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T' whom Satan turning boldly, thus. Ye Powers And Spirits of this nethermost abyss, Chaos and ancient Night, I come no fpy, 970

With

nor

fies the use of the word against Mr. Addifon seems to disapprove Dr. Bentley by ano:her passage in of these fictitious beings, thinking our author's Latin works, p.

340. them I fuppofe (like Sin and Death) Apud vetustissimos itaque mytholo- improper for an epic poem : but I giæ scriptores memoriæ datum re see no reason why Milton

may perio Demogorgonem Deorum om- be allow'd to place such imaginary nium atavum (quem eundem et beings in the regions of Chaos, as Chaos ah antiquis nuncupatum ha- well as Virgil describe the like beriolor) inter alios liberos, quos fuf- ings, Griet, and Fear, and Want, tulerat plurimos, Terram genuisse. and Sleep, and Death, and Dif

cord likewise within the confines 965.-— Rumor next and Chance,] of Hell; and why what is acIn Satan's voyage through the Chaos there are leveral imaginary deemed a fault in the other. See

counted a beauty in one should be persons described, as residing in Æn. VI. 273, &c. that immense waste of matter. This may perhaps be conformable Vestibulum ante ipsum, primisque to the taste of those critics who in faucibus orci, are pleased with nothing in a poet Luctus, et ultrices posuere cubilia which has not life and manners

Curæ : ascribed to it; but for my own

Pallentesque habitant Morbi, tripart, I am pleased most with those ftisque Senectus, passages in this description which Et Metus, et malesuada fames, et carry in them a greater measure of turpis Egestas, probability, and are such as might

Terribiles vilu formæ: Letumque, poffibly have happen'd. Of this Laborque : kind is his first mounting in the Tum consanguineus Leti Sopor, smoke that rises from the infernal et mala mentis pit, his falling into a cloud of Gaudia, mortiferumque adverso nitre and the like combuftible ma

in limine Bellum, terials, that by their explosion ftill Ferreique Eumenidum thalami, et hurried him forward in his

voyage;

Discordia demens his springing upward like a pyra Vipereum crinem vittis innexa mid of fire, with his laborious pal cruentis. fage through that confution of ele. Just in the gate, and in the jaws ments which the poet calls

of Hell, The womb of nature, and perhaps Revengeful Cares, and sullen Sor

Aditifen. rows dwell;

her grave.

And

With purpose to explore or to disturb
The secrets of your realm, but by constraint
Wand'ring this darksome desert, as my way
Lies through your spacious empire up to light,
Alone, and without guide, half loft, I seek

975 What readiest path leads where your gloomy bounds Confine with Heav'n; or if some other place, From your

dominion won, th'ethereal king Poffesses lately, thither to arrive I travel this profound; direct my

course; Directed no mean recompense it brings

To

980

sisted rage;

And pale Diseases, and repining Virgil and Milton that Discord is Age ;

made the last of these imaginary Want, Fear, and Famin's unre- beings, but how much greater an

idea have we of Discord with a Here Toils, and Death, and Death's thousand various mouths than with half-brother Sleep,

snaky hair, Forms terrible to view, their sen

try keep; With anxious Pleasures of a guilty

Vipereum crinem vittis innexa cru. mind,

entis ! Deep Frauds before, and open Force behind;

We may farther observe in justifThe Furies iron beds, and Strife cation of Milton, that the like that shakes

shadowy beings are introduc'd in Her hisling tresses, and unfolds Seneca, Herc. Fur. 686. in Staher snakes. Dryden. tius's description of the house of

Mars, Theb. VII. 47. in Clau

dian In Rufin. I. 30. and in SpenEvery reader, I believe, has been fer, Faery Queen, B. 2. Cant. 7. pleased with this description; and St. 21, &c. The passages at large it is impoflible to be pleased with would swell this note to too great Virgil, and to be displeased with a length, and therefore the reader Milton. We may observe both in is only referred to the places.

972. The

To your behoof, if I that region loft,
All usurpation thence expell’d, reduce
To her original darkness and your sway
(Which is my present journey) and once more 985
Erect the standard there of ancient Night:
Yours be th' advantage all, mine the revenge.

Thus Satan; and him thus the Anarch old,
With faltring speech and visage incompos’d,
Answer'd. I know thee, stranger, who thou art, 990
That mighty leading Angel, who of late
Made head against Heav’n’s king, though overthrown.

I saw

972. The secrets of your realm,] word disturb will be proper enough This passage has been objected to as in I. 167 without any reason. He means

and disturb probably secret places, as in ver.

His inmost counsels from their 891. Secrets is used here as secreta destin'd aim; sometimes in Virgil:

and the word explore will be very In fecreta senis ducam : Georg. IV. 403.

proper, as in VII. 95. •

What we not to explore the reHorrendæque procul secreta

crets alk
Sibyllæ,

Of his eternal empire.
Antrum immane petit :

981. Directed no mean recompense Æn. VI. 10.

it brings &c] My course

directed may bring no little recomAnd likewise in Spenser. Faery pense and advantage to you, if I Queen B, 6. Cant. 12. St. 24. reduce that lost region, all usurpaAnd searched all their cells and tion being thence expelld, to her secrets near.

original darkness and your sway

(which is the purport my preOr if we understand by secrets re- fent journey) and once more erect cret counsels and transactions, the the standard there of ancient Night.

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of

999. if

and heard, for such a numerous host Tied nor na 'nce through the frighted deep With ruin upon ruin, rout on rout,

995 .Confusion worfe confounded; and Heav'n gates Pour'd out by millio:s her victorious bands Pursuing. I upon my frontiers here Keep residence; if all I can will serve

That

new

999. if all I can will birve

any

broils in Chaos's realm, but of That little which is left jo to de- the broils in Heaven between God

fend, &c. ) Dr. Bentley makes and Satan, the good Angels and great alterations here, and would the bad, called inteftin war and have us read

broils in VI. 259, 277. So that Lif all I can will serve

the passage as it stands seems to be That little which is left us to de- faulty; but without so great an alfend

teration as Dr. Bentley makes, we Encroach'd on by creations old and may clear it of all difficulty. We

muit remember that it is Satan, Straitning the bounds of ancient to whom Chaos here speaks, and Nigbe :

therefore we may suppose that

Milton gave it through your inteftin For so in the second verse he reads broils. In the first editions there is 145 : but so is right, and signifies by no comma after broils ; and there krepirig residence on my frontiers and should be none, because broils is sing all I can. Again, he finds the subftantive with which the parfault with czy inteftin brezis, and ticiple weakning agrees : It was says that Chaos's or Night's leefter their broils which weaken’d Night's is not weaken'd but is ftrengthend fccpter, because the consequences and sublits by them. So far is of them lesien'd her kingdom. right, and therefore Milton, if he

Pearce. wrote our intelisa brcils, could never This change of our into your is so mea! the broils within the realm juít and neceffary, that we thought of Chaos. It appears from the it best to admit it into the text. following verses, that the encroach 1005.-- link'd in a golden chain] ments which Chaos means were There is mention made in Homer the creation of Hell first, and then of Jupiter's golden chain, by which of the metu wgrid, the creation of he can draw up the Gods and the beta which was the effect not of earth and sea and the whole uni

1000

That little which is left fo to defend,
Encroach'd on still through your intestin broils
Weakning the scepter of old Night: first Hell
Your dungeon stretching far and wide beneath ;
Now lately Heav'n and Earth, another world,
Hung o'er my realm, link'd in a golden chain 1005
To that fide Heav'n from whence your legions fell :

If

verse, but they cannot draw him Let down our golden, everlasting down. You may see the paffage chain, at large in the beginning of the 8th Whose strong embrace holds book of the Iliad.

heav'n, and earth and main :

Strive all of mortal or immortal Ειδ’ αγε, πειρησασθε θεού, ένα ειδετε birth, Carles,

To drag by this the Thund'rer Σειρην χρυσειην εξ εφανοθεν κρεμα down to earth: σαντες

Ye strive in vain! If I but stretch Παλες δ' εξασθεσθε θεοι, πασαι

this hand, θεαιναι. .

I heave the Gods, the ocean, and Αλλ' εκ αν ερυσαιτ' εξ Βρανoθεν σε

the land, diords

I fix the chain to great Olympus Ζην υπατον μητωρ, εδ' ει μαλα σολ height, λακαμουτε

And the vast world hangs trembΑλλ' οτε δη και εγω προφρων εθελουμε ling in my fight.

Pope. egurous, Αυτη κεν γαιη ερυσαιμ', αυτη τε θα- It is moft probably and ingeniously λασση. .

conjectur'd, that by this golden Σειρην μεν κεν επειτα σερι ριον Ου- chain may be underftood the fuλυμποιο

perior attractive force of the sun, Δησαιμην" τα δε κ' αυτι μετηορα whereby he continues unmovd, , wala yevoito.

and draws all the rest of the pla

nets toward him. But whatever League all your forces then, ye is meant by it, it is certain that Pow'rs above,

our poet took from hence the Join all, and try th' omnipotence thought of hanging the world by a of Jove :

golden chain.

100g. Havoc

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