in Great Britain and Ireland. With the Out-lines of a Scheme for the Relief of such of them as stand in need of it. To which is added, a brief View of the Widow's Fund in the Church of Scotland. 8vo. Is. 6d. Griffiths, &c.
THE subject of this piece is of a very interesting nature, 1 and must necessarily engage the attention of every compassionate Reader. It is obvious to the most superficial observer, that the Widows and Orphans of the Clergy in general, are in a worse condition, and stand more in need of Relief, all circumftances considered, than those of any other fet of men in Great Britain. The only suitable provision that has hitherto been made for their support, is that of the Widow's Fund in the Church of Scotland. This scheme was originally formed by gentlemen of very considerable abilities, and after being the subject of long deliberation in the several judicatories of that Church, was at last approved of by the wisdom, and confirmed by the authority of Parliament. After a trial of many years, it now appears, that the calculations on which it proceeded had been made with surprising exactness; accordingly it has, in all respects, effectually answered the end proposed, and produced all the good expected from it. But there are still great numbers of the Widows and Orphans of the Protestant Clergy, of all denominations, in Britain, who stand greatly in need of some provision for their support, (as much as those of the Church of Scotland formerly did) and for whom no provision has as yet been made. The Dignities of the Churches of England and Ireland, indeed, many Rectories, and some of the larger Vicarages, have fuch revenues annexed to them, as may enable their possessors to live in a manner not unsuitable to their ftations, and at the fame time make some decent provision for their families. But when this has been admitted, many more than one half, perhaps two thirds of the whole collective body of the Clergy of these Churches cannot do this; and their Widows and Orphans are commonly left in as distressful circumstances, as those of any other Clergy.
These circumstances are painted in very strong colours, by the judicious Author of the Observations now before us. He modestly leaves the matter, however, as far as it relates to the inferior Clergy of the established Churches of England and Ireland, in the hands of their own reverend superiors, who