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from those bounties.-In what follows, therefore, on this head, I must be understood as considering only the buss-fishery.
. On the east coast of Scotland, where the buss-fi thery has been Jess followed than on the west coast, and where, it is probable, the customhouse-fees on that head are less properly regulated, I have been assured, that these fees, on the outfit of a veslel of thirty tons burthen, have in some cases amounted to upwards of 7 1. ; the bounty on that vefsel was 451. : so that here, at one haul, above one-fixcha of that bounty is swallowed up in the customhouse. This part, therefore, is surely a mere useless expenditure of the public treasure..
• The numerous bonds already mentioned, are another drain that carry off a great part of the bounty, without benefiting the adventurers.
• But a fill heavier expence, which falls equally under the second head, is occasioned by the time that is needlessly spent each year in going to a particular port to rendezvous, after they have cleared out from another. This, on an average, cannot be accounted, when both outgoing and returning is included, at less than one month's delay : and as the failing expence of a buss of thirty tons burthen is about 201. a-month, this article alone swallows up nearly one-half of the bounty.
• Another restraint which is little less hurtful, perhaps more fo, is, that when a buss goes out on the herring-fishery, she is precluded from taking lines or hooks, or on any occasion following any other business but the herring-fishery alone. But it often happens that these busses lie for many wecks without falling in with the herrings; during all which time, the men are entirely idle, and only heaping up expences on the undertaker's head. But during that time, they are for the most part cruising in seas where cod, and liog, sun-fith, whales, dog filh, mackarel, and other fish that follow the herrings, could be caught in abundance; at which work, had they lines, and were they at liberty to use them, the hands might be employed with profit to the owners, and benefit to the nation; as they would be at all times ready to engage in the herring-fishery, by laying aside their lines, and employing their nets whenever the shoal cast up.
• Another heavy expence to the undertakers, as well as nacional loss, arising from the bounty, is occasioned by the law which ordains, that all the hands must pass mutter at the customhouse, both before they set sail, and after they return. In consequence of that regulation, the owners must give food and wages to at least double, for the most part three times the number of hands that are necessary for navigating, che vessel, during the whole time of the voyage to and from the filhing-lochs, where hands could in general be obtained at less expence than at the port. These hands are thus cooped up idle, for do purpose ; and during a throng fishery, as soon as the vessel has completed her cargo, they must leave it to loiter in idleness ; where. as, had they been at liberty to remain, they might have catched, during that time of idleness, perhaps the amount of many cargoes of kerrings.
• These are a few of the expensive restraints to which the owners of buffes are subjected during the fishing itself. The bars to the disposal of their fith, occasioned by these laws, are not much less te be complained of.
• By the law, a vessel on the bounty must continue on the fishing ground for three months, if she has not sooner completed her cargo; and should the have caught nine-tenths of her cargo during the first week, she is not at liberty to discharge a single barrel till the three months are expired; and as the first day of rendezvous is at present * the first of August (which, in the opinion of most of the fishermen, is eight or nine weeks too late), it frequently, indeed usually happens, that before they can return to port, and get their fith ready for sale, the Weft-India ships are failed, and must take in their loading in Leland, which, in these cases, they purchase at a higher price than they could have had them for at bome: but, had the fishermen been allowed to land any part of this cargo, as soon as they found it ready, they could in general not only reach the Clyde market in time with a great part of their herrings, but, in many cases, they could even be sent to Liverpool and Bristol, in time to overtake their Weft-India ships. By this means, the fithermen would not only obtain a ready sale and good prices, but they would avoid glutting the market so much as they often do at present, after the Welt-India fleet is failed.
• To this head belongs another restriction arising from the falta Jaws, with respect to the sale of dried cod, and other dry fish. By the law now in force, white herrings cured with foreign or Scotch small falt carried out duty-free for the fishery, may be entered for home-consumption, on paying one shilling per barrel in Scotland, and three shillings and four pence in England; whereas ling, cod, tusk, and hake, cured with the same salt, are not by law admitted to be sold or entered for home-consumption. But it is known by fatal ex. perience, to be very prejudicial to the adventurers in the ling and cod fisheries upon these coasts, to be obliged to export their fish to foreign markets, where they are sold at a lofing price, when the Britih market had little or none of this kind to supply their de. mand. This restriction on the British fishermen seems to be the more unreasonable, when it is considered, that vessels cleared out for the Iceland or North-Sea fishery, are allowed to carry out falt duty. free for the ling and cod fishery, and, on their return to port, are exempted from paying duty for the fifh fo caught. And why this distinction against the fishers on our coafts? They are, however, in this case, obliged either to pay the duty for what falt returns unused, or to destroy it at the fight of the customhouse-officer.- Why, again, in this case, subject the filhermen to the loss of their falt, when it might be safely lodged under the key of the custom house officers, till used ?
• With regard to the distress brought upon individuals by lawfuits, in confequence of these salt laws, it would fill a volume to recite them. But, were a bare list of the prosecutions raised on this account since the commencement of the bounty-laws, to be produced, it would strike the mind of every attentive observer with hor. ror. In these cases, the miscarriage of a letter (and to places where no regular post goes, this must frequently happen), the carelessness of an ignorant shipmaster, the mistake of a clerk in office, or other circumstances equally trivial, often involve a whole industrious family in ruin, There are instances of men being brought to Edin
burgh, from many hundred miles distance, to the neglect of their own affairs, merely because of fome neglect or omission of some petty clerk in office, which, when rectified, brings no other relief, fave a permiflion to return home, with no farther load of debt but the expence of such a journey, and the loss it has occasioned. But, should the case be otherwise, and should the mistake have been committed by the poor countryman, though that mistake originated from ignorance only, or was occasioned by the loss of a letter in going to places where no regular posts are established, he becomes loaded with additional burdens, which in many cases all his future industry and care will never enable him to discharge.
• From a consideration of these circumstances, some of the beft in. formed fishermen are much disposed to petition Parliament rather to charge the full duty on all falt used in the fisheries, and allow a freedom from these cruel restraints, than to grant the exemption from duty on the prefent terms t. This request thews at least the strong seose they entertain of the hardships to which they are subjected by these laws; though they do not feem fufficiently to advert to other consequences that would result from this measure : for, as the Dutch and Irish, and all other competitors in the fishing business, are exempted from the high duties they would pay on salt, the British fishermen would thus be rendered unable to compete with them in foreign markets, and the fishing, under that severe check, could not flourish I. In general, however, the bulk of the fishermen seem to think of no other remedy, but to obtain an augmentation of the bounty, and some little ease with regard to some of the restrictive re. gulations concerning salt, without seeming to think it is possible to remove those radical evils that fo mach tend to diminish their profits at present, or to throw that business into such a train as w enable the great body of the people in the Hebrides to follow it on their own account with vigour and profit.'
After Thewing the hardships these poor people labour under, the very intelligent Author proposes suitable remedies, confifting
• On this occasion we may remark, that though the law is the same with regard to falt in England and in Scotland ; yet, in Eng. land, so many eases are given to fishermen, in the execution of the law, when compared with Scotland, that it appears quite a different system, and is there productive of very little inconvenience. In Scote land, many actions are carried on every year with respect to falt. bonds : in England, when the Committee of Fisheries required a list of the number of actions on that account, which had been there carried on since the law for encouraging the fisheries commenced, the return was only ONE.-Alas! poor Scotland, how are thy people harrassed!
+ At present, even salt that has paid duty, if carried out in a ship to the fisheries, must be bonded, and is liable to the same regu. lations as duty-free falt; so that unless an express law be made for dispensing with these regulations, they will always be insisted on.
I Foreign salt, duty-free to the Irish, Dutch, &c. costs per bushel of fifty-fix pounds, about one thilling; ditto paying the duties in Bri. taia, amounts to eight lillings ;--difference as eight to one.
principally of proper encouragement to settlers in fishing towns, wbich will naturally promote agriculture, in furnishing filhermen with boats and tackle to fim with on their own account, and in relieving them from the impediments thrown in their way by the present system of customhouse regulations. These, which we cannot trace more particularly, shew them to proceed from a clear head and a liberal heart. We have rather chosen to exhibit the present deplorable state of things, the reiteration of which, we hope, will operate more forcibly toward the wilhed-for reformation, now that the subject is seriously taken up, than to dwell upon any particular proposal to that end. ART. IV. A Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants, translated from
the Latin of Linnæus, by James EDWARD SMITH, F. R. S. 8vo. 29. Nicol. 5786., THE Public has already been sensible of no small obligation
I to the ingenious translator of the work before us, for his enabling them to peruse, at a cheap rate, Linnæus's Reflections on the Study of Nature *. But we are doubly indebted to him in the present instance ; for the original performance was grown so scarce, that a copy was not to be had under half a guinea : and yet no work can appear more valuable to the Linnæan student, than that wherein his great master establiches the principle upon which he conducted his botanical labours. . It was unfortunate, therefore, to be debarred the opportunity of confirming himself in the truth of what he has so juftly admired; an impediment that has hitherto been found in every one's way, but which, at length, is removed by Mr. Smith, and in a manner that will cver do him credit as a well-informed naturalift, and as a fit poffeffor of the Linnaan cabinet ti • Spallanzani's late weak attack upon the sexual system, was, to all appearance, a challenge given to the disciples of Linnæus (or rather to Scopoli, his brother professor), to defend their favourite champion. With great fagacity Mr. Smith observed, that Spallanzani had never attended to this principal work of Linnæus--an omillion actually unpardonable! For what can justify troubling the world with notions and partial experiments, wrong and incorrect in themselves, when better and more accurate information is to be procured? In the present ftate, therefore, of the dispute, Linnæus's own differtation on the sexes of plants will be the best answer to Spallanzani. Whoever wishes for a curious detail of facts, proving the truth of the sexual fyftem, would do well to read this little tract repeatedly; the experiments are stated so accurately, and they are so many, that the most wary mind will be induced to give full afsent to the Linnaan dogma. The matter contained in the preface, in ** See our Review, vol. LXXIII. p. 313. † Ibid.
the notes, and the appendix of the translator, lo completely obviates all modern doubts, that we must consider this work as of first-rate excellence.
That the reader may be informed of the occasion of Linnæus's writing this dissertation, we will transcribe a paragraph or two from the preface ; at the same time observing, that we could present him, on this occasion, with more curious matter, but, in justice to the work, we will not injure it by partial details.
• In the year 1759, the Imperial Academy at Petersburgh offered a premium of an hundred decats, about fifty pounds sterling, for the best differtation on the sexes of plants ; in which that dočtrine was either to be confirmed or refuted by new arguments and experiments, besides thote :lreauy known; an historical and physical detail being prefixed of all the parts of a plant supposed to have a share in im, pregnating and perfecting the fruit and feed.
So good an opportunity of vindicating his favourite hypothefis could scarcely fail to be embraced by Linnæus. Indeed, the ques. tion was thought to have been proposed by the academy on purpose to draw forth the ideas of this illustrious man, then in the zenith of his reputation and abilities; who was not only better acquainted with the subject, but also more interested in it than any one else. He wrote the following differtation, which was honoured with the prize in a public assembly of the academy, September 6, 1760.' • Mr. Smith gives an account of the attacks made on Linnæus by Spallanzani and by Adanson; but for particulars we refer to the preface itself. ..
O...] Art. V. A Sentimental Journey through Spain ; written in French by
the Marquis de Langle, and translated from the Paris Edition that was burnt by the common Hangman. Izmo. 2 Vols. 58. sewed. Hooper. 1786. THE Author of this work, the original of which hath not
1 yet passed under our review, is so very eccentric in his manner, and so extremely fingular in his opinions, that to convey a proper idea of his abilities an extract muft necessarily be given from the performance itself.
i The lands round Madrid are waste and uncultivated. Spain is not populous: and so much the better. The people are more comfortable. There are by far too many people in the world.' Too many people in the world! This is surely a mistaken notion. We always understood that the numbers of the people constituted the riches' of a state; though this, indeed, depends on their being well employed.
- People exclaim against the celibacy of the clergy; yet soldiers are not allowed to marry. Those who contribute to the glory of the state are not suffered to add to its power. This class of men, who perilh in such numbers by wars, toils, and þardfhips, that they must be replaced every twenty years, are