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spirit of inquiry, so necessary to success, was observes an eminent writer, “when we discharacteristic of his mind. Hence he used to cover, or think we discover, any fact in the speak of himself as having been all his life but economy of nature which we have reason to "a child gathering pebbles on the sea-shore." believe has not previously been observed ! Let This shows the spirit in which he pursued it at least be verified and recorded. No truth his investigations; and he was accustomed is altogether barren; and even that which modestly to say, that “ if there was any looks, at first sight, the very simplest and mental endowment in which he excelled the most trivial, may turn out fruitful in precious generality of inen, it was that of patience in results." the examination of the facts and phenomena | It was from a circumstance, if not similar, of his subject."

yet partaking of the nature of the same simIt was from one of the most simple incidents p!icity, that this philosopher discovered the that Newton was enabled to disclose to the noble instrument which has repdered bim the world the system of the universe—that of the most illustrious, and given his name the fall of an apple-a thing that had been ob- greatest notoriety. While he was residing at served millions of times without any recog. Venice, a report came to that city that a nition and application of that principle which Dutchman had presented to Count Maurice of he discovered and carried out into the bound. | Nassau an instrument by which distant objects less universe. It is said to have taken place were made to appear as if near. This was all in his twenty-third year, when, during the that was stated, and this was enough for the prevalence of the plague in London, at his mind of Galileo. He set himself to work, and retreat in the country, he was one day sitting soon found that by a certain arrangement of or lying under an apple-tree in his garden, and spherical glasses he could produce the same an apple fell beside him; he immediately effect. The discovery of the telescope was the began to reflect on the cause of the fall of the result. apple, which, attributing to the right prin- ! To a very simple circumstance we owe the ciple—the attraction of gravity-he extended discovery of one of the most beautiful of it to the universe, and found that it was that modern arts. Prince Rupert one morning which kept the sun in the centre of the solar noticed a soldier rubbing the riist off his gunsystem, the planets in their orbits as they barrel, occasioned by the dew of the nigbt revolve around him, and their satellites in before, and that it left on the surface of the their orbits around them. The existence of steel a collection of very minute holes, regravitation, or a tendency to fall towards the sembling a dark engraving, parts of which centre of the earth, was already known, as had, here and there, been rubbed away by affecting all bodies in the immediate vicinity the soldier. The kind of engraving called of our planet; and the great Galileo had even mezzotinto was thus suggested to him, and its ascertained the law, or rate, according to invention the result of his experiments. which their motion is accelerated as they con. The waving of a linen shirt hanging before tinue their descent. But no one had as yet the fire, in the warm and ascending air, or the dreamed of the gravitation of the heavens, till ascending of smoke in a chimney, suggested the idea pow first dimly rose on the mind of to Stephen Montgolfier the invention of the Newton.

air-balloon. The name of Galileo furnishes another illus- The discovery of galvanism affords another trious example of important discovery from of those instances of a great result from a common occurrence, and of the triumph of very simple occurrence. About the year 1790), science. Standing one day in the metropolitan Galvani, a professor in the University of church at Pisa, he noticed the movements Bologna, was engaged in a series of exof a suspended lamp, which some accidental periments to show the ixtimate connection disturbance had caused to vibrate. The ap between muscular motion and electrical action. plication of this regular motion to the mea | One day some dead frogs, which were intended surement of time suggested itself to him; and to make soup for his lady, who was ill, were the invention of the pendulum was the result, lying on a table near an electrifying machine, the principle of the most perfect measure of when a student, in the absence of Galvani, time that we have. Now this incident had no was amusing himself with the instrument, and doubt been noticed thousands of times before noticed that convulsive motions took place in by others; but it was reserved for the philo- , the muscles of one of the frogs, when touched sophic attention of Galileo to turn it to advan- by a piece of metal. tage, though he was not yet twenty years Madame Galvani, a lady of great intelligence, of age.

communicated it to her husband, who after, “ How striking an example is this for us," | wards discovered the means of exciting tbeso



onatractions at pleasure, by merely using two DISCRETION-in Speech. wires of different metals, independent of the There are three things that ought to be conelectrical machine. Thus was discovered gal. sidered before some things are spoken, -the Muim. one of the most powerful modes of manner, the place, and the time. Southey. electrical action, and which has been the means of some of the most brilliant discoveries DISCUSSION-Advantages of. and achievements in chemical science.

Free and fair discussion will ever be found There are other similar cases to these, which

the firmest friend to truth. George Campbell. might be enumerated. It is in this way that many great inventions have been suggested. Whoever is afraid of submitting any quesPrinting was, no doubt, first thought of by an tion, civil or religious, to the test of free disimpression made, similar to that by a type, cussion, is more in love with his own opinion turned to proper advantage by genius. “It

than with truth.

Bishop Watson. is a mark of superior genius," says Mrs. Mariet, in ber Conversations on Natural Philosophy, DISDAIN-Character of. " to find matter for wonder, observation, and Disdain has swell’d him up, and choked bis research, in circumstances which, to the ordi.

breath, Dary mind, appear trivial, because they are

Sullen and dumb, and obstinate to death : common; and with which they are satisfied, | No signs of pity in his face appear: because they are natural; without reflecting

Crammd with his pride, he leaves no room that nature is our grand field of observation,

within, that within it is contained our whole store of

For sighs to issue out, or love to enter in. knowledge."

Dryden. The application of the power of electricity to machinery, so as to obtain any force, and which | Disdain and scorn ride sparkling in her eve. is said recently to have been done to some

Despising what they look on. Shakspeare. extent, will be one of the most brilliant achievements ever made in human science; | DISEASE-Oure of. and that of perpetual motion, in self-moving

| Before the curing of a strong disease, machines (if it can ever be effected), will far

Ev'n in the instant of repair and health, surpass eiery other discovery yet made.

The fit is strongest : evils that take leave,


On their departure most of all show evil. Ibid. Certain trifling flaws sit as disgracefully on a DISEASE-Strength of. character of elegance as a ragged button on a

And where the greater malady is fix'd, court dress


The lesser is scarce felt : when the mind's

free, DISCRETION-Advantages of.

The body's delicate. The tempest in my mind There is po talent so useful towards rising in | Does from my senses take all feeling else, the world, or which puts men more out of the Save what beats there.

Ibid. power of fortune, than that quality generally possessed by the dullest sort of men, and in DISGUISE-Wickedness of. cuminon speech called “discretion,”-a species | Disguise, I see, thou art a wickedness, of lower prudence, by the assistance of which | Wherein the preunant enemy doe

Wherein the pregnant enemy does much. people of the meanest intellectuals pass through How easy is it for the proper false the world in great tranquillity, neither giving In women's waxen hearts to set their forms! Lor taking offence. For want of a reasonable | Alas, our frailty is the cause, not we: infusion of this aldermanly discretion, every- | For, such as we are made of, such we be. Ibid. thing fails. Had Windham possessed discre. tion in debate, or Sheridan in conduct, they DISHONESTY-Characteristics of. might have ruled their age.

Swift. That wbich is won ill, will never wear well,

for there is a curse attends it, which will waste Without discretion, people may be overlaid

it; and the same corrupt dispositions which with unreasonable affection, and choked with

ed with incline men to the sinful ways of getting, will too much nourishment. Jeremy Collier.

ipciine them to the like sinful ways of spending.

Matthew Henry. DISCRETION-in Speech.

DISHONESTY-Sinfulness of. Discretion in speech is more than eloquence. Who purposely cheats his friend, would cheat Bacon. his God.





drinks, and talks, and sleeps. He is visited Dishonour waits on perfidy. A man

by the most eminent Christians; he is assured Should blush to think a falsehood : 'tis the crime of the certainty of future blessedness. When Of cowards.

Johnson. the day of execution arrives, crowds assemble

to witness his conduct and to admire his DISINTERESTEDNESS-Qualities of. | heroism. The sympathy of thousands is ex.

The slightest emotion of disinterested kind. cited, -all gaze in breathless expectation to ness that passes through the mind improves hear the least sound of his voice, and he dies and refreshes that mind, producing generous | like a martyr rather than a criminal. thought and noble feeling. We should cherish There is a degree of vanity in our naturo kind wishes, for a tilne may come when we may which the approach of death can scarcely be enabled to put them in practice.

overpower; and if there be a temptation to

Miss Mitford. hypocrisy, or an occasion when hypocrisy is DISOBEDIENCE–Natural Inclination

dangerous to the salvation of all, it is on such

occasions as these, when a multitude beholds Wherever there is authority, there is a na

the greatest of criminals almost canonized as

a saint ;—the least relic of bim tural inclination to disobedience. Haliburton.

is carefully

treasured, -the very rope on which he was DISPOSITION (A Good)-Security of.

suspended becomes an object of inestimable

value; and we saw, on a late occasion, that There is no security in a good disposition,

when the offender became sufficiently notorious, if the support of good principles, (that is to

he was finally represented on the stage. Consay, of religion, of Christian faith,) be wanting.

sider how many individuals are longing for It may be soured by misfortunes, it may be

celebrity; how willingly men will sacrifice corrupted by wealth; it may be blighted by

their lives for fame, and that a few would neediness; it may lose all its original bright.

rather be thus known for their crimes, than ness; if destitute of that support. Southey.

not known at all.

Sinclair, DISTANCE-Effects produced by. DISTRAINT-by Legal Process.

Distance in truth produces in idea the same You have fed upon my signories, effect as in real perspective. Objects are Dispark'd my parks, and felld my forest woods; softened, rounded, and rendered doubly grace- From my own windows torn my household coat, ful; the harsher and more ordinary points of Razed out my impress, leaving me no sign, character are melted down, and those by which Save men's opinions, and my living blood, it is remembered, are the more striking outlines | To show the world I am a gentleman. that mark sublimity, grace, or beauty. There

Shakspeare. are mists, too, in the mental as in the natural horizon, to conceal what is less pleasing in They told me, by the sentence of the law, distant objects; and there are bappy lights to They had commission to seize all my fortune. stream in full glory upon those points which | Here stood a ruffian with a horrid face, can profit by brilliant illumination.

Lording it o'er a pile of massive plate,

Sir Walter Scott. | Tumbled into a heap for public sale. DISTINCTION-Effect of.

There was another, making villanous jests Distinction, with a broad and powerful fan, At thy undoing : he had ta'en possession Puffing at all, winnows the light away. Of all thy ancient, most domestic ornaments. Shakspeare.

Otway. DISTINCTION-Love of.

DIVINITY-Practical. It has often heen a matter of serious con | He that is most practical in Divine things, sideration to me, how much the natural love hath the purest and sincerest knowledge of of distinction in man must be flattered by the them, and not be that is most dogmatiail. sudden celebrity to which even the worst Divinity, indeed, is a true efflux from the criminal stands forth, who is eminent for no- Eternal light, which, like the sunbeams, does thing but the greatness of his crime. He has not only enlighten, but heat and enliven ; and, perhaps lived a life of obscurity and want, till therefore our Saviour hath in bis Beatitudes by somo hideous act of atrocity he becomes connext Purity of heart with the Beatifical the temporary hero of the day. Every news


Smith, 1660. paper is then thought insipid that has not al. column devoted to him; his most trifling

DOCILITY-Force of. actions become objects of intense and uni A docile disposition will, with application, versal interest; we are told how he eats, and surmount every difficulty.




his cure.


DOCTORS-Extortions of.

A wealthy doctor, who can help a poor man, When you doubt, abstain,

Zoroaster. and will not without a fee, has less sense of bumanity than a poor ruffian who kills a rich

r ruffian who kills a rich DOUBT_Causes of. man to supply bis necessities. It is something Doubt is the effect of fear or jealousy, moustrous to consider a man of a liberal Two passions which to reason give the lie; education tearing out the bowels of a poor | For fear torments, and never doth assist; family, by taking for a visit what would keep And jealousy is love lost in a mist. them a week.

Addison. | Both hoodwink truth, and go to blind-man's buff.

Hone. The purse of the patient frequently protracts

Zimmerman. | DOUBT-and Certaintieg.

In contemplation, if a man begin with cer. DOG (Poodle)-Described.

tainties, he shall end in doubts; but if he will A little, old, grey-muzzled curmudgeon, with

be content to begin with doubts, he shall end be content to begin with dou

Bacon. ao unhappy eye, that kindles like a coal, if

in certainties. you only look at him ; his nose turns up, his

DOUBT-Effects of. mouth is drawn into wrinkles so as to show his teeth; in short, he has altogether the look

Our doubts are traitors, of a dog far gone in misanthropy, and totally

And make us lose the good we oft might win, sick of the wor.d. When he walks, he has bis ord. When he walks, he has bis By fearing to attempt.

Shakspeare. tail curled up so tight, that it seems to lift his feet from the ground. This wretch is called | DOUBT-Misery of.

Washington Irving. A bitter and perplexed “What shall I do?"

Is worse to man than worse necessity. DOG_Fidelity of the.

Coleridge. With eye upraised, his master's looks to scan,

And yet The joy, tbe solace, and the aid of man ;

| A kind of weight hangs heavy at my heart; The rich man's guardian, and the poor man's

My flagging soul flies under her own pitch, friend,

Like fowl in air, too damp, and lugs along, The only creature faithful to the end. Crabbe.

06. | As if she were a body in a body,

And not a mounting substance made of fire. DOGMATISM-Spirit of.

My senses too are dull, and stupified, A dogmatical spirit inclines a man to be Their edge rebated; sure some ill approaches, censorious of his neighbours. Every one of

And some kind spirit knocks softly at my his opinions appears to him written, as it soul, were, with sunbeams, and he grows angry To tell me Fate's at hand.

Dryden. that his neighbours do not see it in the same

DOUBT-Modest. light. He is tempted to disdain his correspondents as men of low and dark under

Modest doubt is callid stapriings, because they do not believe what

| The beacon of the wise, the tent that searches be does.

Walls. To the bottom of the worst. Shakspeare.


Strange state of being ! (for 'tis still to be) The people must not think a thought Senseless to feel, and with seal'd eyes to see. towards God, but as their pastors will put it

Byrono into their mouths : surely they will make DREAMING-Rapidity of Thought in. sheep of us.


A very remarkable circumstance, and an

important point of analogy, is to be found in DOOR-Knock at the.

the extreme rapidity with which the mental Not many sounds in life (and I include all operations are performed, or rather, with urban and all rural sounds) exceed in interest which the material changes on which the a knock at the door. It gives a very echo ideas depend are excited in the hemispherical to the throne where Hope is seated." But its ganglia. It would appear as if a whole series issues seldom answer to this oracle within ;- of acts, that would really occupy a long lapse it is so seldom that just the person we want to of time, pass ideally through the mind in one sce comes,

Lamb. | instant. We have in dreams no true perDREAMING.


ception of the lapse of time-a strange They make us what we were not-what they property of mind ! for if such be also its pro will, perty when entered into the eternal disem. And shake us with the vision that's gone by. bodied state, time will appear to us eternity.

Вуто. The relations of space as well as of time are , DREAM8-Felicity of. also annihilated; so that while almost an

If we can sleep without dreaming, it is well eternity is compressed into a moment, infinite that painful dreams are avoided. If. while we space is traversed more swiftly than by real

sleep, we can have any pleasing dreams, it is, thought.

Dr. Forbes Winslow. | as the Fre

as the French say, tant gagné, so much added

to the pleasure of life. DREAMS-Augury of.

Franklia. If I may trust the flattering eye of sleep, DREAMS-Ilusions of. My dreams presage some joyful news at hand : As one who in some frightful dream would My bosom's lord sits lightly on his throne,

shun And all this day an unaccustom'd spirit His pressing foe, labours in vain to run, Lifts me above the ground with cheerful And his own slowness in his sleep bemoans, thoughts.

Shakspeare. In thick short sighs, weak cries, and tender groads.

Dryden. DREAMS-Balmy. Pallas pour'd sweet slumbers on his soul;

The fiend they found, And balmy dreams, the gift of soft repose, Squat like a toad, close at the ear of Eve; Calm'd all his pains, and banish'd all his woes. Assaying by his dev’lish art to reach

Pope. | The organs of her fancy, and with them forge DREAMS-Causes of.

illusions as he list, phantasms and dreams : Let fools and cowards start at fancy's visions ;

Or if, inspiring venom, he might taint

Th' animal spirits, that from pure blood arise, Thy well-taught spirit knows these dreams are

Like gentle breaths from rivers pure; thence bred

raise, From fumes and indigestions that oppress

At last distemper'd, discontented thoughts, The mind, which thus o'erloaded, still throws

Vain hopes, vain aims, inordinate desires, off

Blow up with high conceit, engend'ring pride. These crudities, these ordures of the soul :

Him thus intent, Ithuriel with his spear As such despise them.


Touch'd lightly (for no falsehood can endure DREAMS-Divulgements of.

Touch of celestial temper, but returns

Of force to its own likeness); up he starts, In thy faint slumbers, I by thee have watch'd,

Discover'd and surprised.

Milton. And heard thee murmur tales of iron war; Speak terms of manage to thy bounding | DREAMS-like the Mists. steed;

Dim and faint, as the mists that break, Cry, Courage to the field! And thou hast

At sunrise, from a mountain lake. Parker. talk'd Of sallies, and retires; of trenches, tents, DREAMS-Nature of. Of palisadoes, fortins, parapets;

Know that in the soul Of basilisks, of cannon, culverin ;

Are many lesser faculties, that serve; Of prisoners' ransom, and of soldiers slain,

Reason as cbief: among these Faucy next And all the 'currents of a heady fight.

Her office holds : of all external things Thy spirit within thee hath been so at war, Which the five watchful senses represent, And thus hath so bestirr'd thee in thy sleep, She forms imaginations, airy shapes, That beads of sweat have stood upon thy Which Reason, joining or disjoining, frames brow,

All what we affirm, or what deny, and call Like bubbles in a late-disturbed stream: Our knowledge or opinion : then retires And in thy face strange motions have Into her private cell, where nature rests. appear'd,

Oft in her absence mimic Fancy wakes Such as we see when men restrain their breath To imitate her ; but misjoining shapes, On some great sudden baste. Shakspeare. Wild work produces oft, and most in dreams; i

Ill matching words and deeds long past or late. DREAMS-Effects of.

Millon. Dreams, in their development, have breath, And tears, and tortures, and the touch of joy ; Dreams are the children of an idle brain, They leave a weight upon our waking thoughts ; | Begot of nothing but vain fantasy ;

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