« السابقةمتابعة »
Who, in his children's and his country's right,
And to dread Mars's fury yields his life. Tyrtæus has been very happy in accommodating the found of his verses to the sense. In the following line, it is imposfible not to mark the enormous bulk of the Cyclops ; while you read it, you ascend the giant, as it were, with a scaling ladder, ". Ουδ ει Κυκλωπων μεν εχοι μεγεθος τε βιην τε, Nor is the line that follows it less expressive of the swiftness of Boreas ; such is the rapidity of the dactyls.
Noxwas de Sewr Oprixtor Bopenx.
That vanquishid Boreas to his swiftness yield: Here are fix elegies; but the verses we have quoted are sufficient as a specimen of the whole translation, which in many places is worse, and in few better. The versification is too weak, too languid, and destitute both of the spirit and pathos of the original.
but the veteranlation, hafication is
ACCOUNT OF FOREIGN BOOK S., Essai sur la grande Guerre, de Main de Maitre : Ou Instruction militaire du Roy de Prusse pour ses Generaux. Avec de courtes
Maximes, pour la petite Guerre. * . An Eflay on War: Or, the King of Pruffia's military In
structions to his Generals; with short Maxims for fkirmishing Parties. -Said in the title to be printed at London: a common finesse abroad,
T H E Editor, in his preface, acquaints us, that a Ger
I man manuscript of this little piece fell accidentally into his hands; and that, notwithstanding the French are already possessed of very excellent military treatises, he has not scrupled to present his countrymen with this, as it contains many use
* Imported by Becket and Co. who have also just published a Translation of this Work,
ful observations, and is the production of a master consummately skilled in the subject.
He farther observes, that as the principles of War are always the same, nothing new is to be expected; most of the sules here delivered having been diffused in other writings upon the same subject : but what principally distinguishes this performance, is, that these rules are applied to fact, and that the Author has evidently founded his principles upon · real experience.
The subjects particularly considered in this Essay are, ift, the Defects and Advantages of the Prussian Troops ;-2. the Subsistence of the Troops, and provisions (Field Commissaries); -3. Suttlers, Beer and Brandy ;-4. Dry and Green Fórage ;-5. The Knowlege of the Country ;-6. Quickness of Sight *;-7. The Distribution of the Troops ;-8. Camps. -9. How to secure a Camp.— 10, How and for what reasons to send Detachments.-II. Stratagems and Artifices in War.-12. Spies, how the best use may be made of them on every occasion, and in what manner to get intelligence of the enemy.-13. Certain marks by which the intention of the enemy may be discovered. 14. Our own Country, neutral Countries, the Enemy's Country, Difference of Religions, and the peculiar Behaviour requisite to different Objects.-15. All the Marches of an Army.---16. Some Precau. tions to be taken in a Retreat against the Hussars and Pan, dours.-17. In what manner Light Troops should engage with Hussars and Pandours. --18. What Motions are necessary to force an Enemy to move also. — 19. The Passages of Rivers. 20. How to defend the Passage of Rivers.—21. The Surprize of Towns.-22. Battles.--23. For what reason and how to give Battle.—24: Chances and unforeseen Accidents which happen in War, —25. Whether it is absolutely necessary for a General to hold a Council of War.-26. The Manoeuvres of an Army.—27. Winter-Quarters.--28. Winter-Campaigns in particular.
We might perhaps ftand excused with several of our Readers, if, after this specification of its Contents, we should take no farther notice of this performance; but as, in the Title, it is afcribed to the greatest military Genius of this age, with whom also Great-Britain is at present intimately
* Coup d' Oeil is the French expreslion, by which is here intended an ability to judge, at the very firit glance, of the space necessary to contain any number of Troops, and the far fuperior talent of knowing how to ditinguish, in a moment, every advantage that can be yaken of the ground.
connected, it is very possible that to some a farther account of it may be acceptable. The conciseness with which the several Articles are treated, renders a regular analysis of each almost impossible, and any abridgement would be useless. The following article therefore, which is endeavoured to be rendered intelligible to the mere English Reader, may lerve as a specimen of the rest, and is not of the least importance to the well ordering an Army.
Art. 2. « A certain General observes, that in order to form a good Army, it is proper to begin with the Belly, which is the foundation of all operations. I shall consider this matter under two heads. In the first, I shall point out in what places, and after what manner, Magazines should be established; in the second, how to make the best use of such Magazines, and how to transport them when requisite. .
os The first rule is always to establish the most considerable Magazines in the rear of the Army, and, if it can be made convenient, in a fortified place. In the Wars in Silesia and Bohemia, we had our grand Magazine at Breslaw, on account of the facility of recruiting this Magazine by means of the Oder.
" When Magazines are formed in the front of the Army, there is a chance of losing them upon the first check, and then there is no resource, but if you establish your Magazines in the rear, one behind another, you will act with prudence, and a small misfortune will not be attended with your entire ruin. To establish Magazines in the Electoral Marche, Spandau, and Magdebourg, the latter will be useful on account of the Elbe, in an offensive War against Saxony ; and Schweidnitz, in a war with Bohemia. ..“ Great care is necessary in the choice of Commiffaries, for if they happen to be knaves or fools, affairs suffer considerably. With this view, men of spirit should be appointed their chiefs, who must watch them narrowly and often controll them. :
" There are two methods of establishing Magazines. The Nobility and Peasants must be ordered to send or carry to the Magazines the Corn, which they are to pay according to the tax of the Chamber of Finances, or in diminution of the contributions imposed upon them. If the country does not abound with Forage, it will be necessary to bargain with undertakers to furnish a certain quantity. These bargains are to be made and signed by the Coinmislaries...
“ Boats likewise must be provided on purpose for the transportation of corn and forage, by the canals and rivers.
“ Undertakers should never be employed but in cases of the utmost necefkty, for they are greater usurers than even the Jews; they enhance the price of provisions, and sell them extremely dear.
“ Magazines ought always to be established betimes, that all necessary provisions may be ready, when the Army goes out of quarters to open the campaign. If you stay too long the frost will render the water unnavigable, and the roads will Decome so bad and impracticable, that you will not be able to form Magazines but with extreme difficulty.
“ Besides the regimental waggons that carry bread for. eight days, the Commissaries must be provided with carriages
no sufficient for a month. to carry provisions sufficient for a month.
. . “ But if there are any navigable rivers, advantage must be taken of them ; for it is these alone that can procure plenty in an Army.
« The carriages should be drawn by horses. We have likewise employed oxen, but to a disadvantage. The wag. goners should be obliged to take great care of their horses. It is the duty of a General to keep a tight hand over them, seeing by the loss of these horses, the number of carriages is lessened, and consequently the quantity of provisions.
“ There is still another reason, which is, that if these horses are not well fed, they will not be able to sustain the necessary fatigues. And upon a march, you lose not only your horses, but also your carriages, and the provisions with which they are loaded. Such losies, often repeated, may defeat the best concerted projects. A General must not neglect any of these affairs, which are of so much importance to
“ In a War against Saxony, the Elbe is to be made use of, to facilitate the conveyance of provisions; and in Silesia, the Oder. In Prussia you have the sea; but in Bohemia and Moravia you can employ only land carriage.
" Sometimes it will be proper to have three or four Magazines for provision, in a line, as we had in Bohemia in the year 1742. There was one Magazine at Pardubitz, another at Nienbourg, another at Podjebrod, and another at Brandeis, in order to be in a condition to march up to the enemy,
and to follow him to Prague, in case it was adviseable to go thither. . In the last campaign in Bohemia, Breslau furnished Schweidnitz, and the latter, Jaromirtz ; from whence provifions were conveyed to the Army.
« Beside the carriages for provisions, the Army should also be furnished with a fufficient number of iron ovens, and bread fhould be baked whenever the Army stops. In all expeditions bread or biscuit should be provided sufficient for ten days. Biscuit is very good, but our soldiers do not like it except in soup, and do not know well how to use it. .
« In a march into the enemy's country, a depository of meal thould be made in some town near the Army, in which there is a garrison. During the campaign in 1745, our depository was at first at Neustadt, afterwards at Jaromirtz, and lastly, at Tratenau. Had we advanced farther, we should not have found another secure place, except Pardubitz.
« I have caused hand-mills to be made for each company, which will be very ufeful by employing at these mills the soldiers who carry the flower to the depository, and there receive bread. With this flower you not only spare your Magazines, but you will be able to subsist longer in a camp, which, for want of this resource, you would be obliged to quit. Moreover, there will not be occasion for so many convoys, or to furnish large escorts.
« In speaking of convoys, I shall here add, what relates to that matter. In proportion to what may be apprehended from the enemy, the escorts are to be increased or diminished. Detachments of infantry are to be sent into the towns through which the convoys must pass, to be ready to asist them. Large detachments are often necessary to cover them, as it happened in Bohemia. .“ In all suspected places infantry should be employed to escort convoys. Some huslars should join with them, to observe their niarch, and give notice where the enemy may lie in ambuscade. I have also employed infantry preferably to cavalry for escorts in an open country, and I have found the advantage of it., .66 AGeneral of an Army can never take too many precautions for the security of his convoys. One good rule to cover convoys is to send some troops before to take poffefsion of the defiles through which the convoy will pass, and