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CITY.

CLEANLINESS.

Dear God! the very houses seem asleep, CLASS-Representation. And all that mighty heart is lying still.

Wordsworth.

The popular idea is, that class representa

tion would produce class legislation. The truth CIVILITY-Definition of.

is exactly the reverse. The idea seems to be Civility is a desire to receive civility, and to that by distributing a class in fragmentary be accounted well-bred. La Rochefoucauld. portions among a number of constituencies

you neutralise its power, and make it harmless CIVILITY-a Hint respecting.

by dilution; just as bas been sometimes done Whilst thou livest, keep a good tongue in with a mutinous regiment. But, in point of thy head.

Shakspeare. fact, it is this very distribution which gives it

such an enormous power of obstruction. Few CIVILITY-Value of.

members in these days hold their seats with A good word is an easy obligation ; but not such certainty as to be able to disregard the to speak ill, requires only our silence, which wishes of any tolerably influential section of costs us nothing.

Tillotson. their constituents. The section may be a small

one, but it may be strong enough to turn a CIVILIZATION-Effects of.

close election; and therefore its behests must With a perfect bighway disappear bighway be obeyed. A small section thus wields the men, crawling beggars, dirty inns and extor power of the whole constituency; much in the tionate charges, lazy habits, ignorance, and way in which, some six or seven years ago, waste lands. Our shops, our horses' legs, our the Irish members tried to wield the power of boots, our hearts, have all benefited by the in the English government. No one can bave troduction of Macadam; and the eighteen watched the utter impotence of Parliament to modern improvements mentioned by Sidney raise its hand against the attorneys or the Smith can all be traced, directly or indirectly, licensed victuallers, or the extreme difficulty to the time when it fortuitously occurred to with which even so small a body as the ecclethe astute Scotchman (Where are his Life and siastical lawyers have been dealt with, without Times, in twenty volumes ?) to strew our path perceiving how effectively these tactics operate with pulverized granite. I am convinced that Now, if any such class had a number of memour American cousins would be much less bers proportioned to its importance wholly given addicted to bowie-kniving, revolvering, ex over to it, and were debarred from any other pectorating, gin-slinging, and cow-hiding the suffrage, their power in the House of Commons members of their legislature, if they would only would be limited to that number of members. substitute trim, level, hedge-lined highways for Whereas, now they command, or at least the vile corduroy roads and railway tracks, greatly influence, the vote of every member, thrown slovenly anyhow, like the clothes of a of whose constituency some of them form a drunken man, across prairies, morasses, half- | part; and from this position it is impossible to cleared forests, and dried-up watercourses, by dislodge them, until some popular ferment means of which they accomplish their thousand arouses the inert mass of the electors to overmile trips in search of dollars. What a dread. | bear the active and interested few. ful though delightful place was Paris when I

Lord Cecil. knew it first !-foul gutters rolling their mud. cataracts between rows of palaces; suburban CLEANLINESS-Advantages of. roads alternating between dust-beaps and sloughs of despond; and boulevards so badly With what care and attention do the paved, that the out-patienced population were feathered race wash themselves and put their continually tearing them up to make barri- plumage in order; and how perfectly neat, cades with. There have been no émeutes in clean, and elegant do they appear! Among Paris since boulevards were macadamized. the beasts of the field we find that those which Much of the ribbonism, landlord-stalking from are the most cleanly are generally the most bebind hedges, and Skibbereen starvation of gay and cheerful, or are distinguished by a Ireland, may be attributed to the baleful roads certain air of tranquillity and contentment; of bygone days, which were full of bules, and singing birds are always remarkable for known as curiosities, and on which the mile- i the neatness of their plumage. So great is the stones were so capriciously distributed, that effect of cleanliness upon man, that it extends whereas every squire (of the right way of even to his moral character. Virtue never thinking) had one on each side of his parkdwelt long with filth; nor do I believe there gates, unpopular localities, and villages where ever was a person scrupulously attentive to tithe-proctors dwelt, were left without mile- cleanliness who was a consummate villain. stones altogether. Dickens. 1

Rumford.

CLEANLINESS.

CLOUD.

Ibid.

CLEANLINESS-Definition of.

The crows and choughs, that wing the midway Cleanliness may be defined to be the emblem of purity of mind, and may be recommended Show scarce so gross as beetles : half-way down under the three following heads; as it is a Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful mark of politeness, as it produces affection, trade! and as it bears analogy to chastity of senti

chastity of senti | Methinks he seems no bigger than his head: ment. First, it is a mark of politeness, for it

The fishermen, that walk upon the beach, is universally agreed upon, that no one un

Appear like mice; and yon'tal anchoring bark, womed with this virtue, can go into company

Diminish'd to her cock; her cock a buoy without giving a manifold offence; the diffe- Almost too small for sight; the murmuring rent nations of the world are as much distin

surge, guished by their cleanliness, as by their arts That on the unnumber'd idle pebbles chafes, and sciences; the more they are advanced in

Cannot be heard so high :l'îl look no more; civilization the more they consult this part of | Lest my brain turn, and the deficient sight politeness. Secondly, cleanliness may be said | Topple down headlong.

Shakspeare. to be the foster-mother of affection. Beauty commonly produces love, but cleanliness pre- | From the dread summit of this chalky bourn. serves it. Age itself is not unamiable while it

Look up a-height; the shrill-gorged lark so far is preserved clean and unsullied ; like a piece

Cannot be seen or heard.

Ibid. 1 of metal constantly kept smooth and bright, Fe look on it with more pleasure than on a Der vessel cankered with rust. I might further | These things seem small and indistinguishable, observe, that as cleanliness renders us agree

Like far-off mountains turn'd into clouds. able to others, it makes us easy to ourselves, that it is an excellent preservative of health; and that several vices, both of mind and body,

As from a steep and dreadful precipice are inconsistent with the habit of it. In the

The frighten'd traveller casts down his eyes, third place, it bears a great analogy with | And sees the ocean at so great a distance, chastity of sentiment, and naturally inspires

It looks as if the skies were sunk beneath him. refined feelings and passions; we find from ex If then some neighb'ring sbrub, how weak perience, that through the prevalence of cus soever, tom, the most vicious actions lose their horror Peeps up, his willing eyes stop gladly there, by being made familiar to us. On the contrary,

And seem to ease themselves, and rest upon it. those who live in the neighbourhood of good

Dryden. examples, fly from the first appearance of what

CLOCK-A. is shocking; and thus pure and unsullied A clock! with its ponderous embowelments thoughts are naturally suggested to the mind, of lead and brass, its pert or solemn dulness of by those objects that perpetually encompass communication.

Lamb. us when they are beautiful and elegant in their

CLOUD-A.
Addison.

Was I deceived, or did a sable cloud
CLEANLINESS-of Person.

Turn forth her silver lining on the night? Even from the body's parity, the mind

Millon. Peceives a secret sympathetic aid. Thomson.

CLOUD-An Evening.
A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun,

A gleam of crimson touch'd its braided snow: Let thy mind's sweetness have its operation

Long had I watch'd the glory moving on, upon thy body, clothes, and habitation.

O'er the still radiance of the lake below. Herbert.

Tranquil its spirit seem'd, and floated slow! CLEMENCY-Virtue of.

Even in its very motion there was rest;

No attribute While every breath of eve that chanced to blow, So well befits th' exalted seat supreme,

Wafted the traveller to the beauteous west. And power's disposing hand, as clemency. Emblem, methought, of the departed soul ! Fach crime must from its quality be judged; To whose white robe the gleam of bliss is And pity there should interpose, where malice given; Is not th' aggressor. Sir William Jones. | And by the breath of mercy made to roll

Right onward to the golden gates of heaven, CLIFF-Gazing from a

Where, to the eye of Faith, it peaceful lies, How fearful

And tells to map his glorious destinies. And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low!

Professor Wilson.

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tops

CLOUD-a Summer.

still discernible that neatness and propriety That look'd

of person, which is almost inherent in an As though an angel, in his upward flight,

Englishman. He enjoys great consequence Had left his mantle floating in mid-air.

and consideration along the road; has frequent Joanna Baillie,

conferences with the village housewives, who

conferene CLOUDS.

look upon him as a man of great trust and Who cap number the clouds in wisdom? or dependence; and he seems to have a good who can stay the bottles of heaven, when the understanding with every bright-eyed country dust groweth into hardness, and the clods lass. The moment he arrives where the horses cleave fast together?

Job. are to be changed, he throws down the reins

with something of an air, and abandons the

cattle to the care of the ostler ; his duty being Those playful fancies of the mighty sky.

merely to drive them from one stage to another. Smith.

When off the box, his hands are thrust in the

pockets of his great-coat, and he rolls about Bright clouds,

the inn-yard with an air of the most absolute Motionless pillows of the brazen heaven,

lordliness. Here he is generally surrounded Their basis on the mountains—their white

by an admiring throng of ostlers, stable-boys,

shoe-blacks, and those nameless hangers-on Shining in the far ether-fire the air

that infest inns and taverns, and run errands. With a reflected radiance, and make turn

These all look up to him as an oracle, treasure The gazer's eye away.

Bryant.

up his cant phrases, echo his opinions about

horses, and other topics of jockey loro ; and CLOWN-Characteristics of a

endeavour to imitate his air and carriage. A clownish mien, a voice with rustic sound,

Washington Ircing. And stupid eyes, that ever loved the ground;

COCK-Crowing of the. The ruling rod, the father's forming care,

I have heard, Were exercised in vain on wit's despair; The cock, that is the trumpet of the morn, The more inform'd, the less he understood, Doth with his lofty and shrill-sounding throat And deeper sunk by flound'ring in the mud. Awake the god of day; and, at his warning, His corn and cattle were his only care, Whether in sea or fire, in earth or air, And his supreme delight a country fair. The extravagant and erring spirit hies A quarter-staff, which he ne'er could forsake, To his confine. . . . Hung half before and half behind his back.

Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes He trudged along, unknowing what be sought, | Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated, And whistled as he went, for want of thought. | This bird of dawning singeth all night long ;

Dryden. | And then they say no spirit dares stir abroad; COACHMAN-Characteristics of a. The nights are wholesome, then no planets

He has commonly a broad full face, curiously strike, mottled with red, as if the blood had been No fairy takes, no witch hath power to charm, forced by hard feeding into every vessel of the

So hallow'd and so gracious is the time. skin; he is swelled into jolly dimensions by

Shakspeare frequent potations of malt liquors, and his

COLD-Drowsiness from. bulk is still further increased by a multiplicity Very striking and curious is the story of of coats, in which he is buried like a cauliflower, | Dr. Solander's escape, when in company with the upper one reaching to his heels. He wears Sir Joseph Banks, among the hills of Tierra del a broad-brimmed, low-crowned hat, a huge roll Fuego. They had walked a considerable way of coloured handkerchief about his neck, know through swamps, when the weather became ingly knotted and tucked in at the bosom; suddenly gloomy and cold, fierce blasts of and has, in summer time, a large bouquet of wind driving the snow before it. Finding it flowers in his buttonhole; the present, most impossible to reach the ships before night, probably, of some enamoured country lass. they resolved to push on through another His waistcoat is commonly of some bright swamp into the shelter of a wood, where they colour, striped, and his small-clothes extend might kindle a fire. Dr. Solander, well ex. far below the knees, to meet a pair of jockey perienced in the effects of cold, addressed the boots which reach about half-way up his legs. men, and conjured them not to give way to All this costume is maintained with much pre-sleepiness, but at all costs to keep in motion. cision ; he has a pride in having his clothes of “Whoever sits down," said he," will sleep, excellent materials, and notwithstanding the and whoever sleeps will wake no more." seeming grossness of his appearance, there is Thus admonished and alarmed, they set forth

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David.

once more ; but in a little while the cold Grateful as fanning gales to fainting swains, bacanze so intense as to produce the most And soft as trickling balm to bleeding pains, oppressive drowsiness. Dr. Solander was the Such are thy words.

Gay. first who found the inclination to sleep-against which he bad warned the others so emphatically I would bring balm and pour it into your --too irresistible for him, and he insisted on wound, being suffered to lie down. In vain Banks Cure your distemper'd mind and heal your eatreated and remonstrated; down he lay fortunes.

Dryden. upon the snow, and it was with much difficulty that his friend kept him from sleeping. One COMFORT-Deprivation of. of the black servants began to linger in the

| Comfort—'tis for ease and quiet: same manner. When told that if he did not It sleeps upon the down of sweet cont go on he would inevitably be frozen to death,

In the sound bed of industry and health. he answered that he desired nothing more

Havard. than to lie down and die. Solander declared himself willing to go on, but said he must first

Your comfort I take some sleep. It was impossible to carry

Comes, as in droughts the elemental dew these men, and they were therefore both suffered

Does on the earth; it wets, but leaves no to lie down, and in a few minutes were in a pro moisture, i found sleep. Soon after some of those who

To give the sear'd plants growth. Glapthorne. bsd been sent forward to kindle a fire returned

COMFORT-Derived from God. with the welcome news that a fire awaited them & quarter of a mile off. Banks then happily I pray Thee let Thy merciful kindness be for scoceeded in awaking Solander, who, although my comfort. be had not been asleep five minutes, had almost lost the use of his limbs, and the flesh

God comfort him in this necessity. Shakspeare. Tas so shrunk that the shoes fell from his feet.

Of all the created comforts, God is the He consented to go forward, with such assist| apce as could be given ; but no attempts to

| lender; you are the borrower, not the owner. roose the black servant were successful, and

Rutherforil. be, with another black, died there.

Oh, Thou ! that dry'st the mourner's tear,

Sir Joseph Banks.
COLD-BLOODED.

How dark this world would be,
A man, whose blood If, when deceived and wounded here,
Is very sow-broth.

Shakspeare. | We could not fly to Thee !
COLLISION-Moral Necessity of.

But Thou wilt heal the broken heart,

Which like the plants that throw Collision is as necessary to produce virtue in

Their fragrance from the wounded part, · men, as it is to elicit fire in inanimate matter;

Breathes sweetness out of woe. and chivalry is the essence of virtue.

Lord John Russell.

Then sorrow, touch'd by Thee, grows bright COMET-The.

With more than rapture's ray, Stranger of heaven, I bid thee hail !

As darkness shows us worlds of light Shred from the pall of glory riven,

We could not see by day.

Moore. That flashest in celestial galei Broad pennon of the King of Heaven !

COMFORT-Hope of. What'er portends the front of fire

Thy words have darted hope into my soul, | And streaming locks so lovely pale;

And comfort dawns upon me. Southern. Or peace to man, or judgments dire, Stranger of heaven, I bid thee hail! Hogg.

A beam of comfort, like the moon through COMETS-Ancient Notions respecting.

clouds,

Gilds the black horror, and directs my way. Comets, importing change of times and states,

Dryden. Braddish your crystal tresses in the sky, COMFORT-Cheering Influence of. And with them scourge the bad revolting stars!

Comfort, like the golden sun,

Shakspeare. COMFORT-Balm of.

Dispels the sullen shade with ber sweet influ.

ence, Sweet as refreshing dews or summer showers, And cheers the melancholy house of care. To the long parching thirst of drooping flowers ; !

Rowe.

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COMFORT-in Trial.

be thy God, thy refuge, thy comfort, as He bag In the exhaustless catalogue of Heaven's

been mine!

Laraler, mercies to mankind, the power we have of COMMAND-Harshness and Gentleness finding some germs of comfort in the hardest

of a trials must ever occupy the foremost place; Truly a command of gall cannot be obeyed not only because it supports and upholds us like one of sugar. A man must require just when we most require to be sustained, but and reasonable things, if he would see the because in this source of consolation there is scales of obedience properly trimmed. From something, we have reason to believe, of the orders which are improper, springs resistance, Divine Spirit; something of that goodness | which is not easily overcome.

Basil. which detects, amidst our own evil doings, a redeeming quality ; something which, even in COMMANDER-A Brave. our fallen nature, we possess in common with A brave captain is as a root, out of which the angels ; which had its being in the old (as branches) the courage of his soldiers doth time when they trod the earth, and linger on spring.

Sir Philip Sidacy. it yet, in pity.

Dickens.

COMMANDER-Qualities of an COMFORTS OF LIFE-Enjoyment of For though, with men of high degree, the.

The proudest of the proud was he,

Yet, traind in camps, he knew the art Believe me, I speak it deliberately and with Toy

To win the soldier's bardy beart. full conviction, I have enjoyed many of the

They love a captain to obey, comforts of life, none of which I wish to

Boisterous as March, yet fresh as May; esteem lightly: often have I been charmed

With open hand, and brow as free, with the beauties of nature, and refreshed

Lover of wine and minstrelsy; with her bountiful gifts. I have spent many

Ever the first to scale a tower, an hour in sweet meditation, and in reading

As venturous in a lady's bower: the most valuable productions of the wisest

Sucb buxom chief shall lead his host men. I have often been delighted with the con

From India's fires to Zembla's frost. versation of ingenious, sensible, and exalted

Sir Walter Scott. characters: my eyes have been powerfully attracted by the finest productions of human

COMMANDER-A Worthy. art, and my ears by enchanting melodies. I He is one that accounts learning the nourishbave found pleasure when calling into activity ment of military virtue, and lays that as his the powers of my own mind; when residing | first foundation. He never bloodies his sword in my own native land, or travelling through but in heat of battle, and had rather save one foreign parts; when surrounded by large and of his own soldiers than kill ten of his enemies. splendid companies-still more, when moving He accounts it an idle, vain-glorious, and susin the small endearing circle of my own pected bounty, to be full of good words; his family: yet, to speak the truth before God, rewarding, therefore, of the deserver, arrives who is my Judge, I must confess I know not so timely, that his liberality can never be said any joy that is so dear to me; that so fully to be gouty-handed. He holds it next his satisfies the inmost desires of my mind; that creed, that no coward can be an honest man, 80 enlivens, refines, and elevates my whole and dare die in it. He doth not think his nature, as that which I derive from religion, body yields a more spreading shadow after a from faith in GOD: as one who not only is the victory than before; and when he looks upon parent of men, but bas condescended, as a his enemy's dead body, 'tis with a noble heavi. brother, to clothe Himself with our nature. ness, not insultation ; he is so honourably Nothing affords me greater delight than a solid merciful to women, in surprisal, that only hope that I partake of His favours, and rels that makes him an excellent courtier. He on His never-failing support and protection. knows the hazard of battles- not the pomp of . . . . . . He, who has been so often ceremonies are soldiers' best theatres, and my hope, my refuge, my confidence, when I strives to gain reputation, not by the multistood upon the brink of an abyss, where I tude, but by the greatness of his actions. He could not move one step forward ; He who, in is the first in giving the charge, and the last in answer to my prayer, has belped me when retiring his foot. Equal toil he endures with every prospect of help vanished; that God the common soldier; from his example they who has safely conducted me, not merely all take fire, as one torch lights many. He through flowery paths, but likewise across understands, in wars there is no mean to err precipices and burning sands ;-may this God 'twice; the first and least fault being sufficient

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