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"Et lac concretum cura sanguine potat equine"

They scoff at our Europeans for eating bread, which they call tops of weeds, and horse meat, not fit for men; and yet Scaliger accounts them a sound and witty Nation, living an hundred years; even in the civilest Countrey of them they do thus, as Benedict the Jesuite observed in his travels, from the great Mogor's Court by Land to Paquin, which Riccius contends to be the same with Cambulu in Cataia. In Scandia their bread is usually dryed fish, and so likewise in the Shetland lies; and their other fare, as in Iseland, saith ° Dithmarus Bleskenius, Butter, Cheese, and fish; their drink water, their lodging on the ground. In America in many places their bread is roots, their meat Palmitos, Pinas, Potatos, &c. and such fruits. There be of them too that familiarly drink * salt Sea-water all their lives, eat f raw meat, grass, and that with delight. With some, Fish, Serpents, Spiders; and in divers places they 'eat man's flesh raw, and rosted, even the Emperor i Metazuma himself. In some coasts again, 'one tree yields them Coquernuts, meat and drink, fire, fuel, apparel; with his leaves, oyl, vinegar, cover for houses, &c. and yet these men going naked, feeding coarse, live commonly a hundred yeers, are seldom or never sick; all which dyet our Physitians forbid. In Westphaling they feed most part on fat meats and wourts, knuckle deep, and call it 'cerebrum lovis: in the Low Countries with roots, in Italy Frogs and Snails are used. The Turks, saith Busbequius, delight most in fryed meats. In Muscovy, Garlick and Onions are ordinary meat and sauce, which would be pernicious to such as are unaccustomed to them, delightsom toothers; and all is 'because they have been brought up unto it. Husbandmen and such as labor, can eat fat Bacon, salt gross meat, hard cheese, &c. (0 dura messorum ilia) coarse bread at all times, go to bed and labor upon a full stomack, which to some idle persons would be present death, and is against the rules of Physick; so that custom is all in all. Our travellers finde this by common experience when they come in far Countries, and use their diet, they are suddenly offended", as our Hollanders and Englishmen when they touch upon the coasts of Africk, those Indian Capes and Islands, are commonly mo

• Islandiae descriptione victus corum butyro, hcte, caseo consistit: pisces loco panis habeotn potus aqua, aut scram, sic vivunt sine medicina multi ad annos 200. *Laet. Occident. Ind. descrip. lib. 11. cap. 10. Aquam mari

nam bibere sued absque nox4. f Davies 2. voyage. r Patagones. 'Benzoet Fcr. Conesius lib. novus orbis intcrip. 'Linscoften, c. 56. palmae insur totius orbis arboribus longe prxstantior. * Lips, epist. 'Teneris assuescere multum. » Repentinae mutationes noxam pariunt. Hippocrat. Aphorism. 21. Epist. 6. sect. 3.

lested lested with Calentures, Fluxes, and much distempered by reason of their fruits. « Peregrina, etsi suavia, solent vescentibus perturbationes insignes adferre, strange meats, though pleasant, cause notable alterations and distempers. On the other side, use or custom mitigates or makes all good again. Mithridates by often use, which Pliny wonders at, was able to drink poyson; and a maid as Curtius records, sent to Alexander from K. Porus, was brought up with poyson from her infancy. The Turks, saith Bellonius, lib. 3. c. 15. eat Opium familiarly, a drain at once, which we dare not take in grains. T Garcius ab Horto writes of one whom he saw at Goa in the East Indies, that took ten drams of Opium in three days; and yet consultd loquebatur, spake understanding! y, so much can custom do. * Theophrastus speaks of a Shepherd that could eat Hellebor in substance. And therefore Cardan concludes out of Galen, Consuetudinem uteunque ferendam, nisi valdt malam. Custom is howsoever to be kept, except it be extrcam bad: he adviseth all men to keep their old customs, and that by the authority of * Hippocrates himself, Dandum aliquid tempori, atati, regioni, consuetudini, and therefore to a continue as they began, be it diet, bathe, exercise, &c. or whatsoever else.

Another exception is delight, or appetite, to such and such meats: Though they be hard of digestion, melancholy; yet as Fuchsius excepts cap. 6. lib. 2. Instit. sect. 2. "b The stomack doth readily digest, and willingly entertain such meats we love most, and are pleasing to us, abhors on the other side such as we distast." Which Hippocrates confirms, Aphoris. 2. 38. Some cannot endure Cheese, out of a secret Antipathy, or to see a rosted Duck, which to others is a c delightsom meat.

The last exception is necessity, poverty, want, hunger, which drives men many times to do that which otherwise they are loath, cannot endure, and thankfully to accept of it: As Beverage in ships, and in sieges of great Cities, to feed on Dogs, Cats, Rats, and Men themselves. Three outlaws in d Hector Boethius, being driven to their shifts, did eat raw flesh, and flesh of such fowl as they could cateh, in one of the Hebrides for some few moneths. 'ITiese things do mitigate or dissannul that which hath been said of melancholy meats, and make it more tolerable; but to such as are wealthy, live plen

» Braerinus, lib. 1. cap. 23. r Simpl. med. c. 4. 1.1. 'Hcurnius, 1. 3. c. 19. prax. med. * Aphoris. 17. • In dnbiis consuetudinem scquatur

adulescens, ct inccptis perjeverct. k Qui cum voluptaic nssumuntur cibi,

ventriculus avidius coinplectimr, expeditiustjuc (oncoquil, et quae displicent aversatur. 'Nothing against a good sioiiuck, as the saying is. * Lib. 7. Hi't. Scot.

teouslv, 112 Retention and Evacuation, Causes. [Partn. I. Sec. 2

teously, at ease, may take their choice, and refrain if they will, these viands are to be forbom, if they be incljped to, or suspect melancholy, as they tender their healths: Otherwise if they be intemperate, or disordered in their diet, at their peril be jt. Qui monet amat, Ave M cave.

SUBSEC. IV.

Retention and Evacuation a cause, and how.

OF Retention and Evacuation, there be divers kindes, which are either concomitant, assisting, or sole causes many times of melancholy. 'Galen reduceth defect and abundance to this head; others, " f All that is separated, or remains."

Costiveness. ] In the first rank of these, I may well reckon up Costiveness, and keeping in of our ordinary excrements, which as it often causeth other diseases, so this of Melancholy in particular. 8 Celsus, lib. 1. cap. 3. saith, "It produceth inflammation of the head, dulness, cloudiness, headach, &c." Prosper Calenus, lib. de atrd bile, will have it distemper not the organ onely, " h but the minde it self by troubling of it:" And sometimes it is a sole cause of Madness, as you may read in the first Book of 'Skenkius's Medicinal Observations. A young Merchant going to Nordeling Fair in Germany, for ten days space never went to stool; at his return he was k grievously melancholy, thinking that he was robbed, and would not be perswaded but that all his money was gone: his friends tho.ught he had some Philtrum given him, but Cnelius a 1'hysitian being sent for, found his 1 Costiveness alone to be the cause, and thereupon gave him a Clister, by which he was speedily recovered. Trincavellius, consult. 35. lib. 1. saith as much of a melancholy Lawyer, to whom he administered Physick, and Rodericus a Fonseca consult. 85. Tom. 2. *of a Patient of his, that for eight days was bound, and therefore melancholy affected. Other Retentions and Evacuations there are, not simply necessary, but at some times; as Fernelius accounts them. Path. lib. 1. cap. 15. as suppression of emrods, monthly issues in women, bleeding at nose, immoderate, or no use at all of Venus; or any other ordinary issues.

m Detention of emrods, or monthly issues, Villanovanus Breviar. lib. 1. cap. 18. Arculanus, cap. 16. in 9. Rasis, Vittorius Faventinus, pract. mag. Tract. 2. cap. 15. Brucl, &c.

• 30. artis. 'Quae excemuntur aut subsistunt. « Ex ventre suppresso, inflainmatton.es, capitis dolores, caligines crescunt. h Excrementa rctenta mentis ag'uationem parerc solent. 'Cap. de Mel. kTamdelirus, utvix se hominem agnosccrct. 'Alvus astrictus causa. * Per octo dies alvum siccum liabet, ct nihil reddit. *■ Sive per nares, sive hsmorrhoides. { put put for ordinary causes. Tuchsius, 1. 2. sect. 5. c. 30. goes farther, and saith, ""That many men unseasonably cured of the emrods have been corrupted with melancholy, seeking to avoid Scylla, they fall into Charybdis. Galen, /. de hum. coinmen. 3. ad text. 26. illustrates this by an example of Lucius Martius, whom he cured of madness, contracted by this means: And ° Skenkius hath two other instances of two metancholy and mad women, so caused from the suppression of their moneths. The same may be said of bleeding at the nose, if it be suddenly stopt, and have been formerly used, as * Villanovanus urgeth: And Fuchsius, lib. 2. sect. 5. cap. 33. stifly maintains, "That without great danger, such an issue may not be stayed."

Venus omitted, produceth like effects. Mathiolus, epist. 5. 1. penult. "ravoucheth of his knowledg, that some through, bashfulness abstained from Venery, and thereupon became very heavy and dull; and some others that were very timorous, melancholy, and beyond all measure sad. Oribasius, med. collect. 1. 6. c. 37. speaks of some, "'That if they do not use carnal copulation, are continually troubled with heaviness and headach; and some in the same case by intermission of it." Not use of it hurts many, Arculanus, c. 6. in 9. Rasis, S Magnimcs, part. 3. cap. 5. think, because it " 'sends up poysoned vapors to the brain and heart." And so doth Galen himself hold, "That if this natural seed be over-long kept (in some parties) it turns to poyson." Hieronymus Mercurialis, in his chapter of Melancholy, cites it for an especial cause of this malady, u Priapismus, Satyriasis, &c. Haliabbas 5. Theor. c. 36. reckons up this and many other diseases. Villanovanus Breviar. 1. 1. c. 18. saith, "He knew "many Monks and Widows grievously troubled with melancholy, and that from this sole cause. y Lodovicus Mercatus I. 2. de mulierum affect, cap. 4. and Rodericus a Castro de morbis mulier. I. 2. c. 3. treat largely of this subject, and will have it produce a peculiar kinde of melancholy, in stale Maids, Nuns, and Widows, Ob suppressionem viensium H venerem omissam, timida, mwstie, anxia, vcrecunda, suspitiusa, languentes,

* Multi intempestive ab Haemorrlioidiinis curati, melancholia corrupli sunt. Incidit in Scyllam, &e. "Lib. 1. de Mania. t Breviai. 1. 7. c. 18.

* >iou sine magno incommodo ejus, cui sanguis a naribus promanat, noxii sanguinis vacuatio impediri potest. 'Novi quosdam prxpudore a coitu abstinences, turpidos, pigrosijue t'actos: nonnullos etiam melancholiros, praeter modum maestos, timidosquc. * Nonnulli nisi cocant, assidue capitis gravitate infestantur. Dicit so novissc quosdam tristes et iia factos ex intermissione Veneris. 'Vapores venenatos mittit sperma ad coret cerebrum. Spenna plus diu retemum, transit in venenum. "Graves prouueit corporis et animi aegritudines. » Ex sperma e supra modum retento monachos ct viduas me|*iicholicos saepe fieri vidi. / Melancholia orta a vasis seminariis in utero.

consilii consilii inopes, cum summa vitie if rerum meliorum desperatione, 8Cc. they are melancholy in the highest degree, and all for want of husbands* jElianus Montaltus, cap. 31. de melanchol. confirms as much out of Galen; so doth Wierus, Chrisloferus a Vega de art. med. lib. 3. c. 14. relates many such examples of men, and women, that he had seen so melancholy. Fcelix Plater in the first book of his Observations, "' Tells a story of an ancient Gentleman in Alsatia, that married a young wife, and was not able to pay his debts in that kinde for a long time together, by reason of hi9 several infirmities: But she, because of this inhibition of Venus, fell into a horrible fury, and desired every one that came to see her, by words, looks, and gestures, to have to do with her, &c." » Bernardus Paternus, a Physitian, saith, "He knew a good honest godly Priest, that because he would neither willingly marry, nor make use of the stews, fell into grievous melancholy fits." Hildesheim, spicel. 2. hath such another example of an Italian melancholy Priest, in a consultation had Anno 1580. Jason Pratensis gives instance in a married man, that from his wive's death abstaining, "b after marriage, became exceedingly melancholy," Rodericus a Fonseca in a young man so misaffected, Tom. 2. consult. 85. To these you may adde, if you please, that conceited tale of a Jew, so visited in like sort, and so cured, out of Poggius Florentinus.

Intemperate Venus is all but as bad in the other extream. Galen, /. 6. de morbis popular, sect. 5. text 26. reckons up melancholy amongst those diseases which are " 'exasperated by Venery:" so doth Avicenna 2, 3. c. 11. Oribasius, loc. citat. Ficinus, lib. 2. de sanitate tuendd, Marsilius Cognatus, Montaltus, cap. 27. Guianerius, Tract. 3. cap. 2. Magninus, cap. 5. part 3. d gives the reason, because "e it infi igidates and dries up the body, consumes the spirits; and would therefore have all such as are cold and dry, to take heed of, and to avoyd it as a mortal enemy." Jacchinus in 9. Rasis cap. 1 5. ascribes the same cause, and instanceth in a Patient of his, that married a young wife in a hot summer, " f and

* Nobilit senex Alsatu? juvenem uxorem duxit, at ille colico dolore, et multis morbis correptus, non potuit praestare ofricium mariti, vix inito matrimonii* aegrotus. Ilia in horrendum fumrum incidif, oh Vencrem cohibitam ut omnium cam invisentium congressum, voce, vultu, gestu expeteret, et quum non consentirent, molossos Anglicanos magno expetiit clamorc. * Vidi sacerdotera optimum et pium, qui quod nollet uti Venere, in melancholica symptomata incidit . k Ob abstinentiam a contubitu incidit in melanchuliam. c Quae

i coitu exacerbantur. d Superstuum coitum causam ponunt. * Exsiccat corpus, spiritus consumit, fcc. cavcant ab hoc sicci, vclut inimico mortali. 'Ita exsiccatus ut e melaucholico statim fucrit insanus, ab bumectantibus euratus.

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