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and threats. The reprisals of themselves, the company was the company probably appeared in negotiations for the hire of a to him to be likely to prove a vessel of 200 tons and 16 pieces of useful weapon. He could give ordnance. She could be had for no effectual help, but he did £50 a-month. When victualled permit his aggrieved subjects and manned, the expenses, into fit out armed vessels, and cluding wages, were calculated at he resigned all claim to a share £130 a-month. A vessel of 150 in the prizes, leaving the cap- was offered to the company for tors to keep all they could seize £110 a-month. She was going for themselves. The situation out with cargo to St Kitts, but was one which exactly suited would be available for other Warwick, with his taste for service when unladen. All these privateering speculations. At vessels went armed, and were one time he talked, if he did prepared to do a little privateernot think, seriously of going ing in the intervals of trade. out himself, and was highly Some of the instructions of the praised by his brother adven- company to its captains give us turers for his “noble” resolu- a sketch of what a West Indian tion. But nothing came of that voyage of that time was. In scheme. The company being July 1634 these orders were embarked on war with a given to the captain of Long great Power—for Spain, though Robert. He was to sail for the decadent, still held that rank “Caribbean Islands” in the -began to look about for a beginning of August, which governor of higher rank than would bring him out by the any it had sent out hitherto. way before the dangerous hurSome talk there was of Lord ricane months were quite over. “ Fourbez”—that is, Forbes— He was to land passengers, and as a fit gentleman for the post, go to Tortuga for salt. This but on this occasion the nat- apparently was the Tortuga, ural aptitude of Scotch near Margarita, on the coast of gentleman for the business of Cumana. He was to send his

was not tested. In the “ ketch (an accompanying end the company sent out no small vessel such as could be governor of higher rank, but bought for £80 or so) to Procontented itself with such hardy vidence, and thence to Associmariners and other adventurous ation. He was to go to the persons as it already possessed. Mosquitoes and load for the

The cost at which a vessel return journey, which was to could be fitted out to levy war be by the Straits of Florida, for on the King of Spain in the he is told that if he has loaded Indies was not great. As far salt at Tortuga he is to touch back as 1633, before it had begun at Virginia on his way back to make reprisals, but when the and sell it. At the end comes attack on the Seaflower had the odd little instruction that already shown that English sailors are to pay 10s. for every vessels on the Spanish Main parrot brought to England, must be prepared to defend "that so your ship may not be



unnecessarily pestered.” From Lucar. There were stories of another and earlier entry we

misconduct in this case. One learn what was thought the Mersh was accused of desertproper outfit of clothes for a ing the ship, and thereby caussailor. It was not excessive. ing her to fall into the hands Three pairs of drawers, four of the Spaniards, with a loss shirts, one “cassock” (perhaps of £2000. It is to be noted a form of jersey or jumper), four that the Spaniards, whether pair of shoes, three caps, three from fear of reprisals or for neckcloths, three pair of boot some other reason, conducted hose, and a Monmouth cap made the on their side with up the kit.

The Monmouth humanity. Rous was released cap, which was worn later in the from San Lucar on the paynavy, has been supposed to have ment of ransom. In our own been of leather, with side flaps. ships, as one can see from the

To come back to our fight- constant complaints brought by ing, such as it was.

The com- the men engaged against one pany was unable to conduct another, there was little discipoperations on a scale requiring line and some ferocity. One the presence of persons of such captain was accused of killing dignity as the Earl of War- prisoners received to quarter. wick, or other gentlemen who Yet the company tried hard talked of going. It had to to prevent excesses, and all be content with lesser men,

the settlers in Providence were and with sending out solitary not savage. There is notice cruisers to plunder Spanish of

of certain friars who were ships, and make raids on the prisoners among them, and coast. The success achieved who were allowed to depart was very varied. We hear of in safety, though with the Captain Axe returning with proviso that they were to be good prizes, and on the whole carried to New England, where it appears that several vessels the atmosphere can

can hardly were engaged on the work, have been congenial. some being part owned by in fact war of raids and their skippers. The injury plundering on the medieval done to the Spaniards was model, or a war of buccaneernot small. On the other hand, ing before the buccaneers. one of the company's ships was As we approach the fatal captured by the Turks — that year 1641 the entries become is, the Algerines — who then rarer, and deal less profusely cruised boldly in the ocean, with instructions for the proand who in these very years motion of trade and religion. sacked Baltimore in the south The council was perhaps beof Ireland. Another, which coming tired of an unprofitbore the curiously inappro- able venture, and of the incespriate name of the Blessing, sant wrangles of subordinates was captured by the Spaniards, and their complaints, which, and her captain, Wil. Rous, by the way, were commonly was carried prisoner to San referred to Mr John Hampden

It was



as arbitrator. Moreover, from we have to turn to the Spanish the day that a certain folding- authorities who are quoted by stool was thrown at the head Don Cesareo Duro, in the fourth of the Dean of Holyrood in volume of his history of the St Giles' Church at Edinburgh, Spanish Navy. The increase Warwick and Say and Sele, of what they, not absurdly, Brooke and Pym, had very called piracy had become inpressing matters to think about tolerable to the Spaniards. In at home. Yet they did not 1640, the new Viceroy of give their colony up entirely. Mexico, Don Diego Pacheco, They still sent out instruc- Duke of Escalona, exerted himtions, and careful to self to impart some vigour to consider the interests of re- the efforts made for the supligion. Nor, while providing pression of the nuisance. He for the Bible, were they care- built galleons at La Vera Cruz less of the sword. Among and in the Rio Alvarado. It the last entries is one express- shows how weak the Spanish ing gratification at the news Government had become, that that à Spanish attack had he had some difficulty in saving been repulsed, and there are them from being burnt by others showing that ships were three “pirates," who boldly being prepared to sail under the turned up off the chief port command of Maurice Thomp- of the greatest viceroyalty of

But in the very despatch Spain. Providence was cited which conveys this information by all the Spanish officials as there is a significant statement. the very headquarters of the The council, it is said, cannot enemy. In 1640, an expedition at present attend to many of two galleons and six small letters and petitions from the vessels (fragatas) was sent to island, because Parliament is attack the place, under the sitting and important affairs command of Don Antonio Malare impending

This was on

donado. It was repulsed, with 29th March 1641, and the the loss of two captains and affairs were important indeed a hundred men. This was the -nothing less than the im- success which cheered the last peachment of Strafford and days of the company. But it the Army Plots. Soon all also served to show the Spanish entries end, for the colony governors what a danger Prohad ceased to exist, and it's vidence had become to their founders were hastening to- master's dominions. In 1641, wards the time when they a more determined effort was would be sending swords down made, and it succeeded. The to their tenants, and swearing command in this case was in to live and die with the Earl the hands of Don Juan Diaz of Essex.

Pimienta (Pepper), a native of For an account of the end the Canary Islands, and the of the colony of Old Providence son of a Francisco Diaz Pimi


1 Armada Española. Rivadeneyra, Madrid.

enta who had fought with were to be taken to Cadiz. some credit at Lepanto Don There were 770 persons in the Juan was in command of the island, but 350 of them were warships which protected the negroes, who, so the Spaniards vessels employed to carry the alleged, had been carried off treasure from Carthagena to by the English in their raids Portobelo. He had orders to on the coast.

Maurice Thompclear out the island as a pre- son arrived too late to save liminary to bringing on the the island. Yet he took some trade. The spirit of the man satisfaction next year — if inwas shown by the fact that deed he was the “Guillermo one of his vessels having been Tanzon” who threatened La reported too leaky to be sea- Guayra, and sacked Maraworthy, he hoisted his flag in caibo with eight vessels in the her in order to cut short all December of that year. Tancomplaints from her captain, zon has much the look of a and perhaps also to guard Spanish attempt to write against the risk of desertion. Thompson. One of his vessels did, as a So ended the colony of Promatter of fact, part company, vidence. Some memory of it carrying away a portion of his lingered for a time, and the battering train. Spain was Spanish capture of the island breaking down morally and was one of the grievances which physically. It is characteristic Cromwell's expedition to the of the state of the monarchy West Indies was meant to rethat part of the force under venge. The Protector regretted his command consisted of im- the loss of Providence, but the pressed Portuguese, whose taking of Jamaica turned our country was then in revolt attention elsewhere, and it was against Spain, and whom he never reoccupied except as had to keep in order by sheer haunt of buccaneers. The story terror. But an energetic man is not without interest on variwill triumph over much. Pimi- ous grounds. It shows, for inenta appeared off the island stance, how persistent were the on the 7th May, and attacked efforts of the chiefs of the with vigour. The colonists Puritan opposition to find safe made a good fight, by the homes for their political and confession of their enemies, but religious principles out of EngPimienta could land 1400 men, land during the years before and he led them well. The the downfall of King Charles's barrier erected to protect the Government. It is obvious that landing - place was stormed, the company of adventurers, at with sharp loss to the Span- least the element among them iards, and the colonists were represented by Pym, were seekdriven into the fort. Here ing for something other than they were bombarded with the profit, though for that they had cannon captured from them on no contempt. Their failure was the beach. Finally, they sur- probably inevitable in the cirrendered on condition that they cumstances, even if the colony


had not shown rather the weak did, but, on the contrary, many than the strong points of the reasons for preserving a judiciPuritan character. But chiefly ous silence when King James the brief history of the settle- and King Charles wished to ment goes to show that the remain on friendly terms with kind of expeditions which were Spain. A certain piquancy is begun by Hawkins and Drake given to the tale by the old never really ceased in the West combination of the Puritan Indies. Record of them is lost, and buccaneer elements. because they were undertaken stands alone in the strange by private persons who had pirating, smuggling, adventurcommonly no motive for pub- ous history of the Spanish lishing å record of what they Main.



SORROW once wearied of his sad estate,
And finding Pleasure sleeping in the sun
Put on his mantle, bargaining with Fate
That she should tell of the exchange to none;
Then through the city gates he made his way,
And eager crowds flocked round from far and near,
But some who strove to grasp his garments gay
Shrank back, they knew not why, with sudden fear.
And there were those who gave him of his best,
Who set before him a most royal feast,
Doing him homage as a kingly guest-
Till, as the music and the mirth increased,
One peered beneath his hood, and saw with wild surprise
The sombre Spirit looking out from Sorrow's eyes !


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