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ry, watch chains and keys, gunlock filer, plated goods, fire-irons, awl-blades, brass-founder, saw and edge-tools, lock and latch maker, swords, bits, buttons, snuffers, bone and ivory toys, cut sprigs, diesinker, carriage lamps, harness plater, steel chains, cast nails, thimbles, braces, cabinet cases, inkstands, ferrules, compasses, ivory combs, gun polisher, spectacles, steel toys, pearl buttons, stamper and piercer, stirrups, packing boxes, japan wares, planes, sword. hilts, casting pots, spring latchets, gold-hand manufacturer, paper toys, chaser, saddlers' brass-founder, round bolt and chafing-dish maker, scalebeam, steelyard, and screw-plate maker, bridle cutter, brass nails and curtain-rings, needles, vice maker, clock-dial painter, curry-combs, rule maker, link buttons, wiredrawer, scabbards, iron spoons, spade-tree maker, fork maker, looking-glass, toy and army button maker, paper-box turner, mouse-traps, sandpaper, gunstocker, parchment maker, last and boot-tree maker, glass grinders, anvils, braziers' tools, gun-furniture filer, pendant maker, ring turner, bellows, gun finisher, saddle-tree maker, hammers, carpenters' and shoemakers' tools, brass-cock founder, hand-whip mounter, pearl and hair worker, coach-harness forger, button-shank maker, patten ties, gimlets, tea-urns, medals and coins, copying machines, pneumatic apparatus, ramrod and chain maker, gun-case maker, smiths' bellows’-pipe maker, coffin nails, curtainrings, glass beads, engine cutter, scalebeams, woodscrew maker, bright engraver, putty maker, and

MANUFACTURES OF BIRMINGHAM.

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enamel-box maker, horse, dog, and negro collar, fetter, and dog-lock maker, pencil-case maker, glass stainer, paper stainer, bone-mould turner, tortoiseshell-box and toothpick-case maker, warming pans, fishing tackle, cruet frames, picture frames, bayonets, malt-mills, hinges, leather and horn powder flasks, corkscrews, gun flints, steel keys and combs, glass buttons, bed and coach screw maker, umbrella-furniture inaker, paper-mould maker, button solderer, paper spectacle-case maker, tin nail and rivet maker, burnisher of toys, shagreen and morocco case maker, seal manufacturer, horn spoons and buttons, line maker, ladies" slippers, stirrup maker, curb maker, spur and rowel maker, powder flasks, sticks and rods for angling, sleeve buttons, clock hands, brass mouldings, augers, cock-heel maker, candle moulds, teapots, case-plate maker, filigreeworker, coach-spring manufacturer, watch key and glass maker, patten rings, thong maker, varnish maker, dog and cart chain maker, printing presses, pins, buckle chaser, jacks, military feathers, barometers, morocco decanters and cruet stands, packing needles, hom lanterns, buckle-ring forger, toywatch maker, glass eyes for dolls, mortise and rim locksmith, button-card cutter, iron-drawer, gridiron and round bolt maker, spades, dials, gilt ring maker, steel box, spectacle-case, and gun-charger maker, pocket-lock maker, lamp manufacturer, lead toys, stock sinker, glass-house-mould maker, casting-mould maker, snuff boxes, &c., &c., &c., &c.'

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“ But this enumeration is far from complete. Perhaps, of all these articles, firearms are the most important. It appears from our official returns, that from 1804 to 1818, about 5,000,000 of different kinds of arms were furnished on account of

government and of the private trade. The largest manufacture of steam engines in the world is carried on at Soho, which is in the immediate neighbourhood of Birmingham. The population in 1831 was 147,000.”

We soon retraced our steps, and were again on the road to London. The environs of Birmingham on the south and east are quite beautiful. We passed within a few miles of Coventry, where, in 1566, the unfortunate Queen of Scots was imprisoned by the jealous and haughty Elizabeth, who said that

no Catholic ought to live out half his days;" Kenilworth and its ruins, around which the genius of Scott has thrown such charms; Warwick Castle, which is the most perfect specimen of a feudal fortress in the kingdom. Several times we crossed the quiet Avon, which flows through green meadows and verdure-crowned hills. Those waters are more sacred to us than the classic fountains of Greece; and it was very painful to pass so near Stratford, without seeing the grave of Shakspeare.

“We are very proud of the Great Poet,” said Lord

“I have sometimes wished that Amerieans could boast of such a man.” “ Well, really, sir," I replied, “I think Americans have as much to

STRATFORD-UPON-AVON.

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do with Shakspeare as any men in the world ; we certainly read him as much as you do; and you must remember that Shakspeare wrote and died before our forefathers left this country. He played and wrote for our common ancestors, and together they worshipped his genius; and since the year 1620 they have read and worshipped him alike, only in different countries. Besides, if you will pardon me, my lord, I think an Irishman need not be very much troubled because Americans have no Shakspeare : pray tell me if the Saxon blood of Shakspeare flows very extensively through the veins of Erin ?

“ That is one of your ingenious ‘Yankee notions, I will venture to say. But, upon my soul, sir, I must confess I never thought of the matter in just that light before. You are right; he is just as much your Shakspeare as England's, and considerably more than Ireland's.”

On our right, a few miles from the line, and about 55 from London, stands the Olney church, where the good John Newton preached; and a mile from it is still pointed out the quiet retreat of Cowper, and his affectionate friend, Mrs. Unwin; with the garden and the favourite seat of the poet in a rude bower. Poor Cowper! Thou art in a "brighter bower" now, where the dark clouds of gloom shall never gather around thy spirit again.

Ten miles from London we passed Harrow-on-theHill. Who bas not heard of the Harrow School ? The church is a spacious structure, with a tower and

lofty spire, and stands on one of the highest hills in Middlesex. This church is associated with what some men call a witty saying of Charles II., who closed a theological controversy by asserting that the church of Harrow-on-the-Hill must be the “Visible Church ;" for it could be seen from the whole surrounding country.

Before we reached the end of our journey we passed under the grand tunnel, nearly a mile in length, which brought us to the environs of the metropolis. Here I parted from my noble fellowtraveller, asking his permission to make our conversation public, if I should desire, suppressing all the names of parties concerned, where it was necessary. This permission was cheerfully given.

But I must bring this long letter to a close. I shall now write to you often, and describe men and things as I see them. I do not flatter myself that I shall be so fortunate as to avoid all those mistakes and errors of judgment into which travellers so commonly fall. But I shall be careful in stating my facts, and try to communicate to you faithfully the impressions which are made upon my own mind. It is my purpose to examine things for myself. I shall not forget the advice of an old English author to his son when he was going abroad : “Young man, when thou goest abroad, keep all thine ears and thine eyes open, and thy tongue between thy teeth” (this will be the most difficult part of the advice to follow); * adopt no conclusion hastily ; for travellers and cia'

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