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men, until I felt that I had risen to the level AUTHORSHIP-Duties of. of the men of mind, and bad attained the Whosoever shall address himself to write of mastery of their method. I should have let matters of instruction, or of any other argumy raw fruit hang and sun itself upon the tree, ment of importance, it behoveth, that before till it was penetrated with ripeness and would be enter thereunto, he should resolutely detercorne away easily upon the touch of a little mine with himself in what order he will handle finger. I ought not to have torn it off violently the same. So shall he best accomplish that he and with difficulty, while its humours were yet

hath undertaken, and inform the understanding crude, to the laceration of the parent tree - and help the memory of the reader. Guillim. the torture of my own inward man. Dr. Bentley.


Those writers who lie on the watch for I find by experience that writing is like novelty can have little hope of greatness ; for building, wherein the undertaker, to supply great things cannot have escaped former obsersome defect, or serve some convenience which vation

Johnson. at first he foresaw not, is usually forced to exved his first model and proposal, and many

AUTHORSHIP-Perfection of. times to double the charge and expense of it.

A child-like being will always speak and Dr. John Scott. / write in simple sweet Saxon, the language of

home and of childhood. Childlike natures in The two most engaging powers of an author / literature have ever done this, as in the cases are to make new things familiar, and familiar i of Goldsmith, Cowper, and Burns. Bunyan's things ned.

Johnson. style is a thing of such unconscious case, pro

priety, and unelaborate grace; the thought to This I hold

which he wishes to give expression, he conveys A secret worth its weight in gold

in such plain, unassuming words, intelligible To those who write as I write now;

by all classes, with such purity of converNot to mind where they go, or how,

sational phrases, and such fine natural idioms, Through ditch, through bog, o'er hedge and that it flows like the music and turnings of a stile;

running brook, along which you are wandering Make it but worth the reader's while,

in a green pasture, or among the woods in And keep a passage fair and plain,

spring. Besides this, his language has at times Always to bring him back again. Churchill. no small degree of imaginative power, and his

1 pages are sometimes flashing with the quick AUTHORSHIP-Characteristics of. and graphic light of whole pictures, presented Authorship is, according to the spirit in in in a single sentence.

Cheever. which it is pursued, an infamý, a pastime, a AUTHORSHIP-Pleasures of. dar-labour, a handicraft, an art, a science, or a

'Tis pleasant, sure, to see one's name in print; vinue.


A book's a book, although there's nothing in't. AUTHORSHIP-Difficulties of.


AUTHORSHIP-Pride of. There are three difficulties in authorship : to “I am going to fly," cried the gigantic write anything worth the publishing, to find

ostrich ; and the whole assembly of birds honest men to publish it, and to get sensible

gathered round in earnest expectation. “I mes to read it.

lo am going to fly,” he cried again ; and stretch-

ing out his immense pinions, he shot, like a If I might give a short hint to an impartial ship with outspread sails, away over the writer, it would be to tell biin his fate. If he ground, without, however, rising an inch above resolves to venture upon the dangerous pre- it. Thus it happens, when a notion of being apice of telling unbiassed truth, let him pro- ' poetical takes possession of unpoetical brains; cairn war with mankind, neither to give nor in the opening of their monstrous odes they to take quarter. If he tells the crimes of great boast of their intention to soar over clouds men, they fall upon him with the iron bands and stars, but nevertheless remain constant to of the law ; if he tells them of virtues, when the dust.

Lessing. tbey bave any, then the mob attacks him with sander. But if he regards truth, let him AUTHORSHIP-Privilege of. erect martyrdom on both sides, and then he And howsoever, be it well or ill, by go on fearless; and this is the course What I have done it is mine own, I may I take myself.

De Foe. Do whatsoever therewithal I will Daniel. AUTHORSHIP.


AUTHORSHIP-Solidity of.

one of his steps (and countless are the millions Solidity, indeed, becomes the pen

of these steps) in his whole moral and religious Of him that writeth things divine to men. course,

Sir J. Stephen. Bunyan.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY-Difficulty of. AUTHORSHIP-Study necessary for.

It is a hard and nico subject for a man to He who purposes to be an author, should first write of himself; it grates his own heart to be a student.

Dry cic

say anything of disparagement, and the

reader's ears to hear anything of praise from AUTHORSHIP-style in.


Coucley. For the attainment of correctness and purity

AUTUMN-Moral Characteristics of. in the use of words, the rules of grammarians and of critics may be a sufficient guide ; but it! A moral character is attached to autumnal is not in the works of this class of authors that scenes ; the leaves falling like our years, the the higher beauties of style are to be studied. | flowers fading like our hours, the clouds fleetAs the air and manner of a gentleman can be ing like our illusions, the light diminishing acquired only by living habitually in the best like our intelligence, the sun growing colder society, so grace in composition must be at like our affections, the rivers becoming frozen tained by an habitual acquaintance with clas- like our lives - all bear secret relations to our sical writers. It is, indeed, necessary for our destinies.

Chateaubriand. information, that we should peruse occasionally many books which have no merit in point of

AUTUMN-Reflections on. expression ; but I believe it to be extremely The impression we feel from the scenery of useful to all literary men, to counteract the autumn is accompanied with much exercise of effect of this miscellaneous reading, by main thought : the leaves then begin to fade from taining a constant and familiar acquaintance the trees; the flowers and shrubs, with which with a few of the most faultless models which the fields were adorned in the summer months, the language affords. For want of some stan- decay ; the woods and groves are silent; the dard of this sort, we frequently see an author's sun himself seems gradually to withdraw his taste in writing alter, much to the worse, in light, or to become enfeebled in his power. the course of his life ; and his later productions | Who is there who, at this season, does not fall below the level of his early essays. D'Alem- feel his mind impressed with a sentiment of bert tells us that Voltaire had always lying on melancholy; or who is able to resist that his table the Petit Carême of Massillon and current of thought, which, from such appearthe tragedies of Racine ; the former to fix his ances of decay, so naturally leads him to the taste in prose composition, and the latter in solemn imagination of that inevitable fate poetry.

Stewart, which is to bring on alike the decay of life, of empire, and of nature itself.

Alison. AUTOBIOGRAPHY-Colouring of.

The publication of private journals too often However constant the visitations of sickfosters in those who read them a rank under-ness and bereavement, the fall of the year is growth of hypocrisy. For one man who will most thickly strewn with the fall of human honestly endeavour to lay bare on paper the life. Everywhere the spirit of some sad power course of his life and the state of his heart, seems to direct the time : it hides from us one bundred will make the same attempt dis- the blue heavens, it makes the green wave honestly, having the fear or the hope of the turbid ; it walks through the fields, and lays biographer before their eyes. How fluent the the damp ungathered harvest low; it cries out acknowledgment of those faults which the in the night wind and the shrill hail; it steals reader will certainly regard as venial, while he the summer bloom from the infant cheek; it admires the sagacity which has detected, the makes old age shiver to the heart; it goes to humility which has condemned, and the inte. | the churchyard, and chooses many a grave; grity which has acknowledged them ; such it fies to the bell, and enjoins it when to toll. disclosures, whether made to the confessor or | It is God that goes His yearly round ; that to the world at large, are at best an illusion. I gathers up the appointed lives; and, even No man has such an insight into his own where the hour is not come, engraves by pain circumstances, motives, and actions, or such and poverty many a sharp and solemn lesson leisure for describing them, or such powers of on the heart.

James Martincau. description, as to be able to afford to others the means of estimating, with any approach Behold, the husbandmen waiteth for the to accuracy, the exact merit or demerit of any precious fruit of the earth, and hath long

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patience for it, until he receive the early and so they still pay what they borrow, and that Latter rain.

St. James. by so just and well-balanced an equality, that AVALANCHES-Grandeur of.

their payments always keep pace with their receipts.

Dryden. One cannot command any language to conver an adequate idea of their inagnificence.

AVARICE-Cause of. You are standing far below, gazing up to Because men believe not Providence, therewhere the great disc of the glittering Alp fore they do so greedily scrape and hoard. cuts the heavens, and drinking in the influence They do not believe any reward for charity, of the silent scene around. Suddenly, an enor therefore they will part with nothing. mous mass of snow and ice, in itself a moun.

Barror. tain, seems to move; it breaks from the AVARICE-Covetousness of. toppling outmost mountain ridge of snow, Refruin from covetousness, and thy estate where it is hundreds of feet in depth, and in shall prosper.

Plato. its first fall of perhaps two thousand feet, is brokep into millions of fragments. As you first

The wealth of covetous persons is like the see the flash of distant artillery by pight, sun after he is set, delights none. Socrates. then bear the roar, so here you may see the white flashing mass majestically bowing, and

We are at best but stewards of what we bear the astounding din. A cloud of dusty, falsely call our owu; yet avarice is so insatiable, nisty, dry snow, rises into the air from the

that it is not in the power of liberality to conconcussion, forming a white volume of fleecy

tent it.

Seneca. smoke, or misty light, from the bosom of which

AVARICE-Effects of. thunders forth the icy torrent in its second prodigious fall over the rocky battlements,

O cursed hunger of pernicious gold ! The eye follows it delighted, as it ploughs What ban

What bands of faith can impious lucre hold ! through the path which preceding avalanches

Dryden. bave worn, till it comes to the brink of a vast

AVARICE-Insatiability of. ridge of bare rock, perhaps more than two

Avarice is insatiable, and is always pushing thousand feet perpendicular. Then flows the on for more.

L'Estrange. whole cataract over the gulf with a still louder

AVARICE-and Paternal Love. roar of ecboing thunder. Another fall of still greater depth ensues, over a second similar

| My daughter !-O my ducats !-Omy daughter! castellated ridge or reef in the face of the

O my Christian ducats ! mountain, with an awful majestic slowness, Justice ! the law ! my ducats, and my daughter! and a tremendous crash in its concussion,

Shakspeare. awakening again the reverberating peals of

| AVARICE-Lust of. thunder. Then the torrent roars on to another The lust of avarice bas so totally seized upon soaller fall, till at length it reaches a mighty mankind, that their wealth seems rather to

Toote of snow and ice, like the slide down possess them, than they possess their wealth. the Pilatus, of which Playfair has given so

Pliny. powerfully graphic a description. Here its progress is slower, and last of all you listen Poverty is in want of much, but avarice of to the roar of the falling fragments as they everything.

Publius Syrus. drop out of sight, with a dead weight, into the bottom of the gulf, to rest there for ever. Study rather to fill your mind, than your

Cheerer. coffers; knowing that gold and silver were AVARICE-Aim of.

originally mingled with dirt, until avarice or I Had covetous men, as the fable goes of

ambition parted them.

Seneca. · Briareus, each of them one hundred hands, 1 they would all of them be employed in grasp

AVARICE-Madness of. ing and gathering, and hardly one of them Avarice seems to me not so much a vice, as id giving or laying out, but all in receiving, a deplorable piece of madness; and if he had and done in restoring; a thing in itself so added incurable, his definition would have been monstrous, that nothing in nature besides is perfect ; for an avaricious man is never to be bke it, except it be death and the grave, the cured unless by the same medicine which peronly things I know which are always carrying haps may cure a mad dog. The arguments of off the spoils of the world, and never making reason, philosophy, or religion, will have little restitution. For otherwise, all the parts of effect upon him ; he is born and framed to a the universe, as they borrow of one another, sordid love of money, which first appears when

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ho is very young, grows up with him, and AWE-Superstitious. increases in middle age, and when he is old, This is the secret centre of the isle ; and all his passions have subsided, wholly Here, Romans, pause, and let the eye of wonder engrosses him. The greatest endowments of Gaze on the solemn scene; behold yon oak. the mind, the greatest abilities in a profession, | How stern he frowns, and with his broad brown and even the quiet possession of an immense arms treasure, will never prevail against avarice. Chills the pale plain beneath him : mark yon

Roscoe. altar, AVARICE-Poverty of.

The dark stream brawling round its rugged Avarice is always poor, but poor by her own fault.

Johnson. These cliffs, these yawning caverns, this wide

circus, AVARICE-Strengthened.

Skirted with unhewn stone : they awe my The avarice of the miser may he termed soul, the grand sepulchre of all his other passions, As if the very genius of the place as they successively decay. But, unlike other | Himself appear'd, and with terrific tread tombs, it is enlarged by repletion, and streng- Stalk'd through his drear domain. And yet, thened by age.

Colton. my friends

(If shapes like his be but the fancy's coinage), AVARICE-Uncharitableness of.

Surely there is a hidden power that reigns A wretch who, under the mask of frugality, | 'Mid the lone majesty of untamed nature, scarce ever has a penny ready for the poor, Controlling sober reason ; tell me else, though never without his hundreds and his Why do these hauuts of barb'rous superstition thousands of pounds ready for a purchase. O'ercome me thus? I scorn them, yet they South. awe me.

Mason. AVARICE-a Moral Weed.

Avarice reigns most in those who have but few qualities to recommend them. This is a weed that will grow in a barren soil. Hughes. AVENUE (of Trees)—Beauties of an. How airy, and bow light the graceful arch, Yet awful, as the consecrated roof Re-echoing pious anthems ! while beneath

BACHELOR-Lonesomeness of the. The chequer'd earth seems restless as a flood | I have no wife nor children, good or bad, to Brush'd by the wind. So sportive is the light provide for - a mere spectator of other men's Shot through the boughs, it dances as they fortunes and adventures, aud how they play dance,

their parts; which, methinks, are diversely Shadow and sunshine intermingling quick, presented unto me, as from a common theatre And darkening and enlightening, as the leaves or scene.

Burton. Play wanton every moment, every spot.



But our desires, tyrannical extortion, As well the noble savage of the field

Doth force us there to set our chief delightMight tamely couple with the fearful ewe;

fulness Tigers engender with the timid deer ;

Where but a baiting-place is all our portion. Wild muddy boars defile the cleanly ermine,

Sir Philip Sydney. Or vultures sort with doves; as I with thee.

Lee. BALL-Allurements of the.

The music, and the banquet, and the wineNo! were we join'd, even though it were in

The garlands, the rose-odours, and the flowers death, Our bodies burning in one fun'ral pile,

The sparkling eyes, and flasbing ornaments

The white arms and the raven bair - the The prodigy of Thebes would be renew'd,

braids And my divided flames should break from

And bracelets; swan-like bosoms, and the thine.


necklace, AWE-Overshadows Life.

| An India in itself, yet dazzling not A heavenly awe overshadowed and encom- The eye like what it circled; the thin robes, passed, as it still ought, and must, all earthly Floating like light clouds 'twixt our gaze and business whatsoever.

Carlyle. I beaven;


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The many-twinkling feet so small and sylph. Being a divine, a ghostly confessor, like,

A sin-absolver, and my friend profest, Snggesting the more secret symmetry

To mangle me with that word, banishment? Of the fair forms which terminate so well

Shakspeare. All the delusion of the dizzy scene,

BANQUET-Luxuriance of the.
Its false and true enchantments-Art and

A table richly spread in regal mode,


With dishes piled, and meats of noblest sort BALLADS-Definitions of.

And savour; beasts of chase, or fowl of game,

In pastry built, or from the spit, or boil'd, Vocal portraits of the national mind. Lamb. Gris-amber-steam'd; all fish from sea or shore,

Freshet or purling brook, for which was

drain'd They are the gipsy children of song, born under green hedgerows, in the leafy lanes and

Pontus, and Lucrine bay, and Afric coast.

Milton. by.paths of literature, in the genial summer time.

Longfellowo. BARD-Lyre of the.

On a rock whose haughty brow BALLADS-History of.

Frowns o'er old Conway's foaming flood, They may be traced in British history to

Robed in the sable garb of woe.

With haggard eyes the poet stood the Anglo-Saxons. Canute composed one.


(Loose his beard and hoary hair

Stream'd like a meteor to the troubled air), The harp was sent round, and those might

And with a master's hand and prophet's fire sing who could.

Struck the deep sorrows of his lyre.


BARDS-Influence of. Minstrels were protected by a charter of Edward the IV.; but, by a statute of Eliza When Athens' armies fell at Syracuse, beth, they were made punishable among And fetter'd thousands bore the yoke of war, rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy beggars. Viner. Redemption rose up in the Attic muse,

Her voice their only ransom from afar: BALLADS-Influence of.

See! as they chant the tragic hymn, the car Gire me the writing of the ballads, and you

Of th' o'ermaster'd victor stops; the reins

of th oermaste make the laws.

Fletcher of Saltoun.

Fall from his hands; his idle scimitar

Drops from his belt; he rends his captive's BALLS (Child's) and Dances.


And bids them thank the bard for freedom I know not whether I ought most to hate

and his strains.

Дутоп. child's balls, or praise most children's dances. The former, before the dancing master, in the BASHFULNESS-Different Kinds of. so iety of lookers-on, or companions in dancing, There are two distinct sorts of what we call in the hot climate of a ball-room, under its bashfulness ; this, the awkwardness of a booby, erotic produce, are at least the preliminary which a few steps into the world will convert Egures and principal steps towards the dance into the pertness of a coxcomb: that, a conof death. On the other hand, children's sciousness, which the most delicate feelings dances are what I am not going to praise. As produce, and the most extensive knowledge saking should be taught before grammar,

cannot always remove.

Mackenzie. 60 dancing should long precede and work its y before tuition in the art of dancing. BASHFULNESS-without Merit.


Mere bashfulness without merit is awkward ;

and merit without molesty, insolent; but *Tis not absence to be far,

modest merit has a double claim to acceptance, But to abhor is to be absent;

and generally meets with as many patrons as To those who in disfavour are,


Hughes. Sight itself is banishment. Mendoza

BAT-The. BANISHMENT-Horrors of.

| Now air is hush'd, save where the weak-eyed Banish'd ?

bat, friar, the damned use that word in hell; With short, shrill shriek, flits by on leathern Howlings attend it. How hast thou the heart, wing.


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