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To stir them up therefore to this study, to peruse those elaborate workes of Galen, Bauhines, Plater, Vesalius, Falopius, Laurentius, Remelinus, &c. which have written copiously in Latine ; or that which some of our industrious Countri. men have done in our mother tongue, not long since, as that translation of Columbus, and d Microcosinographia, in 13. bookes, I have made this brief digression. Also because • Wecker, Melancthon, & Fernelius, Fuschius, and those tedious Tracts de Anime (which have more compendiously handled and written of this matter) are not at all times ready to be had, to give them some small tast, or notice of the rest, let this Epitoine suffice.
Division of the Body, Ilumours, Spirits.
which is, into parts contained, or containing. Contained, are either Humours, or Spirits.
Humors.) A humour is a liquid or fluent part of the body, comprehended in it, for the preservation of it; and is either innate or borne with us, or adventitious and acquisite. The radical or innate, is daily supplied by nourishinent, which some call Cambium, and make those secundary humours of Ros and Gluten to maintaine it: or acquisite, to maintain these four first primary Humors, coming and proceeding from the first concoction in the Liver, by which means Chylus is excluded. Some divide them into profitable, and excreinentitious. But * Crato out of Hippocrates will have all four to be juyce, and not excrements, without which no living creature can be sustained: which four, though they be comprehended in the mass of Blood, yet they have their several affections, by which they are distinguished from one another, and from those adventitious, peccant, or diseased humors, as Melancthon calls thein.
bloud.]--Bloud, is a hot, sweet, temperate, red humour, prepared in the Meseraicke veins, and made of the most temperate parts of the Chylus in the Liver, whose office is to nourish the whole body, to give it strength and colour, being dispersed by the veines through every part of it. And from it
De usu part.
< History of man. d D. Crooke. e In Syntaxi. ! De Animn3. & Instit. lib. I. a Physiol. 1. 1, 2. i Anat. I. 1. c. 18.
Morbosus di Micro. succos, sine quibus animal sustentari non potest. humores.
Spirits are first begotten in the heart, which afterwards by the Arteries are communicated to the other parts.
Pituita, or Phlegme, is a cold and moist humor, begotten of the colder part of the Chylus, (or white juyce coming out of the meat digested in the stomack) in the liver; his office is to nourish and moisten the members of the body, which as the tongue, are moved, that they be not over dry.
Choler, is hot and dry, bitter, begotten of the hotter parts of the Chylus, and gathered to the Gall: it helps the natural heat and senses, and serves to the expelling of excrements.
Melancholy.] Melancholy, cold and dry, thick, black, and sowre, begotten of the more fæculent part of nourishment, and purged from the spleen, is a bridle to the other two hot huinours, Bloud and Choler, preserving them in the Bloud, and nourishing the bones. These four humors have some analogy with the four Elements, and to the four ages
in man. Serum, Szeat, Teares.] To these liumors you may adde Serum, which is the matter of Urine, and those excrementitious humors of the third Concoction, Sweat, and Teares.
Spirits.] Spirit is a most subtile vapour, which is expressed from the Bloud, and the instrument of the soule, to perform all his actions; a common tye or medium betwixt the body and the soul, as some will have it; or as a Paracelsus, a fourth soul of it self. Melancthon holds the fountain of these spirits to be the Heart, begotten there; and afterward convayed to the Brain, they take another nature to them. Of these spirits there be three kinds, according to the three principall parts, Brain, Heart, Liver; Natural, Vital, Animal. The Natural are begotten in the Liver, and thence dispersed through the Veins, to perform those natural actions. The Vital Spirits are made in the Heart of the Natural, which by the Arteries are transported to all the other parts : if the Spirits cease, then life ceasech, as in a Syncope or Swouning. The Animal spirits formed of the Vital, brought up to the Brain, and diffused by the Nerves, to the subordinate Members, give sense and motion to them all.
Similar parts. Similar parts.
VONTAINING parts, by reason of their
solid geneal or Heterogeneal, Similar or Dissimilar; so Aristotle divides thein, lib. 1. cap. 1. de hist. Animal. Laurentius cap. 20. lib. 1. Simnilar, or Homogeneal, are such as if they be divided are still severed into parts of the
• Spiritalis auimaa
same nature, as water into water. Of these some be Spermatical, some Fleshie, or Carnal. Spermatical are such as are immediately begotten of the Seed, which are Bones, Gristles, Ligaments, Membranes, Nerves, Arteries, Veins, Skins, Fibers or strings, Fat.
Bones. ]-The bones are dry and hard, begotten of the thickest of the seed, to strengthen and sustaine other parts : some say there be 304. some 307. or 313. in Man’s body. They have no Nerves in them, and are therefore without sense.
A Gristle, is a substance softer then bone, and harder then the rest, flexible, and serves to maintaine the parts of inotion.
Ligaments, are they that tie the bones together, and other parts to the bones, with their subserving tendons : Membranes office is to cover the rest.
Nerves, or sinews, are Membranes without, and full of marrow within, they proceed from the Brain, and carry the Animal spirits for sense and motion. Of these some be harder, some softer; the softer serve the senses, and there be 7 pair of them. The first be the Optick Nerves, by which we see; the second move the eyes; the third pair serve for the tongue to taste; the fourth pair for the taste in the Palat; the fift belong to the Ears; the sixt pair is most ample, and runs almost over all the Bowels; the seventh pair moves the Tongue. The harder sinews serve for the motion of the inner parts, proceeding from the Marrow in the back, of whom there be thirty combinations, seven of the Neck, twelve of the Breast, &c.
Arteries. ]-Arteries are long and hollow, with a double skin to convey the vital spisits ; to discern which the better, they say that Vesalius the Anatomist was wont to cut up men alive. They arise in the left side of the heart, and are principally two, from which the rest are derived, Aorta, and Venosa ; Aorta is the root of all the other, which serve the whole body; the other goes to the Lungs, to fetch ayr to refrigerate the Heart.
Vrins. ]-Veins are hollow and round like pipes, arising from the Liver, carrying bloud and natural spirits, they feed all the parts. Of these there be two chief, Vena poria, and V'ena cava, from which the rest are corrivated. That l'ena porta is a Vein coming from the concave of the Liver, and receiving those meseraical Veins, by whom he takes the Chylus from the stomack and guts, and conveys it to the Liver. The other derives bloud from the Liver to nourish all the other dispersed Mem. bers. The branches of that l'ena porta arc the Meseraical and Hæmorrhoides. The branches of the Cara are inward or outward. Inward, seminal or emulgent. Outward, in the head, arms, feet, &c. and have several names. · Fibra, Fat, Flesh.] Fibræ are strings, white and solid, dispersed through the whole member, and right, oblique, transvers, all which have their several uses. Fat is a similar part, moyst, without bloud, composed of the most thick and unctious matter of the bloud. The skin covers the rest, and hath Cuticulum, or a little skin under it. Flesh is soft and ruddy, composed of the congealing of bloud, &c.
m Laurentius cap. 20. lib. 1. Anat. of the pulse.
In these they observe the beating
ward. Cujus est pars simularis a vi cutifica ut interiora muniat. Capivac. Anat. pag. 252. p Anat. lib. 1. c. 19. Celebris est & pervulgata partium divisio in principes & ignobiles partes. VOL. I. L
ISSIMILAR parts, are those which we call Organical, or
Instrumental, and they be Inward, or Outward. The chiefest outward parts are situate forward or backward: Forward, the crown and foretop of the head, skull, face, forehead, temples, chin, eyes, ears, nose, &c. neck, brest, chest, upper and lower part of the belly, hypocondries, navel, groyn, flank, &c. Backward, the hinder part of the head, back, shoulders, sides, loyns, hipbones, os sacrum, buttocks ; &c. Or joynts, arms, hands, feet, legs, thighs, knees, &c. Or common to both, which because they are obvious and well known, I have carelesly repeated, eaque precipua & grandiora tantùm : quod reliquum, er libris de animá qui volet, accipiat.
Inward Organical parts which cannot be seen, are divers in number, and have several names, functions, and divisions ; but that of Laurentius is most notable, into Noble, or Ignoble parts. Of the Noble there be three principal parts, to which all the rest belong; and whom they serve, Brain, Heart, Liver: According to whose site, three Regions, or a threefold division is made of the whole body. As first of the Head, in which the animal Organs are contained, and brain it self, which by his nerves give sense and motion to the rest, and is (as it were) a privy Counsellor, and Chancellor to the Heart. The second Region is the Chest, or middle Belly, in which the Heart as King keeps his court, and by his Arteries cominunicates life to the whole body. The third Region is the lower Belly, in which the Liver resides as a Legat à latere, with the rest of those naturall Organs, serving for concoction, nourishment, expelling of excrements. This lower Region is distinguished
from the upper by the Midriffe, or Diaphragma, and is subdivided again by 9 some into three concavities, or Regions, upper, middle, and lower. The upper of the Hypocondries, in whose right side is the Liver, the left the Spleen: From which is denominated Hypocondriacal Melancholy. The second of the Navel and Flanks, divided from the first by the Rim. The last of the water course, which is again subdivided into three other parts. The Arabians make two parts of this Region, Epigastrium, and Hypogastrium ; upper, or lower. Epigastrium they call Mirach, from whence comes Mirachialis Melancholia, sometimes mentioned of them. Of these several Regions I will treat in brief apart : and first of the third Region, in which the natural Organs are contained.
De anima.—The lower Region, Natural Organs.] But you that are Readers in the mean time,“ Suppose you were now brought into some sacred Temple, or Majestical Palace (as * Melancthon saith) to behold not the matter only, but the singular Art, Workmanship, and counsel of this our great Creator. And ’tis a pleasant and profitable speculation, if it be considered aright.” The parts of this Region, which present themselves to your consideration and view, are such as serve to nutrition, or generation. Those of nutrition serve to the first or second concoction: as the æsophagus or gullet, which brings meat and drink into the Stomack. The Ventricle or Stomack, which is seated in the midst of that part of the belly beneath the Midriffe, the kitchen (as it were) of the first concoction, and which turns our meat into Chylus : It hath two mouthes, one above, another beneath. The upper is sometimes taken for the stomack it self; the lower and nether door (as Wecker calls it) is named Pylorus. This stomack is sustained by a large Kell or Kaull, called Omentum ; which some will have the same with Peritoneum, or Rim of the belly. From the Stomack to the very fundament, are produced the Guts, or Intestina, which serve a little to alter and distribute the Chylus, and convey away the excrements. They are divided into small and great, by reason of their site and substance, slender or thicker: the slender is Duodenum, or whole gut, which is next to the stomack, some twelve inches long, (saith · Fuschius.) Jejunum or empty gut, continuate to the other, which hath many Meseraick veines annexed to it, which take part of the Chylus to the Liver from it. Ilion the third, which consists of many crinkles, which serves with the rest to receive, keep, and distribute the Chylus fiom the stomack. The thick guts are three, the Blinde gut,
9 D. Crook out of Galen and others. "Vos vero veluti in templum ac sacrarium quoddam vos duci putetis, &c. Suavis & utilis cognitio. s Lib. 1. cap. 12. Sect. 5.