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conflict some coals on my fire,' after of passion with duty, of pla- Patrick was gone to bed ; and tonic friendship with stifling there I saw in a closet a poor prudence, that is mirrored in linnet he has bought to bring “ Die Wahlverwandschaften over to Dingley: it cost him distracts and distorts the la- sixpence, and is as tame as a cerated being of Swift. His dormouse. I believe he does character was not unlike his not know he is a bird. Where own portrait of the ill-starred you put him there he stands, Duchess of Hamilton, who “sel- and seems to have neither hope dom spared anybody that gave nor fear." Nor does he relate her the least provocation, by how Swift turned aside that which she had many enemies the proud, heartbroken Duke and few friends." To these of Ormond might wipe the few he clung violently and in- tears for his daughter from tensely. Does any one doubt his eyes. Nor the following Swift's unfeigned and radical about the Duchess of Hamilton tenderness of heart? Let him after her husband's fatal duel read in these pages of his kind- with Lord. Mohun: “I have ness to Mrs Long, the poor been with her two hours and bankrupt beauty; of his duti- am just come away.

I never ful attendance the old, saw so melancholy a scene; bedridden Mrs Wesley; of his for indeed all reasons for real fatherly goodness to young grief belong to her; nor is it Harrison ; of his devotion to possible for anybody to be a Harley, Peterborough, Atter- greater loser in all regards, bury, Lewis, Arbuthnot; of She has moved my very his eager offices for his polit- soul.” Nor how he played ical enemies Addison, Steele, with Lady Masham's children. Phillips, and Rowe; of his Yet this extraordinary man methodical almsgiving; of his is, like Hamlet, “ very proud, resolve “ in honour and con- revengeful, ambitious.” For science to use all my little those who affront himself, the credit towards helping forward Church, or his friends, he will men of worth in the world.” have no mercy. Like TarThat resolve hindered his own quin, he knocks off the tallest advancement; it helped Pope, heads with his implacable stick. Gay, and Diaper; it made When Lady Masham's attendParnell and Bishop Berkeley. ance at Court was imperative He was no sentimentalist, but for the Cause, he blames her under the fountain of bitter- for sitting by the sick-bedside ness welled something sweet of the very child with whom and delicious. Beneath that he had romped. This is how savage ambition throbbed he mentions his only sister, poet's heart. Thackeray, un- who had long before displeased just to Swift and over-gener- him by her marriage : “Mrs ous to Addison, never excerpted Fenton writes to me that passage about the linnet: dying, and desires I would “I went last night' to put think of her son; I have not

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answered her letter." When Swift was very ill, and that same sister called to see him, he denied her admittance, but nevertheless he stinted himself to make her an allowance.

The severe illness of Swift is the dividing line of the Journal. Before it, all is high hope, excited elasticity, intermeddling triumph, and confiding affection. After it, comes a listless and saturnine depression." It was not all Miss Hessy. The great men who court him put him off. He is weary of disregarded counsel and society's school for scandal. Now and again the old burst of love and loyalty struggles through the gloom. But gradually the stern melancholy settles on him. He neglects Stella's birthday congratulations; he becomes more and more suspicious and reticent. And what a world is that which he subdues! The prodigy Bolingbroke manoeuvring and misunderstood. Intrepid Oxford loitering through crisis to catastrophe. The dilatory Queen, emancipated from Whig tutelage, but under the thumb of orthodox Archbishop of York and homely Mrs Masham "extremely like one Mrs Malolly that was once my landlady in Trim"; under the sinister thumbscrew, further, of the haughty Duchess of Somerset, who will not be shaken off. Manipulating Prior's "lean carcase." Accomplished, prim, spotless Addison condescending to tope with his unroystering circle of obsequious Bohemians, and "fair sexing" it in the 'Spectator. Even after their

cleavage Swift would fain be friends, and gets him to dine with Mrs Secretary St John. Discarded Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, vowing vengeance and clutching gold. Witty, versatile Lady Orkney. Pert, flirting Lady Betty Germaine. Sweet, weeping Mrs St John. Swaggering, raking Sir Andrew Fountaine. Rich, stingy Sir Thomas Mansel. Sanguine, stock-jobbing Stratford. The gallants strut and chatter in the Mall. The newsmongering busybodies flit from coffee - house to coffee-house. The very footmen hold their own Parliament outside Westminster Hall and elect their Speaker. Calmly in the background sit Somers, Halifax, and Walpole, concocting their revenge and awaiting their success. Guiscard stabs Harley, and ensures Oxford's popularity. The magnifico - Ambassador Monteleon scrapes and bows to the great Doctor Swift. Prince Eugene comes in to trouble the land. The

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expensive Duc D'Aumont hurries over from France, and has his ambassadorial house burned over him. It is a Whig plot. So is the disturbance on Queen Elizabeth's birthday. The town takes its cue from the men of letters. Everybody is inventing conspiracies or unearthing them. Spying Abbés Gautier and Dubois confabulate at Windsor over the treaty of Utrecht with its formulating genius. A bishop goes to preside over the congress that is to kill the war. Oxford and Bolingbroke refuse mutual quarter. The Government are "driv

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ing it to an inch” and skating Arbuthnot lamented. And on thin ice. “ Succession in henceforth there is no more danger" shout the Whigs; journal, no more peace. The “Church in danger,” the Tories. fine friends fade away into exIt is a jostling phantasmagoria ile or dependence or death. of England while she makes Walpole mounts the throne. the famous peace that chic- He cares no more for the “Scribaned the Dutch and contented lerus Club” than his two authe great Monarch. And mean- gust servants did for letters. while Vanessa fans her flame And, despite more fame and with the classics and arranges more wretchedness, Swift, after her “spark’s” Sunday periwig. Stella's death, retires in hagStella and Dingley are wearied gard mockery till he dies “like of expecting the letter that shall a poisoned rat in a hole." The herald Presto's return. And brave vessel with its jolly crew Presto himself domineers and has made shipwreck. All that despairs; sits up four nights sparkling company is dispersed. a-week making believe to crack It has become a phantom ship bottles with Lord Treasurer or of immortal but ghostly fable. Bolingbroke, and jests with all And this naturally brings us that brilliant throng of sixteen to Horace Walpole. Men of “Brothers" whose master-spirit letters are no longer men of In rushes “Mordanto” affairs.

affairs. The former yield the Peterborough, fresh from his latter homage in exchange for diplomatic wanderings, and patronage, or defiance as the warm - heartedly embraces the badge of disappointment. The imperious parson, who is power- age of pasteboard classicality has ful without place. Outside rage begun—of industrious trifles and and brawl the Mohocks. The elaborate impromptu. Walpole watch cries “Twelve of the may be called the founder of clock," and still Swift dallies. "anecdotage," just as Spence It is "twelvepenny weather," inaugurated the literary curiand the thrifty economist will osity-shop. The former was trudge it home. He creates the precursor of Greville, the Sterne Bishop of Dromore, and latter of Isaac Disraeli. Walaccepts his deanery with dis- pole styles himself a “garrulous gust. And then succeeds the Brantôme.” In his “Reminishome-coming, with Vanessa in cences of the Courts of George his wake. Fled is the rapture the First and Second,” comof the deferred meeting. That piled for the inquisitive Misses brief spell of dictatorship has Berry, we find him at his best. ruined his life. Ambition has Macaulay has unduly belittled murdered sleep. He has drunk Walpole. His trifling is not of those troubled waters, and trivial; he is a dilettante, but obeys the summons of their in the grand style. From that spell : he hastens back-only style Thackeray himself borto be in at the death. Ah, if rowed, as witness the subjoined but the queen had lived ! “Fui- extract from Walpole concernmus Tores !as delightful Dr ing George II. : “The King's

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6. When a as clockwork. At nine at night reconciliation had been patched he had cards in the apartment up between the two courts, and of his daughters ... with Lady my father became First Lord Yarmouth, two or three of the of the Treasury a second time, late queen's ladies, and as many Lord Sunderland in a tête-à-tête of the most favoured officers of with him said, “Well, Mr Walhis own household. Every Sat- pole, we have settled matters urday in summer he carried for the present, but we must that uniform party, but with- think whom we will have next.' out his daughters, to dine at Walpole said, “Your lordship Richmond. They went in may think as you please, but coaches and six in the middle my part is taken.'"* We gain of the day, with the heavy a pleasant glimpse of the clever, horseguards” kicking up the stoical Queen Caroline, who on dust before them—dined, walked the accession of her husband an hour in the garden, returned undid his rash choice of the in the same dusty parade, and zany Sir Spencer Compton for his majesty fancied himself the minister. The crowd of turnmost gallant and lively prince coat courtiers flocked to Leicesin Europe.” Every one ter House and fought studiousmembers his dramatis personce. ly shy of the favourite, whom What a galaxy of shabby they deemed rejected. “ Mr state and magnificent mean- Walpole being descried by the ness!

There are the princesses queen, There I am sure I see Amelia and Caroline in two a friend,' she cried." And in camps with their two heart- Horace Walpole himself runs less and titled lovers orientally an unsuspected vein of his cooped up in that royal seraglio; father's patriotic fibre. In there are royalties enthusiastic 1745, when the national horifor the deposed family; there is was threatening, he thus the royal father always hating writes to Sir Horace Mann: the royal son, and, by a trans- "... How much I wish myference of the wars of succession self with you! anywhere where to the cabals of the successor, I could have my thoughts deensuring the peace of England. tached in some degree by disThere is dark-eyed insolent tance and length of time from Anne Brett, the late King's England. With all the reasons English mistress, whose mother that I have for not loving great was Savage's. “Abishag was part of it, it is impossible not lodged in the palace under the to feel the shock of living at eyes of Bathsheba." There is the period of all its greatness. aging Duchess Sarah, still ra- To be one of the Ultimi Romanpacious and still revengeful; orum.One can scarcely check and there is cool, dogged Sir a smile at the affectation of Robert, who buys boroughs as Horace Walpole as “Last of a grazier buys oxen, and who the Romans." No better comwith his matter-of-pocket mas- mentary could be instanced than terfulness annihilates the old the description of the frontis

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• George the Second': “The dropper, a common butt in the author leaning on a globe of taverns of London." Dickens the world, between Heracleitus calls him “an unconscious coxand Democritus, presents his comb." It was Carlyle who book to the latter. In the first drew attention to Boswell's landscape is a view of the higher nature. But Carlyle, author's villa at Strawberry with his love of exaggerated Hill, near Twickenham, where alternative, and his fatal inthe

chiefly capacity for thinking out things written. At the bottom is the thoroughly, delineates Johnson date of the year, with emblems as a sort of practical Don Quixand the author's arms and ote, with Boswell as Sancho motto. .. To complete the Panza. Johnson sallies forth contrast we append the follow- with the broadsword of truth ing “short notes” of his diary to slay giants; the sensual, for 1754: “June 25.--I erected ignorant Boswell has yet the a printing-press at my house in saving instinct of hero-worship, Strawberry Hill. August 8.— and chooses and serves valiantly I published two odes by Mr a spiritual master. Gray, the first production of All this is hyperbole. It is my press. In September I true that Boswell drank deep, erected a tomb in St Anne's but then so on occasion did churchyard, Soho, for Theo- Johnson: it was a drinking age. dore King of Corsica.” Could The question is not whether he forcible feebleness further go? drank, but what he did while

It is refreshing to turn to drinking. Boswell loved to lisBoswell. We shall confine our- ten to wisdom—a gift almost selves to Boswell's character, as rare as wisdom itself—and which has been little studied. port stimulated the wisdom and If the Journal to Stella' is a kindled the conversation. At diary of two worlds, Boswell's their opening rendezvous in the 'Life' is an atmosphere of one Mitre Tavern each finished a

- that of his hero. Yet through bottle, and, among other things, this atmosphere his own person- discussed orthodoxy. It was on ality emerges clear and palpable. this that Johnson, with the geRogers (also a diarist) instances nial glow around him, exclaimed, in his commonplace-book “Bos- "Give me your hand I have

“— well drunk at Lord Falmouth's taken a liking to you." It is in Cornwall, kicking about his true that Boswell, before he bed at midnight, swearing at met Johnson first at Davies's the house, in which he said there shop in 1763, had been in search was no bed to lie on and no

of a celebrity, but when one wine to drink.' Macaulay, in comes close up to him one dishis famous essay, brands him cerns the reason. He had comore suo as “ vile and impertin- quetted with Romanism. He ent, shallow and pedantic, a a man of weak will but bigot and a sot, bloated with good instincts, who had hitherto family pride, ... yet stooping seen the better and followed the

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