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confirmation of privileges to all Flanders, assimilating their rights with those of France.

PROGRAMME. At break of day the ringing of the bells announced the commencement of the fête ; at eight o'clock in the morning the two mayors of St. Omer, attended by their échevins, met in the great hall of the Hotel de Ville, and published the order of the ceremonies, commanding the same to be read by the heralds in the different quartiers of the town. The joyous troops of musicians, consisting of the Chatelains de St. Omer, the military, and other bands belonging to the town, paraded and performed in the Grand Place. The mayors, with their retinue, preceded by the town trumpeters, then proceeded to the representative of the Prince, and, having invited him to attend the fête in the Grand Place, they retired, and were immediately succeeded by a grand procession of different companies of pages, archers, arquebusiers, bowmen, halberdiers, cavaliers, and esquires, all habited in the ancien costume of 1127, who, arranging themselves in front of his residence, prepared to escort him to the reception in the Grand Place. The heralds then proceeded to make proclamation in all quartiers, of the arrival of the prince. The ceremony of reception and inauguration being over, the prince was conducted by a grand procession of knights, templars, chevasiers, esquires, pages, &c., &c., amounting to five hundred persons in various costume, to his residence; and the heralds then proclaimed a suspension of armes until four o'clock, when the grand procession met with their full bands, trophies, banners, castles, triumphal cars, and great additional force of characters, and proceeded to make a circuit of the town, finally resting in the Grand Place. This procession was really beautiful ; the eccentricity of the costume, its historical accuracy—the order of the arrangement, the enriched banners, the trappings and housings of the horsemen and horses—four hundred in number—the quietude and sobriety of delight which the people everywhere exhibited, and the admirable precision with which a line of procession extending for a full mile and a half was conducted without the least noise or dis. arrangement, or police or military assistance, was, to an Englishman, truly wonderful ; the day was suited to the scene, and a more brilliant spectacle it has never been my good fortune to witness.

On Tuesday the tournament took place on the Bruyère, or Champ du Tournoi ; but from the great heat and exhaustion of the previous day, and there being only one procession, the sight was not so brilliant as on the Monday. The tilting was spiritedly represented by some of the artillery corps, who were engaged for the occasion ; there was no queen of beauty to honour and reward the victor, who received his wreath and scarf from the hands of the prince. Upon the whole it was a most brilliant and gratifying sight; and if some of the dresses and armour were not so expensively wrought as at the Eglington tournament, they were equally characteristic, and much more numerous, at one time numbering nearly twelve hundred persons, horse and foot.

C. M. W.

SOUND AND UNSOUND HORSES.

BY HARRY HIEOVER,

DOWN IN THE HIP.

This is an occurrence that arises from accidents of various sorts, and, where it does not exist in any great degree, seldom interferes with the utility of the animal. It consists in one hip-bone being lower than the other. Many horses have been purchased with this deformity without its having been observed ; for it is sometimes very difficult to detect when standing by the side of the animal, and may exist, though in so trifting a degree as to be hardly perceptible when the horse is even looked at behind. I will not take upon myself so much of the province of the professional examiner as to say whether a horse thus situated would be held as a sound one as a matter of law, but as a matter of opinion, on the honour of the thing, I should say thus mach, and, I hope, act up to it. Persons in taking a warranty of soundness hare a right to expect a horse to be, at the time of sale, sound ; and further, that he shall have nothing about him that is the effect of present or former accident, ailment, or formation contrary to the general rule of nature. This is what most persons expect ; but I should say the man who made all this a sine quâ non in purchasing, would be one who had purchased very few horses indeed, for he will rarely find one coming strictly up to this criterion of soundness, for would perhaps the horse that did be worth one shilling more than one that from some trifling cause did not. But if the man did expect this, and the person selling knew he did, and at the same time sold him a horse that he knew the other would not purchase if he was aware of some imperfection the animal had, as a matter of honour I think he is bound to mention it ; if not, he is certainly selling an imperfect thing where a perfect one is expected ; in short, does not realize the understood compact between two parties. If, therefore, I sold a horse down in one hip without mentioning the circumstance, though the horse would most probably be to all intents and purposes sound, I should, if requested to do so, certainly liold myself bound in honour to take him back.

If slightly affected in this way, and it had been of some time standing, so that no danger of inflammation need be feared from friction of the affected parts, I should not object to purchase such a horse. How far, when it was of magnitude enough to be unsightly, a man might choose to sacrifice look to price, remains for the purchaser to determine.

If after being worked, whether a week or an hour, a horse down on a hip evinced the slightest symptom of lameness or stiffness, it is all but unnecessary to say he is a decided nnsound one, and returnable.

WOUNDS IN A GENERAL WAY. However severely a horse may have been wounded, though it may have left a seam of most unsightly appearance, if he is radically cured

of it, and no stiffness remains from the accident or mode of cure, I should say such a horse may be warranted perfectly sound ; for the most unpractised eye could not overlook such a blemish, and in such a case it would be a blemish, and no more ; but, as in the case of a low hip, if any stiffness ensues from exertion, it then becomes a positive unsoundness.

Muscular wounds will often occasion a little stiffness of the surrounding parts, that is neither diminished nor increased by work ; though in a general way it decreases as the muscles become warm by exertion. When that is the case, and the horse when cool is no more stiff than he was on first being brought from the stable, no fear need be entertained of any unpleasant consequences ; but if from the effect of exertion the animal when cool is found more stiff than he was before the exertion, he is of course a decidedly unsound horse, and one likely to get worse by repetition of the same or increased exertion.

Wounds in the muscles of the thigh and hind quarter will often produce an inequality of step with the hind legs that renders the horse apparently more or less lame ; he may nevertheless, so far as any required work goes, be perfectly sound, but of course could not be war. ranted so.

If it existed in but a trifling degree, he might, however, be safely purchased at a proper price.

SPAVINS, Like any other disease that interferes with the springy action of the hock, are in my estimation a most serious objection. If a horse has had spavins, has been fired for them, and no stiffness of the hock remains, of course the objection to them ceases also. But though such is often the happy result of proper treatment, I have remarked that a far greater number of horses, though rendered sound by it, never regain that elasticity. That,as Goldsmith says, 6 when once destroyed, can never be supplied.” When this is the case, a great portion of the pleasantry of motion of the riding horse must be destroyed also.

My great dislike to spavins, and my dread of a horse throwing out one, arises from being aware that we cannot apply to the immediate root of the disease ; we can only go a little below its surface ; so that we have only to trust to external remedy and judge of how far the seat of disease is affected, by the diminution of its external appearance and the alleviation of the lameness, and the apparent pain of the animal. If spavin exists, or arises from a want of that sinovial fluid intended to lubricate the parts, all the firing-irons in the world can no more remedy the disease than the creaking of a dry wheel can be remedied without some unctuous matter to enable it to run more smoothly ; in fact, the pain felt, and the lameness exhibited by the horse, and the creaking of the wheel, arise from nearly the same cause ; and when this cause is the one that occasions lameness, and it has been of long standing (without pretending to any professional acquirement), I will venture to pronounce the case hopeless : the horse is incurably lame.

When spavin arises, which I believe is the common case from coalition (a very unprofessional phrase) of bone, we can in no way apply a remedy to the foundation of the disease ; all we can therefore do is this :-If the lameness proceeds from irritation, by counter (that is, external) irritation we can lessen that irritation ; but I suspect the cause will still remain, do what we will. Thus, though the horse will not perhaps be lame, the flexibility of the joint, will remain materially impaired, and, in my opinion, the value of the animal be very much deteriorated indeed.

BOG-SPAVISS.

I have had many horses who had in a lesser or greater degree bogspavins, and never was unfortunate enough to have one lame with them ; nor would I reject a horse thus affected that was sound ; nor, so long as he continued so, would I attempt a removal of them. In the first place I should have very little hopes of effecting it, and the attempt to do so would, I should say, be much more likely to do injury than produce any good result. In å general way they cause neither pain nor inconvenience. Blood-spavins are in nearly the same part of the hock, and are merely an enlargement of the veins ; unless very large, they seldom produce lameness, though I had a horse once very lame from one blood-sparin. I mentioned the circumstance in something I once wrote. A veterinary surgeon at Hounslow, I forget his name, but I think Walker, took

up the vein very skilfully, sent the horse home in three days perfectly sound, and so he continued for months. I then sold him, and he went abroad.

CURB3.

same cause

The great objection to curbs is, that they sometimes arise from the

spavins. When this is the case, they mostly cause a permanent stiffness. A very recent curb frequently yields to a blister ; but, in a more advanced stage, nothing but the iron, and that effectually used, can be depended upon. Even then, should the hocks be badly formed by nature, I would not purchase such a horse. Such hocks will most probably give way again in some way; if they do not, as their bad formation renders them incapable of taking their share of supporting the hind-quarters, an additional stress will be laid on the back-sinews, and then they will go.

We must not always judge of the probability of a horse standing work or the reverse, by the size of a spavin or a curb: a very small enlargement in either case will make a horse as lame as he can be ; while, on the contrary, the excrescence will sometimes be very great, and yet cause scarcely any perceptible inconvenience. This depends on the situation of the failing, and consequently on its interference with the motion of the hock; and, when it does thus interfere, I should consider the chance of a perfect cure very uncertain indeed.

THOROUGH PINS

Are, to use a homely term, & puffy enlargement, both inside and outside the hock. They are very common. Numbers of horses have them more

I never had a horse lame with them ; though I had one with an enlargement of this sort, on both hocks, each side as large as half an orange, but never was even stiff after the hardest run.

or less.

CAPPED HOCKS Are very unsightly, and generally proceed from bruises got in some way. If a harness-horse had them, I should strongly suspect him of having made too close an acquaintance with the splinter-bar. If the hock-that is, the swelling—is soft, I never saw a horse lame with them. I saw one very decidedly so with capped hocks ; but then the enlargement was nearly as hard as bone.

ENLARGEMENT OF THE FLEXOR-TENDOX, This is a most serious affair ; the flexor-tendon being to the hind leg of the horse what the leather brace is to the C spring of a carriage. Cut the brace, the carriage comes at once on the perch ; divide, or seriously injure the flexor-tendon, the hind leg is as useless as if it was broken. In such a case a bullet is the most humane resource. Sometimes, from inflammation of this part, the horse will become so lame as to be perfectly useless for the time being ; but here do away with the cause, and the effect will cease, and the animal will probably become as sound as ever he was.

No man would, of course, buy a horse lame from such a cause ; I only, there. fore, state the importance of this tendon, that no young purchaser may be talked into thinking lightly of any remains of injury to so important a part of the animal anatomy. How far the injury may have been radically cured, a professional man will decide ; and in such a case his advice is very cheap at 10s. 6d.

TIIRU'SIES

Are, by the generality of persons, held out as being much more objectionable than I ever considered them. The term, “I consider," or " considered," may appear arrogant on my part ; but if the reader will be kind enough to carry in mind that I only state what experience has taught me, without pretending to advise professionally, I trust I shall be held exonerated from any undue presumption. I know enough of a watch to see if the main-spring is broken, and enough to tell any one that when it is, the watch cannot go (some persons do not even know this), I then refer them to the watchmaker ; so, in all I say of soundness or unsoundness in horses, I refer my readers to the veterinarian, who will tell him when and where I am wrong.

I have always held thrushes, taking them as a disease, as one of very little importance, and as one easily cured when merely a disease in themselves. They generally arise from neglect on the part of the groom ; such as foul, wet litter, allowing grit and dirt to remain in the cleft of the frog, and that frog to become ragged, so as to admit dirt in its interstices. In such a case take a pen-knife (as good a tool as any), cut away all ragged parts. If any part of the horny substance is loose from the sensible part, cut that away also. Poultice the foot, to soften it ; then apply a little horse-turpentine and lard for a few days, till the fætid smell and acrimonious discharge ceases ; then use a mixture of verdigris and honey for a few days; and, finally, stop the foot with tar. To this, and a dose of physic, I have always found thrushes yield, when they were in themselves a disease ; but when they are the effect of another cause, they become serious ; that is, when they arise from high

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