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seded. Mends was frequently and development of our ships called upon to provide at very consequent on the march of inshort notice the necessary trans- vention, and kept himself in port for the conveyance of large a remarkable way most fully bodies of troops and stores to abreast of the times. Attached the theatres of our many small to his old friends, and loving

The promptitude with the service as he had known it which our troops were con- sixty years before, he was full veyed to Abyssinia, Ashantee, of sympathy with younger men South Africa, and Egypt, and who were occupied in developing their excellent condition the many novelties which dislanding, was in great measure tinguish the ship of the present due to his care and forethought. day from her predecessors. He In fact, in recent years every- was essentially a lover of home, thing has always gone so and very bright was the evening smoothly in the transport of of his days, till the sudden death troops afloat that it was never of his dearly loved wife gave supposed by the casual onlooker him a blow from which he never that it might have been quite recovered.

. But, as had been otherwise. The Egyptian cam- the case all through his life, his paign of 1882 was carried on trust in God was his mainstay under the eyes of our somewhat and strength, and he kept his jealous neighbours across the cheerfulness to the last. On Channel. The conduct of the June 26, 1897, the day of transport service filled them, if the review in honour of her not with admiration, at any Majesty's Jubilee of the most rate with a considerable amount powerful fleet that this country of envy. And when the other has ever assembled, as evening day the French expedition to fell on the crowded waters and Madagascar took place, it was the lights shone out, his spirit perfectly evident that with even passed peacefully away. the great organising powers that Mr Mends has not only faithour neighbours possess it was fully carried out the pious duty quite possible to make many of compiling a memoir of his most serious blunders, entailing father's life and services, but much unnecessary hardship on

for the naval student in parthe troops, such as

ticular he has preserved a record men have not had to put up which is of great utility in illuswith within the last generation. trating the history of the navy

Mends's services were con- during the reigns of William IV. sidered of such value that he and Queen Victoria. Nor will continued in harness up to the the general reader find the book age of seventy-one, when he re- uninteresting : it is full of inciceived the much-coveted Grand dent and adventure. Simply Cross of the Bath, and retired written, as seaman's life from the public service. should be, it gives a vivid picEven in his old days he de- ture of a life well lived in the

a lighted in the improvements service of the country.







On the coast of Honduras, as “a most remarkable and near as may be thirteen degrees useful object." Between the of latitude to the north of the two islands “a bay is formed equator, and somewhat less three quarters of a mile wide, than eighty-two degrees of and the same deep, which is so longitude west of Greenwich, protected by shallow ledges to there lie two little islands—a the westward as to make small, which is the southerly; secure harbour for a few vessels a yet smaller, which is the of 15 feet draught.” You are northerly. A narrow channel guided to that anchorage by divides them. Together they “a most remarkable black rock stretch for some four and a half 40 feet high" on the west side miles of total length. Two of the smaller island. The rock miles is the measurement of bears a strong resemblance to a their extreme breadth. But human face, and British seathey are not without a certain men have given to it the name dignity in height; for in the of Morgan—as it is believed, and larger there is what, if we look as is nowise improbable, in to the proportion its stature memory, if not in honour, of bears to the whole superficies that Sir Henry Morgan, privaof the country, may claim to teer, buccaneer, pirate (so said be called a mountain, towering the Spaniards), brother of the 1190 feet above the sea-level, coast, also deputy-governor of and visible, as the “West India Jamaica for his Majesty King Pilot' assures

clear Charles II., and judge in the weather from a distance of Admiralty Court of that island. forty miles." It is a useful Men knew him by various landmark for seafaring men names, and in different funcwhen they are sailing amid tions; but he is chiefly memor“the outlying banks and is- able because he did what Drake lands on the coast of Mosquito.” broke his heart and died in The islands are otherwise valu- failing to do--namely, march able, for water of good quality across the isthmus and sack can be obtained on the larger, Panama. The lesser island has and wood can be cut on the a name of its own

to wit, smaller “with the consent of Santa Catalina ; but the two the proprietor.” Spurs run are generally indicated on maps out from the central mountain, and spoken of by the title of and drop abruptly into the sea the larger only, which is Old as peaked hills of from 300 to Providence. 700 feet high. Volcanic action These two little patches of made those hills, and therefore rocky land in the Caribbean they are split into rocky chasms, Sea, now forgotten and neone of which is described by our glected, —mere dependencies of friend the West India Pilot' a squalid Central American

us, “in


Republic,— were yet once the was venture of mistaken scene of a very curious English piety. It is also an interesting, colonial adventure. It began sometimes an amusing story, in the mists of the years before which affords some contributory 1630, and ran its course till the evidence as to our other colonial Spaniards cut it short in 1641. activities, and shows us men of The story was long forgotten. great note at work. That the buccaneers, whose

To understand the company flourishing time was 1660 and for the plantation of the islands 1680, or thereabouts, had used of Providence, Henrietta, and the anchorage in their savage the adjacent islands, it is wars with the Spaniards was necessary to look back for one known, and to them was attrib- brief moment on its preliminuted the fort of which the aries. When James I. made remains are still visible at the peace with Spain there neither north end of the larger island. was, nor was there meant to But the colony fell so com- be, a cessation of English enpletely out of memory that the terprises in the Indies. The vague notices of its destruc- king — lover of peace as he tion, which floated along among was, and earnestly as he desired other memories of early West an alliance with Spain, as the Indian days, were held to belong best of all means for making an to the history of the island of end of the religious feuds of Providence in the Bahamas—a Europe (in itself neither a later, a more permanent, and foolish nor a dishonourable aim) a wholly different settlement. never recognised the claim The confusion was cleared up of the King of Castile and Leon by Mr Sainsbury, editor of the to hold all the lands" beyond Colonial Papers in the Rolls the line.” This line was the Series. The evidence for what limit first drawn by Pope Alexwas hoped, schemed for, at- ander VI., Rodrigo Borgia, from tempted, done, and suffered, be- pole to pole between the spheres tween 1630 and 1641 in Old of influence of Spain and PorProvidence, lay in two entry- tugal, and finally fixed by books now visible in the Record those two states themselves at Office, but long hidden in the the conference of Tordesillas. uncalendered archives, and a Spain, we held, must show effecfew scattered Spanish notices tive possession, and what that as obscure as themselves. These was gave rise to many disputes entry-books contain minutes of then as now. The diplomatic proceedings in the directing history of King James is full of council of the Providence Com- colonial questions with Spain. pany in London, and copies of There was much difference of letters written to the colony. opinion as to how far Kings The letters written from it have Philip III. and IV. were masters long vanished. But what re- of Central America and the mains is enough to tell the tale Southern continent. As of an enterprise which, if not a gards the islands of the West venture of mistaken chivalry, Indies, the differences were even


sharper. Spain assuredly had of the thinly inhabited Spanish settled only the Greater An- colonies, and of the Home tilles, Cuba, San Domingo, Porto Government at Madrid, these Rico, and Jamaica. The Lesser armed intruders soon began to Antilles lay vacant. English- gain the upper hand. During men, Dutchmen, and French- the early days of Philip IV. the men began to filter into them decadent monarchy had a brief as the first quarter of the cen

revival of energy.

In 1629 a tury wore on. Meanwhile there powerful Spanish fleet swept were still men who believed in the West Indies under the comRaleigh's dream of a kingdom mand of Don Fadrique (the old of Guiana. One of his own Castilian form of Frederick) de captains, Roger North, a gentle- Toledo, who expelled the French man of the Guildford family, and English from St Kitts and made several voyages to the Nevis. A hundred of them Spanish Main. The voyage of were brought back, “naked Robert Harcourt of Ellenhall, and destitute," to Plymouth by and Stanton Harcourt (a race one Ire, captain of the David still vigorous among us), is in of Lubeck, where the sight of print. Both, curiously enough, them produced the anger we

recusants, and religion can imagine. Yet the Spaniards may have had something to do eft no garrisons, made no settlewith their interest in the New ments, and the interlopers soon World, as it had with Lord swarmed back. This, then, was Baltimore's. What share it had the position. A weak governin the settlement of New Eng- ment made vast claims, which land is in the knowledge of all it could not enforce. There

The Spaniards treated was by its consent a permanent all settlers in the islands as state of war to the west of a interlopers, all traders who line drawn north and south sought their fortune near the 360 leagues west of the Azores. ports of the mainland as smug- There were intruders, not posiglers and pirates. Whatever tively strong, but strong in may be the case in Europe, said relation to the extreme feeblethey, “ there is no peace beyond ness of their adversary. Some the line.” Their rule were men in search of a place turned against themselves. All to worship God in, in their own kinds of Europeans in the West way,—and, it may be added, Indies showed an increasing to prevent others from worshipdisposition to take to privateer- ping in another. There were ing. This was the word pre- also pure adventurers looking ferred till “buccaneering" came for a freer world and a fresh soil, to replace it, and it was not or seeking profit by trade, by inaccurate, for these men were smuggling, and by “privateernot pirates, not enemies of ing: ." Spain would not recogthe human race, but only of nise any rights of other sovethe Spaniard, and of him only reigns in those seas by asking because he would have no peace them to keep their subjects in with them. In the weakness order. She was too feeble to





this way:

vindicate her

claims. Earl of Holland was to be the Finally, we have to bear in first governor of the Company, mind that there were men of and John Dike, of London, wealth and position in England merchant, deputy, “who in who might now take seats on future is to be elected in every the board of a company, or in- Easter Term.” Ample powers dulge in an occasional “flutter” of life and death, of building on the Stock Exchange, but forts, of “striking into coin who then invested money in whatever metals except gold privateers which sailed with a and silver," and of exercising commission, say, from the Duke martial law, were conferred. of Savoy, or even with no com- By “Henrietta” was certainly mission at all, to plunder the meant the smaller island now Spaniard. Robert Rich, the called Santa Catalina. The Earl of Warwick, was a great origin of the English name is speculator, or, as the term of obvious. It was clearly taken the time was, “adventurer,” in out of compliment to the queen

The Constant War- Henrietta Maria. How Proviwick, which is considered as the dence came to be the name mother of British frigates, was given to the larger island is built for him by the famous not so clear. We find the word Phineas Pett, and was originally applied to settlements, anchordesigned for this trade.

She ages, and islands, all down the was bought by the king, and west coast of North America, added to the navy.

and it generally indicates the It was in the midst of this existence of a Puritan element clash of sovereignties, and con- among the settlers. As there fusion of rights and wrongs, had been Englishmen there althat a patent was issued on ready, it is permissible to guess the 4th December 1630 to at the existence of some “Robert Earl of Warwick, vant of the Lord with the Henry Earl of Holland, William Bible and the sword,” or some Lord Say and Sele, Robert pious smuggler of the stamp Lord Brooke, Sir Benjamin of John Hawkins, who took Rudyerd, Sir Gilbert Gerrard, this way of thanking ProviSir Edward Harwood, Sir dence for giving him a “basis Nathaniel Rich, Sir Edmund of operations against the Mountford, John Pym, Richard Spaniard. Be that as it may, Knightley, Christopher Sher- we have only to look at this land, Oliver St John, John list of names to see that the Gourden, Gregory Cawsell, body on which the king was John Dike, John Grant, and prepared to confer such wide others hereafter to be joined powers, “in case these letters with them, of incorporation by patent were confirmed by Parthe name of the Governor and liament," was intensely Puritan, Company of Adventurers for and was composed largely of the Plantation of the Islands men who were destined to bring of Providence, Henrietta, and him to ruin. It would be rash the adjacent islands." The indeed to assert that Holland,


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