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the unstable, held these or any ernor, and there is record of other principles. But Warwick one Samuel Axe who built a lived to take the fleet out of the fort, for which service he was king's control, and to be the promised two-fifteenths of the Parliamentary admiral. The tobacco to be raised. names of Lord Say and Sele, The objects which Warwick Lord Brooke, who was killed and the others had before them fighting against the king at when they sent out the voyage Litchfield, of Benjamin Rud- of discovery in 1629, and which yerd, and of Pym, speak for the Company of Adventurers themselves. Some are obscure, was formed to perfect, soon yet it may be said of one of reveal themselves in the minthem, Richard Knightley, that utes, and are found to have he bore a very Puritan name. been somewhat various. In One, Sir Valentine Knightly May 1632 the Company wrote (small differences of spelling to its Governor, Captain Philip went for nothing in those times), Bell, Elfrith's son-in-law, and a was rebuked by the Council in man chosen for his experience 1605 for presenting the peti- in the Somers Islands, that tion of the deprived ministers the spreading of the Gospel of Northamptonshire. Richard “the greatest work both Knightley of Fawsley, in that in itself and in our aim." This county, had been one of the

after

wise and protectors of the Martin Mar- humane instructions for his prelate men thirty years or so dealings with the Indians. The earlier than 1605. But a com- colony then was meant to forpany of adventurers, which in- ward missionary work—but in cluded Say and Sele, Brooke, a peculiar way. Providence and Pym, was not likely to

clerical settlement. admit admirers either of High The company did not neglect Church or High Prerogative. the spiritual needs of its

The issue of the patent on "planters” and "servants.” 4th December 1630 was only It took much pains to discover the formal recognition of an and send out a pious and suffiexisting body and enterprise. cient minister with what In 1629—that is, while Don measure of success

we shall Fadrique de Toledo was flatter- But he was for the sering himself and his sovereign by vice of the colony. The the show of expelling heretical “spreading of the Gospel” was interlopers from the West Indies to be the work of the settlers, -a voyage described

“of and they were to do it, not by discovery had been made at preaching, but by the force the cost of Warwick, Sir N. of example. Meanwhile, the Rich, and others. It “stood colony itself was expected to them in 2000 and odd pounds,” be the seat of a prosperous for which they “were to be industry. indemnified out of the first Being duly provided with proceeds from those islands.” authority, the company set One Elfrith was left as gov- briskly to work. It

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achieved quarters of its own, number of people who could but met at Brooke or War- support themselves on Proviwick House, or at the house dence. There is this excuse of Mr Gardiner, or at the lodg- to be made for it, that we had ings of its Treasurer, Mr Pym. not yet learnt how impossible No French or German colonial it is for white

to do office could be more thorough field - labour in the tropics. in providing an apparatus of Yet there must have been government. A council was great want of thought, or named to consist of Mr Elfrith, some hidden purpose

in the Mr Samuel Axe, Lieutenant minds of men who sent out Hugh Price, Mr N. Rudyerd, numbers of settlers to a scrap and Mr W. Rous, to whom all of ground in the tropics. The planters—that is, settlers—were activity of the company in to take oaths. Bell was asked seeking tenants for its possesto make his propositions forsion was great. At a later salary as Governor. On this period of its short career, it is

. point the company was some- found employing an agent to what confused in its methods. tempt intending emigrants to It

gave strict orders that every New England to turn aside to planter was to raise twice as the island on the Mosquito coast. much food as was needed for Moreover, it met with a measthe support of his family, and ure of success, which shows it severely forbade all excess in how strong the tendency to the cultivation of that "scurvy emigrate was in those years weed” tobacco, threatening of the reign of Charles I. To indeed, to prohibit the cultiva be sure, the company had its tion altogether if this injunc- fits of caution. It discouraged tion was disobeyed. Yet it the emigration of whole famiproposed to pay all salaries by lies, on the ground that not a proportion of the tobacco many women were needed on grown, which must have given the island as yet. Still, it was its officers a powerful motive to duly thoughtful for those who promote the planting of the had gone. Very early in its

scurvy weed.” This mistake career it made a contract with was, however, a mere trifle in a midwife, for whose outfit the comparison to the great domi- sum of £4 was duly voted by nating error which made the the council. labours of the company of no As we read the minutes and effect. It is clear that many, letters we become conscious of if not all, of the “adventurers two tendencies, two policies, were under a complete delusion two very different sets of aims as to the extent and resources working in Old Providence. of the islands. Whether from On the face of it, what seems mere want of experience, or to prevail is a constant virtubecause they had been grossly ous effort towards the promomisled by Warwick's skippers, tion of industry, exhortations who had aims of their own, to peace, and rebukes to all the company over - rated the expeditions out of the island

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ous

a euphemistic name for priva- spent to less purpose.

Mr teering voyages against

against the Lewis Morgan had not been Spaniards. There is an ever- many months in the island present zeal for the promotion before stories began to reach of true religion. But we soon the council, all tending to show learn that these excellent mo- that he was by no

means of tives were stronger in the a godly spirit, and was wantcouncil than among the settlers. ing in respect for authorities. The fortunes of the successive Letters, too, came from him ministers—all at first sight ap- stuffed with bitter expressions, parently “painful” and virtu- and containing manifest proofs

sent out from London, of a “seditious and malignant proves but too well that the spirit.” In short, Mr Morgan puritanical “adventurers” did is recalled, receives £5 in disnot succeed in making a puri charge of all claims on making tanical colony — at any rate,

- at any rate, his submission, and disappears. not one in which Puritan zeal There was work in abundance was the governing force. There for such men lying close ahead are many complaints—such as in England ; and Mr Lewis that brought against “ Capn. Morgan may have beaten the Wil. Rudyerd," a kinsman, it drum ecclesiastic in the Civil may be, of Sir Benjamin—who War—may even have died for is accused of “drunkenness, the liberties of “God's chosen swearing, and ill carriage to- people” in some breach or on wards the Governor.” The ex- some battlefield, if he did not ample of the first minister sent attain to the gallows, towards out — Mr Lewis Morgan—can which he appears to have had have done little to amend the a marked tendency. morals of Captain Rudyerd. It Mr Rous succeeded-a family is curious to note, by the way, man, to whom a grant of land how often this name of Morgan was assigned for his support; meets us in the early history a more promising person.

Yet of our West Indies. There Mr Rous also would not do. were many who bore it besides His parishioners did not find the famous Sir Henry; and we him sufficiently Puritan. They may even ask, with no pros- accused him of frivolity, of pect, indeed, of a satisfactory "insufficiency,” of not being answer, whether it was "able to pray extemporary, rather the minister than the and declared that he would buccaneer who gave his name soldierlike beat his

men." to Morgan's Rock. The coun- These charges of the aggrieved cil did not accept Mr Lewis parishioners appear to have been without hesitation, and regret unfounded. The worst that an that an older and graver man impartial witness, who deposed could not be found. Yet he before the council, could allege, seemed of good promise, and was that Mr Rous taught him £20 were given him as a free songs called catches, “the meangift to buy books and other ing of which word he [the necessaries. Never were £20 witness) understood not." "The

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matter of them was the motion a life of honest industry found of creatures, as the nightingale the venture hopeless, and inand the like.” These catches sisted on coming away. None were sung by Mr Rous and remained save those who could Mr Sherland and the witness, not escape—the so-called “serbut not on the Sabbath. We vants,"

apprentices, who hear casual mention of other were very little better than ministers, and not a little of white slaves — and those who one Mr Sherherd, of whose meant to lead a life of “prizeal there can be no question; vateering.” Slavery, black and for he excommunicated several white, plays its part in the of his parishioners, and refused brief troubled history of the to give them the communion colony. Negro slaves were inon the ground that they were troduced, though apparently living in open sin.

not without protest from some Mr Sherherd failed, and to- of the planters, who held what wards the end the council was the council describes as "the constrained to recognise that groundless opinion that Christhe greed of the planters made tians may not lawfully keep the work of forwarding the such persons in state of cause of religion clean and servitude during their strangeclear impossible. It was in all ness from Christianity.” There ways cruelly disappointed in is notice of a revolt of the blacks its tenants, of whom it had to which was suppressed. The record the severe judgment company thought that it might that they were worse than the be accounted for by the fact Israelites for murmuring and that they were not kept suffiingratitude.

ciently hard at work. The The simple fact which it worthy gentlemen who met at would have been wise in the Brooke or Warwick House, or company to recognise sooner, in Mr Pym's lodgings, were was that the effort to make copious in urging industry, and Old Providence a home of in impressing on their officers the Puritan industry was hopeless beauty of the apostles' rule, that from the beginning.

It was

those who will not work shall too glaringly contrary to the not eat. The white slaves—for nature of things. The island that is the true name for the was of no value at all, except articled servants-play a great as a depot and a

“strength part in the early history of the for smugglers and privateers. plantations both on the mainThere soon ensued what might land and in the West Indies. have been foreseen—what per- To entice or kidnap young haps was foreseen by some people away and consign them promoters of the settlement, to slavery in the plantations who very probably did not became, as the seventeenth censpeak with complete candour tury wore on, a very common to the mild Rudyerd and the crime. It was regularly purpuritanical Pym. Those of the sued as a trade by a class of settlers who had gone to lead offenders, whose cant name was

were

of

a euphemistic name for priva- spent to less purpose.

Mr teering voyages against the Lewis Morgan had not been Spaniards. There is an ever

many months in the island present zeal for the promotion before stories began to reach of true religion. But we soon the council, all tending to show learn that these excellent mo- that he was by no

means of tives

stronger in the a godly spirit, and was wantcouncil than among the settlers. ing in respect for authorities. The fortunes of the successive Letters, too, came from him ministers—all at first sight ap- stuffed with bitter expressions, parently “painful” and virtu- and containing manifest proofs ous – sent out from London, of a "seditious and malignant proves but too well that the spirit.”

spirit.” In short, Mr Morgan puritanical “adventurers" did is recalled, receives £5 in disnot succeed in making a puri charge of all claims on making tanical colony - at any rate, his submission, and disappears. not one in which Puritan zeal There was work in abundance was the governing force. There for such men lying close ahead are many complaints—such as in England ; and Mr Lewis that brought against “ Capn. Morgan may have beaten the Wil. Rudyerd,” a kinsman, it drum ecclesiastic in the Civil may be, of Sir Benjamin—who War—may even have died for is accused “drunkenness, the liberties of “God's chosen swearing, and ill carriage to- people” in some breach or on wards the Governor."

some battlefield, if he did not ample of the first minister sent attain to the gallows, towards out— Mr Lewis Morgan-can which he appears to have had have done little to amend the a marked tendency. morals of Captain Rudyerd. It Mr Rous succeeded-a family

-a is curious to note, by the way, man, to whom a grant of land how often this name of Morgan was assigned for his support; meets us in the early history a more promising person. Yet of our West Indies. There Mr Rous also would not do. were many who bore it besides His parishioners did not find the famous Sir Henry; and we him sufficiently Puritan. They may even ask, with no pros- accused him of frivolity, of pect, indeed, of a satisfactory “insufficiency,” of not being answer, whether it was not “able to pray extemporary, rather the minister than the and declared that he would buccaneer who gave his name

soldierlike beat his men.” to Morgan's Rock. The coun- These charges of the aggrieved cil did not accept Mr Lewis parishioners appear to have been without hesitation, and regret unfounded. The worst that an that an older and graver man impartial witness, who deposed could not be found. Yet he before the council, could allege, seemed of good promise, and was that Mr Rous taught him £20 were given him as a free songs called catches, “ the meangift to buy books and other ing of which word he [the necessaries. Never were £20 witness) understood not.” “The

The ex

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