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with it; and will not only commend us to every man's conscience; but, which is much more, to God, who searcheth our hearts : so that, upon all accounts, sincerity is true wisdom. Particularly as to the affairs of this world, integrity hath many advantages over all the artificial modes of dissimulation and deceit. It is much the plainer and easier, much the safer and more secure way of dealing in the world ; it hath less of trouble and difficulty, of entanglement and perplexity, of danger and hazard in it ; it is the shortest and nearest way to our end, carrying us thither in a straight line; and will hold out and last longest. The arts of deceit and cunning continually grow weaker, and less effectual and service. able to those that practise them ; whereas integrity gains strength by use ; and the more and longer any man practiseth it, the greater service it does him, by confirming his reputation, and encouraging those with whom he hath to do to repose the greatest confidence in him ; which is an unspeakable advantage in business and the affairs of life.
A dissembler must be always upon his guard, and watch himself carefully that he do not contradict his own pretensions ; for he acts an unnatural part, and therefore, must put a continual force and restraint upon himself ; whereas, he that acts sincerely, hath the easiest task in the world ; because he follows nature, and so is put to Do trouble and care about his words and actions ; he needs not invent any pretence beforehand, nor make excuses afterwards, for any thing he hath said or done.
But insincerity is very troublesome to manage. A hypocrite hath so many things to attend to, as make his life a very perplexed and intricate thing. A liar hath need of a good memory, lest he contradict at one time, what he said at another. But truth is always consistent with itself, and needs nothing to help it out ; it is always near at hand, and sits upon our lips, and is ready to drop out before we are aware ; whereas a lie is trou. blesome, and one trick needs a great many more to make it good.
Add to all this, that sincerity is the most compendious wisdom, and an excellent instrument for the speedy
dispatch of business. It creates confidence in those we have to deal with, saves the labor of many inquiries, and brings things to an issue in a few words, it is like trav, elling in a plain beaten road, which commonly brings a man sooner to his journey's end, than by ways in which men often lose themselves. In a word, whatever convenience may be thought to be in falsehood and dissim. ulation, it is soon over ; but the inconvenience of it is perpetual, because it brings a man under an everlasting jealousy and suspicion, so that he is not believed when he speaks the truth, nor trusted when perhaps he means honestly. When a man hath once forfeited the reputa. tion of his integrity, nothing will then serve his turn, neither truth nor falsehood.
Indeed, if a man were only to deal in the world for a day, and should never have occasion to converse more with mankind, never more need their good opinion or good word, it were then no great matter (as far as respects the affairs of this world) if he spent his reputation all at once, and ventured it at one throw. But, if he be to continue in the world, and would have the advantage of reputation whilst he is in it, let him make use of sincerity in all his words and actions ; for nothing but this will hold out to the end. All other arts will fail ; but truth and integrity will carry a man through and bear him out to the last. II.—On Doing as we would be Done unto.
ATTERBURY. HUMAN laws are often so numerous as to escape our memories ; so darkly, sometimes, and inconsistently worded, as to puzzle our understandings ; and they are not unfrequently rendered still more obscure by the nice distinctions and subtile reasonings of those who profess to clear them : so that under these several disadvantages, they lose much of their force and influence ; and in some cases raise more disputes than, perhaps, they determine. But here is a law, attended with none of these inconveniences ; the grossest minds can scarce misapprehend it ; the weakest memories are capable of retaining it ; no perplexing comment can easily cloud it ; the authority of no man's gloss upon earth can (if we
are but sincere) sway us to make a wrong construction of it. What is said of all the gospel precepts by the evangelical prophet, is more eminently true of this . « It is an highway; and the wayfaring man though a fool, shall not err therein."
It is not enough that a rule, which is to be of general use, is suited to all capacities, so that wherever it is represented to the mind, it is presently agreed to ; it must also be apt to offer itself to our thoughts, and lie ready for present use, upon all exigencies and occasions. And such, remarkably such, is that which our Lord here recommends to us. We can scarce be so far surprised by any immediate necessity of acting, as not to have time for a short recourse to it, room for a sudden glance as it were upon it, in our minds ; where it rests and sparkles always, like the Urim and Thummin, on the breast of Aaron. There is no occasion for us to go in search of it to the oracles of law, dead or living; to the code or pandects; to the volumes of divines or moralists. We need look no farther than ourselves for it : for (to use the apposite expression of Moses) " This commandment which I command thee this day. is not hidden from thee, neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldst
Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it? Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldst say, Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it? But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it."'
It is, moreover, a precept particularly fitted for practice, as it involves in the very notion of it a motive stirring us up to do what it enjoins. Other mora] maxims propose naked truths to the understandings, wnich operate often but faintly and slowly, on the will and passions, the two active principles of the mind of man ; but it is the peculiar character of this, that it addresseth itself equally to all these powers ; imparts both light and heat: to us; and at the same time that it informs us certainly and clearly what we are to do, excites us also, in the most tender and moving manner, to the performance of it, We can often see our neighbor's misfortune with.
out a sensible degree of concern ; which yet we cannot forbear expressing, when we have once made his condi. Lion our own, and determined the measure of our obligation towards him, by what we ourselves should, in such a case, expect from him ; our duty grows immediately our interest and pleasure, by means of this powe crful principle; the seat of which is, in truth, not more in the brain than in the heart of man ; it appeals to our very senses; and exerts its secret force in so prevailing a way, that it is even felt, as well as understood by us.
The last recommendation of this rule I shall mention is its vast and comprehensive influence ; for it extends to all ranks and conditions of men, and to all kinds of action and intercourse between them; to matters of charity, generosity and civility, as well as justice ; to nega. tive no less than positive dunes. The ruler and the ruled are alike subject to it: public communities can no inore exempt themselves from its obligation than private persons : " All persons must fall down before it, all nations must do it service." And, with respect to this extent of it, it is that our blessed Lord pronounces it in the text, to be, “ the law and the prophets." His meaning is, that whatever rules of the second table are deliy. cred in the law of Moses, or in the larger comments and explanations of that law made by the other writers of the Old Testament (here and elsewhere styled the Prophets) they are all virtually comprised in this one short significant saying, «Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them."
III.—On Benevolence and Charity.-Seed.
FORM as amiable sentiments as you can, of nations, communities of men, and individuals. If they are true, you do them only justice ; if false, though your opinion does not alter their nature and make them lovely, you yourself are more lovely for entertaining such sentiments. When you feel the bright warmth of a temper thoroughly good in your own breast, you will see something good in every one about you. It is a mark of littleness of spirit to confine yourself to some minute
part of a man's character ; a man of generous, open, ex. tended views, will grasp the whole of it ; without which he cannot pass a right judgment on any part. He will not arraign a man's general conduct for two or three particular actions ; as knowing that man is a changeable creature, and will not cease to be so, till he is unit. ed to that Being, who is the same yesterday, today and forever." He strives to outdo his friends in good offices, and overcomes his enemies by them. He thinks he then receives the greatest injury, when he returns and revenges one ; for then he is “ overcome of evil." Is the person young who has injured him ? He will reflect, that inexperience of the world, and a warmth of constitution, may betray his unpractised years into several in. advertencies, which a more advanced age, his own good sense, and the advice of a judicious friend, will correct and rectify. Is he old ? The infirmities of age and want of health may have set an edge upon his spirits, and mnade him " speak unadvisedly with his lips." Is he weak and ignorant? He considers that it is a duty incumbent upon the wise to bear with those that are not so : " You suffer fools gladly," says St. Paul, “ seeing you yourselves are wise." In short, he judges of himself, as far as he can, with the strict rigor of justice ; but of others, with the softenings of humanity.
From charitable and benevolent thoughts, the transition is unavoidable to charitable actions. For wherever there is an inexhaustible fund of goodness at the heart, it will, under all the disadvantages of circumstances, exert itself in acts of substantial kindness. He that is substantially good, will be doing good. The man that has a hearty determinate will to be charitable, will seldom put men off with the mere will for the deed. For a sincere desire to do good, implies some uneasiness till the thing be done; and uneasiness sets the mind at work, and puts it upon the stretch to find out a thousand ways and means of obliging, which will ever escape the unconcerned, the indifferent, and the unfeeling.
The most proper ohjects of your bounty are the necessitous. Give the same sum of money, which you bestow on a person in tolerable circumstances, to one in extreme: