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taken prisoners in war, generally killing themselves rather than submit to the indignity of servitude.
The second Part of this work relates to the Voyages and Adventures of the Mariners and others, who, by order of Peter the Great, and his successors, have been sent by the Ruflian Government, to discover whether Asia and America were connected; and, if not, how wide a distance there might be between them? This illustrious Prince was so earnest to know this particular, that he gave instructions for that purpose in his own hand writing, and ordered Admiral A praxin to see them carried into execution. After his decease, the Empress Catherine began her reign with an order for the expedition to Kamtschatka. This was undertaken by Captain Bering, with the two Lieutenants Spanberg and Tichirikow, as affiftants. They set out from Petersburgh in the year 1725, and, after combating numberless difficulties, effected the purpose of their errand; the Captain returning to Peters-; burgh in the year 1730. The following anecdote may serve to ihew how far, at this time, the police of the Russian government was improved, even to the most distant parts of its dominions. “ While Captain Bering made the last Voyage from the river Kamtschatka towards the Eaft, a Japannese veffel was again driven to the coast of Kamtschatka, where it. stranded in July, 1729, south of the bay of Awatscha. A chief of 50 Cossacks, named Andreas Schtinnikow, came hither! with some Kamtschedales, when the Japannese had just brought their goods afhore from the ship. Schtinnikow received some presents from them, but this did not satisfy him ; for, after 1pending two days among the Japannese, he left them in the night time, and concealed himself with his company in the neighbourhood, in order to see how they would proceed. The Japannese, afflicted at Schtinnikow's departure, wanted to seek for other inhabitants, for which purpose they took a boat and steered along the coast; upon which Schtinnikow ordered the Kamtschedales to follow them, and to shoot them all except two, which they did : so that out of 17 Japannese there remained alive only an old man, and a boy of eleven years old. Schtinnikow, having taken possession of all their effects, and caused their fhip to be broken to pieces in order to make use of the iron, he took the two Japannese as prisoners of war, or rather as slaves, to Werchnei Kamtschatfkoi Oftrog. This barbarity shewn to shipwrecked strangers could not remain unpunished. Schtinnikow having taken his trial, received the halter for his reward; but the Japannese Rev. June, 1762
were fent to Jakutzk in 1731, and from thence to Tobolsk : after which, in 1732, they were brought to Petersburgh.”
In the beginning of the year 1733 a second expedition to Kamtschatka was undertaken by the same persons, three gentlemen of the Academy of Sciences accompanying them, by order of Government, to render their Discoveries more accurate and compleat. Theie were Mr. T. Gmelin, Professor of Chemistry and Natural Hiltory; Mr. L. de Lille de la Croyiere, Professor of Aftronomy; and Mr. S. Muller, the Writer of these Voyages. The first undertook the observation of what might occur, with regard to animals, plants, minerals, and other objects worth notice in Natural History. It was the business of the second to ascertain, by astronomical obfervations, the situation of the countries that might be difcovered ; and that of the last, to give the civil history of Siberia and its antiquities, with a defcription of the manners aud customs of the people, as also to draw up a relation of the occurrences of the
How these academical Gentlemen acquitted themselves in their several departments, it is not our business here paricularly to enquire." Let it fuffice to obferve that want of health, and other accidents, prevented their executing many things they intended. The world, however, is greatly obliged to Profeffor Gmelin, and our Author, for some curious particulars relative to the natural and eivil history of Siberia. We could with, in honour to the memory of De la Croyiere, that he had done any thing of consequence, as his life was made a facrifice to the hardfhips he met with, or the intemperance he fell into, during the voyage. To say the truth, his task was by much the most adventurous and difficult ; Mr. Muller residing in Siberia, and Mr. Gmelin, obtaining a coadjutor, to ease him of the most dangerous part of the expedition. This was Mr. Steller, who acquitted himself with reputation, and indeed acquired some profit by the voyage * As to the Marine Officers, and particularly the Commander in Chief, Captain
This Gentleman bas given very particular descriptions of several fea-animals they met with on the unknown coasts they visited, which descriptions are inserted in the Commentaries of the Academy of Sciences. He brought alfo no less than 300 beaver-skins with him back to Kamtschatka and Siberia. However. by Ataying at Kamt. fchatka after his fellow travellers, he embroiled himself in matters foreign to his department; and, though honourably acquitted, and allowed to return to Petersburgh, lived not to arrive there, but died of a fever af Tumen.
Berings Bering, the hardships they met with were extreme; the Commander himself expiring, on an uninhabited island, in a most deplorable situation. Of the life and death of this gallant and enterprizing officer, Mr. Muller gives the following concise account: "He was a Dane by birth, and had, in his youth, made Voyages to the East and West Indies, when the glorious example of the immortal Emperor, Peter the Great, for the marine *, tempted him to seek his fortune in Ruslia. In the year 1707 he was a Lieutenant, and in 1710 CaptainLieutenant in the Russian Aleet. Having served in the Cronstadt Aeet from its beginning, and been in all the expeditions by sea, in the war with the Swedes, he joined to the capacity requisite for his office a long experience. It is a pity that it was his fate to end his life in such an unfortunate manner. He may be said to have been buried half alive ; for the sand rolling down continually from the fide of the ditch in which he lay t, and covering his feet, he at last would not suffer it to be removed, and said, that he felt some warmth from it; which otherwise he should want in the remaining parts of his body; and thus the sand increased : so that after his decease they were obliged to scrape him out of the ground, in order to inter him in a proper
manner.” Messrs. Ginelin and Muller returned to Petersburgh in the beginning of the year 1743; Captain Tfchirikow, in 1745 ; and the surviving Mariners, in 1749: so that this second expedition to Kamtschatka may be said to have lasted near fixteen years.
As to the three additional Maps comprized in this Englishi Edition, the two first are fmall indiftinét things; the one, a copy of part of the Japannese Map of the World, and the other a like copy of de Life's and Buache's fictitious Map, founded on the pretended Difcoveries of De Fonte, De Fuca, and others. The third additional Map is a pretty large and correct one of Canada and the northern part of Louisiana, extending westward to the coast which the Ruffians discovered
As we see no table of errata to this work, it will be
for the Publisher to add one, or to cancel the pages 29 and 30, where the Pacific ocean is twice called the Atlantic
* This paffage is not very intelligible, but it is extracted verbatim from the book.
+ 'The Captain and his creiv being shipwrecked, and obliged to lodge themselves in the hollows between the sand-hills, for want of better convenience.
ocean. We imagine this to be a mistake of the Translator, into which he might be led by its being called in the original the Western occan, which undoubtedly it is to the Americans, who were the people that called it so. Mistakes of this kind serve to fhew how neceflary it is, that Translators should know something of the subjects th y take in hand, as well as of the language in which they are treated. It had not been amiss a so if the very incompetent Translator had looked into a Latin dictionary, or got somebody to tell him the meaning of the word Adjunétus, as the English Reader may probably not know what to make of Mr. Adjunctus Steller, any more than of the names of some Writers of our own country, with Latin terminations.
Conclusion of the Account of Busching's Geography. Aving, in our Reriew for February, given a fummary
of the plan of this work, we shall now present our Readers with an extract, that they may be enabled to form some idea of the manner in which it is executed.
In our Author's Introduction to Germany, we have a more. distinct and accurate account of what, deserves notice in that country, whether considered in a physical or political view, than we have ever met with in so narrow a compass.
“ Germany, (says our Author, who seems determined to draw the panegyric of his native soil) taken in general, is a: bledled and happy country, being either richly or sufficiently provided with all the necesaries and conveniencies of life. Its foil, indeed, is not every where equally fertile ; what is wanting, however, in one place, is made up by the superfluity of another. Its agriculture is every day improving; it yields all kinds of grain in plenty. The Germans cultivate hemp, fax, hops, anise, cummin, tobacco, madder, woad, faffron, &c. It produces also a variety of excellent garden-stuff; likewise all sorts of common French and Italian fruits.
“ Germany produces wine which vies with, nay furpafles the French and Hungarian wines. In Austria, in the circle of Bavaria, and the electorate of Mentz, in Heffe, the Wetterau, in Suabia, in the circles of Upper and Lower Saxony, and in the circle of Westphalia, are falt springs and boiling fountains. The bringing up cattle is also very confiderable and of great benefit to the Germans, infomuch that the num
ber of horses, oxen, cows, sheep, goats, and swine, is here incredibly great. The marsh lands in the dutchy of Holstein, the principality of East Friesland, and the dutchy of Bremen, &c. afford cheese and butter of the best kind, and in the greatest plenty. Of tame foul we have poultry, turkies, pigeons, geese, and ducks. Exclusive of these we have the itork, spoon-bill, wild goose, wild duck, fwans, buftards, pheasants, wood-cocks, partridges, grouse, snipes, larks, fieldfares, ortolans, quails; as also the falcon, heron, hawk, &c. The chace and hunting grounds in Germany are numerous and fine, abounding in deer, boars, bares, and rabbits; also bears, wolves, lynxes, foxes, badgers, martens, &c. In Moravia a species of leopards and beavers are found, and the numerous rivers, lakes, and ponds in Germany abound in various and fine forts of fish, &c. &c.”
After giving a short account of the minerals to be found in Germany, its ancient inhabitants, &c. the Author goes on to observe that the German language has not only undergone great alterations, infomisch that but few of the Learned understand the Writers of the middle age, as Ottfried, for instance, but that even at present the pronunciation, phra-, seology, and acceptation of words, are lo very different, that one German frequently cannot understand another. There are but very few who write and speak the language with purity and correctness; and even the Grammarians themselves are of different opinions with respect to the principles and rules on which it is formed. From the beginning of the last century, indeed, several societies have gradually been formed in Germany, which have given room io hope for an improvement of the language; but they confine themselves solely, we are told, to the province of eloquence, neglecting critical enquiries into the phraseology, &c.
“ With respect to Learning, (fays our Author) the Germaus at present dispute the palm with all other nations. Not only their natural vivacity* and strong itch of imitation, but also the variety of governments in Germany, their mutual emulation, and the freedom Proteftants enjoy there of writing according to their own judgment, has procured the greatest improvement of the sciences among them. Nor is there any place in the world where more books are written and printed than among the Germans; and though this ich of writing gives rise to many ordinary and mean performances, yet hare • The vivacity of Germans! Kifum teneatis! Ff3