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no great author, yet he writes very much, | AUTHORITY-Destructiveness of. and with the infamy of the court is maintained There is nothing sooner overthrows a weak in his libels. He has some smatch of a scholar, head than opinion of autbority ; like too strong and yet uses Latin very hardly; and lest it a liquor for a frail glass. Sir Philip Sidney. should accuse him, cuts it off in the midst, and will not let it speak out. He is, contrary
AUTHORITY-Exercise of. to great men, maintained by his followers- They that govern most make least coise. that is, his poor country clients, that worship You see when they row in a barge, they that do him more than their landlord ; and be they drudgery-work, slash, and puff, and sweat; never such churls, he looks for their courtesy, but he that governs, sits quietly at the stern, He first racks them soundly himself, and then and scarce is seen to stir.
Selden. delivers them to the lawyer for execution. His looks are very solicitous, importing much AUTHORITY-Paternal. haste and despatch ; he is never without lis To you your father should be as a god ; hands full of business, that is--of paper. His One that composed your beauties; yea, and one skin becomes at last as dry as his parchment, To whom you are but as a form in wax, and his face as intricate as the most winding By him imprinted, and within his power
He talks statutes as fiercely as if he To leave the figure, or disfigure it. Shakspeare. had mooted seven years in the inps of court, when all his skill is stuck in his girdle, or in AUTHORITY-Power of. his office window. Strife and wrangling have Authority bears a credent bulk, made him rich, and he is thankful to his bene- That no particular scandal can touch, factor, and nourishes it. If he live in a But it confounds the breather.
Ibid. country village, he makes all his neighbours good subjects; for there shall be nothing done AUTHORSHIP-Advice on. but what there is law for. His business gives
On this point I have a piece of advice to him not leave to think of his conscience; and
offer to all young intellectual aspirants : they when the time, or term, of his life is going should keep their commodities to themselves : out, for doomsday he is secure; for he hopes
they should not produce their notions until he has a trick to reverse judgment.
they have wrought them into form. I did the Bishop Earle.
contrary of this myself, and I smarted severely AUDACITY-Not Courage.
for it. In the first place, I used to confuso As knowledge without justice ought to be myself with the perplexity of my thoughts, –
half conceptions, abortions of truth, that came called cunning rather than wisdom ; so a mind
to the birth when my mind had not strength propared to meet danger, if excited by its own
to bring them forth, – monsters begotten out eagerness and not the public good, deserves the name of audacity rather than of courage.
of the cloud, like those in the old fable. With Plato.
Cassio, I saw a mass of things, but nothing AUTHOR Address of the.
distinctly. I had chosen my own points of
observation ; I viewed many things differently Friend, howsoever thou camest by this book,
from the vulgar, but my visions for some time, I will assure thee thou wert least in my thoughts until my eye was accustomed to the change, when I writ it.
were wont to float before me vaguely and
inapprehensibly. I had rejected the hack AUTHOR-Advice to the.
notions, the uses of other men, and had as yet Never write on a subject without having made none for myself that I could call properly first read yourself full on it ; and never read my own. What, then, would have been my on a subject till you bave thought yourself wisdom ? Clearly, to reserve these rough hungry on it.
Richter. sketches of my intellect for secret service, and
not to set them forth for show; to veil from AUTHOR-Apology for Digression. the vulgar eye the unseemliness of my mind, Lot none our author rudely blame
while in its rudiments ; to employ its “airy Who from the story hath thus long digress'd ;
portraiture" for exercise, in order that it might But for his righteous pains may his fair fame
so learn to labour finally for use ; just as the For ever travel, whilst his ashes rest.
young painter will work off a hundred sketches Davenant.
for the fire, before he can finish one for public
exhibition. In the meantime, I should have AUTHORITY-Bribing of.
holden to the old adage, “Loquendum ut vulgus Though authority be a stubborn bear, yet sentiendum ut docti." I sliould have talked he is often led by the nose with gold. Selden. and demeaned myself like mere matter of-fact
men, until I felt that I had risen to the lovel AUTHORSHIP-Duties of. I of the men of mind, and had attained the
Whosoever shall address himself to write of mastery of their method. I should have let matters of instruction, or of any other argumy raw fruit hang and sun itself upon the tree, ment of importance, it behoveth, that before till it was penetrated with ripeness and would be enter thereunto, he should resolutely detercome away easily upon the touch of a little mine with himself in what order he will handle finger. I ought not to bave torn it off violently the same. So shall he best accomplish that he and with difficulty, while its humours were yet hath undertaken, and inform the understanding erude, to the laceration of the parent tree – and help the memory of the reader. Guillim. the torture of my own inward man. Dr. Bentley.
AUTHORSHIP-Novelty in. ! AUTHORSHIP-Art of.
Those writers who lie on the watch for I find by experience that writing is like novelty can have little hope of greatness ; for building, wherein the undertaker, to supply great things cannot have escaped former obsersome defect, or serve some convenience which vation.
Johnson. | at first he foresaw not, is usually forced to ex
A child-like being will always speak and
home and of childhood. Childlike natures in The two most engaging powers of an author literature have ever done this, as in the cases are to make new things familiar, and familiar of Goldsmith, Cowper, and Burns. Bunyan's things neu.
Johnson. style is a thing of such unconscious case, pro
priety, and unelaborate grace; the thought to This I hold
which he wishes to give expression, he conveys A secret worth its weight in gold
in such plain, unassuming words, intelligible To those who write as I write now;
by all classes, with such purity of converNot to mind where they go, or how,
sational phrases, and such fine natural idioms, Through ditch, through bog, o'er hedge and that it flows like the music and turnings of a
running brook, along which you are wandering Make it but worth the reader's while,
in a green pasture, or among the woods in And keep a passage fair and plain,
spring. Besides this, his language has at times Always to bring him back again. Churchill. no small degree of imaginative power, and his
pages are sometimes flashing with the quick AUTHORSHIP-Characteristics of. and graphic light of whole pictures, presented
in a single sentence.
Cheever. Authorship is, according to the spirit in which it is pursued, an infamý, a pastimo, a AUTHORSHIP-Pleasures of. day-labour, a handicraft, an art, a science, or a
'Tis pleasant, sure, to see one's name in print; virtue.
A book's a book, although there's nothing in't. AUTHORSHIP-Difficulties of.
AUTHORSHIP-Pride of. There are three difficulties in authorship : to
"I am going to fly," cried the gigantic write anything worth the publishing, to find honest men to publish it, and to get sensible gathered round in earnest expectation. “I
ostrich ; and the whole assembly of birds men to read it.
am going to fly," he cried again ; and stretch
ing out his immense pinions, he shot, like a If I might give a short hint to an impartial ship with outspread sails, away over the writor, it would be to tell biin his fate. If he ground, without, however, rising an inch above resolves to venture upon the dangerous pre- it. Thus it happens, when a notion of being cipice of telling unbiassed truth, let him pro- poetical takes posgession of unpoetical brains ; claim war with mankind, neither to give nor in the opening of their monstrous odes they to take quarter. If he tells the crimes of great boast of their intention to soar over clouds men, they fall upon him with the iron bands | and stars, but nevertheless remain constant to of the law ; if he tells them of virtues, when the dust.
Lessing. they bave any, then the mob attacks him with - slander. But if he regards truth, let him AUTHORSHIP-Privilege of. expect martyrdom on both sides, and then he And howsoever, be it well or ill, mong go on fearless; and this is the course What I have done it is mine own, I may I take myself.
De Foe. Do whatsoever therewithal I will Daniel.
one of his steps (and countless are the millions Solidity, indeed, becomes the pen
of these steps) in his whole moral and religious Of him that writeth things divine to men.
Sir J. Stephen. Bunyan.
AUTOBIOGRAPHY-Difficulty of. AUTHORSHIP-Study necessary for.
It is a hard and nico subject for a man to He who purposes to be an author, should first
write of himself; it grates his own heart to be a student.
Dryden. say anything of disparagement, and the
reader's ears to hear anything of praise from AUTHORSHIP-Style in.
Coucley. For the attainment of correctness and purity
AUTUMN-Moral Characteristics of. in the use of words, the rules of grammarians and of critics may be a sufficient guide ; but it A moral character is attached to autumnal is not in the works of this class of authors that scenes ; the leaves falling like our years, the the higher beauties of style are to be studied. | flowers fading like our hours, the clouds fleetAs the air and manner of a gentleman can be ing like our illusions, the light diminishing acquired only by living habitually in the best like our intelligence, the sun growing colder society, so grace in composition must be at like our affections, the rivers becoming frozen tained by an habitual acquaintance with clas- like our lives -all bear secret relations to our sical writers. It is, indeed, necessary for our destinies.
Chateaubriand information, that we should peruse occasionally
AUTUMN-Reflections on. many books which have no merit in point of expression ; but I believe it to be extremely The impression we feel from the scenery of useful to all literary men, to counteract the autumn is accompanied with much exercise of effect of this miscellaneous reading, by main- thought : the leaves then begin to fade from taining a constant and familiar acquaintance the trees ; the flowers and shrubs, with which with a few of the most faultless models which the fields were adorned in the summer months, the language affords. For want of some stan- decay ; the woods and groves are silent; the dard of this sort, we frequently see an author's sun himself seems gradually to withdraw his taste in writing alter, much to the worse, in light, or to become enfeebled in his power. the course of his life ; and his later productions Who is there who, at this season, does not fall below the level of his early essays. D'Alem- feel his mind impressed with a sentiment of bert tells us that Voltaire had always lying on melancholy ; or who is able to resist that his table the Petit Carême of Massillon and current of thought, which, from such appearthe tragedies of Racine ; the former to fix his ances of decay, so naturally leads him to the taste in prose composition, and the latter in solemn imagination of that inevitable fate poetry.
Stewart. which is to bring on alike the decay of life, of empire, and of nature itself.
Alison. AUTOBIOGRAPHY-Colouring of.
The publication of private journals too often However constant the visitations of sickfosters in those who read them a rank under- ness and bereavement, the fall of the year is growth of hypocrisy. For one man who will most thickly strewn with the fall of human honestly endeavour to lay bare on paper the life. Everywhere the spirit of some sad power course of his life and the state of his heart, seems to direct the time : it hides from us one bundred will make the same attempt dis- the blue heavens, it makes the green wave honestly, having the fear or the hope of the turbid ; it walks through the fields, and lays biographer before their eyes. How fluent the the damp uugathered harvest low; it cries out acknowledgment of those faults which the in the night wind and the shrill hail ; it steals reader will certainly regard as venial, while he the summer bloom from the infant cheek; it admires the sagacity which has detected, the makes old aye shiver to the heart; it goes to humility which has condemned, and the inte the churchyard, and chooses many a grave; grity which has acknowledged them ; such it flies to the bell, and enjoins it when to toll. disclosures, whether made to the confessor or It is God that goes His yearly round ; that to the world at large, are at best an illusion. gathers up the appointed lives; and, even No man has such an insight into his own where the hour is not come, engraves by pain circumstances, motives, and actions, or such and poverty many a sharp and solemn lesson leisure for duscribing them, or such powers of on the heart.
James Martinean. description, as to be able to afford to others the means of estimating, with any approach Behold, the husbandmen waiteth for the to accuracy, the exact merit or demerit of any precious fruit of the earth, and hath long
patience for it, until he receive the early and so they still pay what they borrow, and that latter rain.
St. James. by so just and well-balanced an equality, that AVALANCHES-Grandeur of.
their payments always keep pace with their receipts.
Dryden. One cannot command any language to con
AVARICE-Cause of. vey an adequate idea of their magnificence. You are standing far below, gazing up to Because men believe not Providence, therewhere the great disc of the glittering Alp fore they do so greedily scrape and hoard. cuts the heavens, and drinking in the influence They do not believe any reward for charity, of the silent scene around. Suddenly, an enor- therefore they will part with nothing. mous mass of snow and ice, in itself a moun.
Barrow. tain, seems to move ; it breaks from the AVARICE-Covetousness of. toppling outmost mountain ridge of snow, Refruin from covetousness, and thy estate where it is hundreds of feet in depth, and in shall prosper.
Plato. its first fall of perhaps two thousand feet, broken into millions of fragments. As you first
The wealth of covetous persons is like the see the flash of distant artillery by night,
sun after he is set, delights none. Socrates. then bear the roar, so here you may see the white flashing mass majestically bowing, and
We are at best but stewards of what we bear the astounding din. A cloud of dusty, falsely call our owu; yet avarice is so insatiable, mnisty, dry snow, rises into the air from the that it is not in the power of liberality to con
tent it. concussion, forming a white volume of fleecy
Seneca. smoke, or misty light, from the bosom of which AVARICE-Effects of. thunders forth the icy torrent in its second prodigious fall over the rocky battlements.
O cursed hunger of pernicious gold ! The eye follows it delighted, as it ploughs What bands of faith can impious lucre hold ! through the path which preceding avalanches
AVARICE-Insatiability of. bave worn, till it comes to the brink of a vast ridge of bare rock, perhaps more than two Avarice is insatiable, and is always pushing thousand feet perpendicular. Then flows the
on for more.
L'Estrange. whole cataract over the gulf with a still louder
AVARICE-and Paternal Love. roar of ecboing thunder. Another fall of still greater depth ensues, over a second similar My daughter !-O my ducats —Omy daughter! castellated ridge or reef in the face of the
O my Christian ducats ! mountain, with an awful majestic slowness, Justice ! the law ! my ducats, and my daughter ! and a tremendous crash in its concussion,
Shakspeare. awakening again the reverberating peals of AVARICE-Lust of. tbunder. Then the torrent roars on to another The lust of avarice bas so totally seized upon smaller fall, till at length it reaches a mighty mankind, that their wealth seerns rather to grote of snow and ice, like the slide down possess them, than they possess their wealth. the Pilatus, of which Playfair has given so
Pliny. powerfully graphic a description. Here its progress is slower, and last of all you listen Poverty is in want of much, but avarice of to the roar of the falling fragments as they everything.
Publius Syrus. drop out of sight, with a dead weight, into the bottom of the gulf, to rest there for ever. Study rather to fill your mind, than your
Cheerer. coffers ; knowing that gold and silver were AVARICE-Aim of.
originally mingled with dirt, until avarice or
Seneca. Had covetous men, as the fable goes of ambition parted them. Briareus, each of them one hundred hands, 1 they would all of them be employed in grasp
AVARICE-Madness of. ing and gathering, and hardly one of them Avarice seems to me not so much a vice, as is giving or laying out, but all in receiving, a deplorable piece of madness; and if he had and done in restoring; a thing in itself so added incurable, his definition would have been monstrous, that nothing in nature besides is perfect ; for an avaricious man is never to be bke it, except it be death and the grave, the cured unless by the same medicine which peronly things I know which are always carrying haps may cure a mad dog. The arguments of off the spoils of the world, and never making reason, philosophy, or religion, will have little rustitation. For otherwise, all the parts of effect upon him ; he is born and framed to a the universe, as they borrow of one another, sordid love of money, which first appears when
he is very young, grows up with him, and AWE-Superstitious. increases in middle age, and when he is old, This is the secret centre of the isle ; and all his passions have subsided, wholly Here, Romans, pause, and let the eye of wonder engrosses him. The greatest endowments of Gaze on the solemu scene ; bebold yon oak. the mind, the greatest abilities in a profession, How stern he frowns, and with his broad brown and even the quiet possession of an immense treasure, will never prevail against avarice.
Chills the pale plain beneath him : mark yon
Roscoe. altar, AVARICE-Poverty of.
The dark stream brawling round its rugged Avarice is always poor, but poor by her own fault.
Johnson. These cliffs, these yawning caverns, this wide
Skirted with unhewn stone: they awe my | The avarice of the miser may be termed soul, the grand sepulchre of all his other passions, As if the very genius of the place as they successively decay. But, unlike other Himself appear'd, and with terrific tread toinbs, it is enlarged by repletion, and streng- Stalk'd through his drear domain. And yet, thened by age.
(If shapes like his be but the fancy's coinage), AVARICE-Uncharitableness of.
Surely there is a hidden power that reigns A wretch who, under the mask of frugality, 'Mid the lone majesty of untamed nature, scarce ever has a penny ready for the poor, Controlling sober reason ; tell me else, though never without his hundreds and his Why do these hauuts of barb'rous superstition thousands of pounds ready for a purchase. O'ercome me thus? I scorn them, yet they South.
Mason. AVARICE-a Moral Weed.
Avarice reigns most in those who have but few qualities to recommend them. This is a weed that will grow in a barren soil. Hughes. AVENUE (of Trees)-Beauties of an. How airy, and how light the graceful arch,
BACHELOR-Lonesomeness of the.
I have no wife nor children, good or bad, to Brush'd by the wind. So sportive is the light provide for – a mere spectator of other men's Shot through the boughs, it dances as they fortunes and adventures, and how they play dance,
their parts; which, methinks, are diversely Shadow and sunshine intermingling quick, presented unto me, as from a common theatre And darkening and enlightening, as the leaves
Burton. Play wanton every moment, every spot.
Corper. BAITING-PLACE-a. AVERSION-Implacable.
But our desires, tyrannical extortion, As well the poble savage of the field
Doth force us there to set our chief delightMight tamely couple with the fearful ewe ;
fulness Tigers engender with the timid deer;
Where but a baiting-place is all our portion. Wild muddy boars defile the cleanly ermine,
Sir Philip Sydney. Or vultures sort with doves; as I with thee.
Lee. BALL-Allurements of the.
The music, and the banquet, and the wineNo! were we join'd, even though it were in death,
The garlands, the rose-odours, and the flowersOur bodies burning in one fun'ral pile,
The sparkling eyes, and fashing ornaments
The white arms and the raven hair - the The prodigy of Thebes would be renew'd,
braids And my divided flames should break from thine.
And bracelets; gwap-like bosoms, and the
necklace, AWE-Overshadows Life.
An India in itself, yet dazzling not A heavenly awe overshadowed and encom- The eye like what it circled; the thin robes, passed, as it still ought, and must, all earthly Floating like light clouds 'twixt our gaze and business whatsoever.